Agronomy


 

 


Private animal husbandry, feeding, technologies of feed preparation and production of livestock products


UDC 636.2.082.25:636.237.21
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.63.3.004

MILKING OF FIRST-CALF COWS AS THE FACTOR TO DETERMINE PRODUCTIVITY AND LONGEVITY OF COWS
T.V. Shishkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor; S.Yu. Dmitrieva, Associate Professor; A.Y. Kuznetsov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

To find out how the intensity of milking of the first-calf cows influences their productive longevity and lifelong milk yield, a study was conducted in the conditions of the Ramzai Educational and Farm of Penza State Agrarian University in a herd of Holstein black-and-white cattle. For this purpose, groups were formed according to the productivity level after the first lactation. Milk and lifetime productivity, duration of use of animals and life expectancy were evaluated according to the level of cow milking, as well as the correlation between milk yield of cows during the first lactation and lifetime milk productivity. As a result of the research, it was found that the average duration of animal use is 3.6 lactations; lifetime milk yield in the studied groups averages 22019.5 kg, the amount of milk fat is 861.0 kg, and the amount of milk protein is 598.6 kg. According to the milk productivity class of 7001 to 7500 kg in the first lactation, the group of animals significantly exceeded the other study groups in life expectancy (2663.62 days); in the duration of productive use (1385.38 days); in lifetime milk yield (27728.86 kg); in milk fat content (194.12 kg); in milk protein content (178.8 kg). The correlation coefficient between lifetime productivity and the first lactation milk yield had a weak positive connection and averaged 0.23. As a result of our research, we found that the most preferable periods of productive longevity are observed when milking first-calf heifers from 7001 to 7500 kg of milk per lactation.
Keywords: breed, milk productivity, milking, lactation, longevity, lifelong productivity.

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Technologies, machinery and equipment for the agro-industrial complex


UDC 633.63:631.171
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.63.3.003

MODELLING THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF THE ROTARY PADDLE ORIENTING DEVICE SHAFT
V.A. Ovtov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.A. Orekhov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.V. Polikanov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor;
N.S. Chirkova, Student; D.A. Frolov, Student; N.N. Koldaev, Student;
A.S. Kostromitin, Student;R.I. Devlikamov Student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University",
Penza, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article considers the construction and the operating principle of the rotary paddle orienting device for planting of sugar beet mother root crops of conical form, which high-quality operation largely determines the technological process of a piece-by-piece feeding of root crops into the planting cones of a planting apparatus with the following planting of root crops with a cone downward into the soil. The fulfillment of agro-technological requirements for planting works largely determines the obtaining of planned harvests of sugar beet seeds. We have determined the loads, which work upon the drive shaft of a paddle rotor of a rotary paddle orienting device, and carried out its stress-strain analysis, which showed that the strength and rigidity of a designed and modelled shaft will ensure reliable operation of a rotary paddle device. Thus, the rotary paddle orienting device of the planting machine will provide piece-by-piece orientation of root crops, regardless of their size and taper.
Keywords: sugar beet, planting, stress-strain analysis, modelling, shaft, rotary paddle device.

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Agronomy


УДК 575:633.11
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.002

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESISTANCE OF BREEDING SAMPLES OF WINTER WHEAT TO CEREAL LEAF BEETLE (OULEMA MELANOPUS L.) IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS FOOTHILL ZONE
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor
T.S. Abieva, Candidate of Biological Sciences
N.T. Khokhoeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
N.N. Doguzova, PhD student
North Caucasus Research Institute of Mountain and Foothill Agriculture – branch of the Federal State Scientific Center Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, SKNIIGPSH VNC RAS, Russia, RSO Alania
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 The article presents the results of studies of the resistance of the breeding material of winter soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to the phytophagous beetle, cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus Z.). The research was conducted in 2019-2021 at the FSBI SCNIIGPSH VNC RAS. The objects of research were 128 varieties of winter soft wheat from the VIR collection, of various ecological and geographical origin. The purpose of the research is to study the gene pool of winter soft wheat and create a new source material for breeding for resistance to cereal leaf beetle. There are 31.3% of varieties that are resistant. They are Torrild, Mereke 70, Zhadyra, Kobra, Soraja, Fenezia, Dorota, Olivin, Zaritsa, Muza, Areal, Teslo, Kredo, Bizel, Frontana, Renan, Zysk, Biggar, AK biday, Alacris, Cina 7, Solara, Chornobrova, Batko, Zvytyaga, Astella, Lilit, Verita, Batum, Khmel'nychanka, Vatazbok, Markola, Zolotoy bezosty, Omskaya 5, Pionerskaya 32, Nebokrai, Lasuma, Blago, Kamyshlanka 4, Jadvisia. The correlation coefficient between the degree of leaf damage and an ear length is -0.56 (negative, average), between the degree of leaf damage and the number of grains in an ear is -0.68 (negative, strong), between the degree of leaf damage and the weight of the grain from an ear and the plant productivity index (PPI) is negative and very high -0.93 and -0.86, respectively.
All productivity elements had significant correlation coefficients, but the highest are r = -0.93 (with the weight of grain from an ear) and r = -0.86 (plant productivity index). The source material for use in breeding programs for resistance to cereal leaf beetle has been isolated.
Keywords: breeding, stability of winter soft wheat, cereal leaf beetle.

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УДК 633.15
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.010

YIELD AND BIOCHEMICAL STATUS OF CORN DEPENDING ON THE MINERAL NUTRITION AND THE PLANT POPULATION DENSITY
S.A. Semina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
I.V. Gavryushina, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.S. Paliychuk, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. (8412)628-151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies on the effect of various dosages and methods of applying mineral fertilizers on the formation of yield and biochemical composition of corn phytomass depending on the density of standing plants. The studies were carried out on leached heavy loam chernozem. Pre-sowing application of mineral fertilizers in the norm N120 P90 contributed to an increase in the yield of green mass by 26%, and dry matter by 20.6%. The transfer of nitrogen part (N 30) to soil dressing increased the collection of raw biomass by 49.8%, and dry biomass by 27.1% relative to the level of natural soil fertility. An additional raw biomass and dry biomass (39.2 % and 39.3%, relatively) were obtained when N120 P90К60 was applied. On a non-fertilized agricultural background, when nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers are applied and nitrogen fertilization is carried out, the increase in phytomass yield is noted to a density of 100 ths. units/ha. The maximum yield was obtained at a density of 90 ths units/ha on the background of N120P90К60. A single application of mineral fertilizers supported the improvement in the protein content of the feed and increased the crude protein content in the biomass by 1.04-1.36%. When nitrogen fertilizers were applied in portions, the increase was 2.64 % to the natural fertility level and 1.39 % compared to a single application of nitrogen-phosphorus nutrition. On the non-fertilized agricultural background with increasing density of plants, a decrease in protein provision of the biomass was noted. On the variants with the application of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers, the increase was noted up to the density of 80 ths. pcs/ha. And on the background of N120P90К60 it was up to 70 ths. pcs/ha. The same pattern was seen in the content of raw fat.
Keywords: corn, density, fertilizers, green mass, yield, protein.

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УДК 632.4.01/.08
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.008

EVALUATION OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES TO RESISTANCE TO BROWN RUST IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FOOTHILL ZONE OF THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate professor; N.N. Doguzova, Postgraduate
North-Caucasian research institute of Hill and Foot-hill Agriculture - branch of Federal State Budgetary
Research Institution of Federal Research Centre "Vladikavkaz Scientific Centre of RAS", Vladikavkaz,
The Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Russia, 8(928)4876155, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of immunological studies of varieties of winter wheat. We considered the issues of resistance to brown rust, intrapopulation diversity of Puccinia tritici f. sp. tritici Eriks, and methods of evaluation and selection of initial selection material with a wide genetic basis of resistance to the pathogen. The research was carried out at the field of the FSBRI of North-Caucasian research institute of Hill and Foot-hill Agriculture of Russian national research centre RAS (RSO-Alania), located in the foothill zone of the Central Caucasus in 2019-2021. Twenty-five samples of soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) from the collection of Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry and forty-seven isogenic lines (Thatcher) with Lr. genes were used as objects of research. Evaluation for non-specific resistance was carried out according to five criteria: the type of reaction (in points) and the degree of damage (in percentage points), the increase rate of the area under the curve (AUDPC), the stability and plant productivity indexes (SI and PPI, respectively). Studies of the racial composition of the pathogen populations were carried out using a universal set of wheat lines and varieties of differentiators with known resistance genes. We revealed that the effective genes of resistance to the local brown rust population included Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, Lr25, Lr30, Lr32, Lr34, Lr36, Lr39, Lr41, Lr42, Lr45, Lr47, Lr51, Lr53, Lr67. When analysing the phenotypic composition, six phenotypic groups were identified: MHTT, PGTT, RHTT, NHKP, ТQТР, QHKP. Phenotypes of the T-group, which are virulent to Lr9, Lr16, with an occurrence frequency of 40.0%, are characteristic of all grain-sowing regions of Russia and the world. They are dominant in the studied population of P. triticina. Phenotypes RHTT, QHKP, MHTT, which are avirulent to the Lr9, Lr24 genes, occur in the population with a frequency of 13.3, 3.3, 10.0%, respectively. The occurrence frequency of the phenotypic group PGTT and NHKP with an avirulence to the genes, Lr9, Lr24, Lr26, Lr2a, Lr3, is 33.3%. Genetic diversity according to Shannon's diversity index within the population is high, H = 2.51. According to the screening results, we identified winter wheat varieties, which are resistant to brown rust. They are ranked as follows: resistant – 11 samples, medium–resistant – 9, susceptible – 5. The following varieties of soft winter wheat of foreign selection – Dorota (France), Genoveva (Slovakia), Areal (Ukraine), Eltan (the USA), Verita (Slovakia), Muza (Poland), Alauda (Germany), Fenezja (Poland), Vatazbok (Ukraine), and Russian varieties Prima and Omskaya 5 – are proposed to use in breeding work as sources of non-specific resistance to Puccinia triticina. The selected sources of resistance are recommended for inclusion in wheat breeding programs for resistance to brown rust.
Keywords: winter wheat, brown rust, sources of resistance, population, breeding.

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UDC 633.522
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.007

HEMP SEED YIELD AND OIL CONTENT IN THE FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
V.A. Gushchina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; A.D. Smirnov, Postgraduate
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University",
Penza, Russia, tel. 8(8412)62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In order to take a prominent position in the world market for hemp cultivation with seed yields exceeding those of the Soviet Union, energy-saving technologies need to be studied and introduced. The basis for low-cost cultivation methods is the use of water-soluble fertilizers containing micronutrients in chelated form. Hemp farming in the Penza region is a long tradition, which determines the priority for its revival. In this regard, the purpose of the research is to substantiate the effectiveness of topdressing by micro-element fertilizers in the cultivation technology of hemp variety Surskaya for obtaining seeds. The effect of foliar treatments on yield and oil content of seeds was studied in 2019...2021 under the conditions of OOO "Konopleks Penza" on leached chernozem soil. In the first and third years of the study, the hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) corresponded to conditions of insufficient humidity and was 0.74 and 0.90, while in the second year it was dry (HTC - 0.68). Seed productivity of hemp averaged 1.0 t/ha in 2021 and was the highest in all years of research. The lowest seed yield (0.78 t/ha) was obtained in 2019 because the plants grew slowly during the initial stages of ontogenesis due to lack of moisture. It increased to 0.88 t/ha in 2020. Micro-element fertilizers used for foliar fertilization increased seed yield by an average of 0.08 t/ha. A maximum gain of 0.10 t/ha was obtained from foliar treatment with a liquid complex fertilizer Agree`s "Magniy (Magnesium)" (3 l/ha). It is important to note that the interaction of two foliar fertilizers, carried out at the phases of the three pairs of true leaves and budding, resulted in a seed yield of 0.94 t/ha with an oil content of 33.20 %, providing an oil yield of 0.303 t/ha.
Keywords: hemp, seed yield, oil content, oil yield, micro-elements, chelate form.

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UDC 635.657:631.527(470.326)
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.011

THE USE OF MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL METHODS TO STUDY CHICKPEA VARIETIES AS SOURCE MATERIAL FOR BREEDING IN THE LOWER VOLGA REGION
V.I. Zhuzhukin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; Zh.N. Mukhatova, Postgraduate;
A.G. Subbotin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Docent;
A.F. Sugrobov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Lecturer;
A.F. Druzhkin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education
"Saratov State Vavilov Agrarian University",
Saratov, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This article evaluates the economically valuable traits of chickpea varieties from the VIR collection: k-16 Kubansky 16; k-23 TURE 4; k-109 Nut bukharsky; k-163 Kubansky163; k-388; k-400 Sredneaziatsky 400; k-416; k-418; k-434; k-440; k-466; k-468; k-475; k-495; k-499; k-514; k-531 GARBANZAS; k-532; k-534; k-542; k-572; k-574; k-596; k-651; k-1201 Krasnogradsky 04. Different degrees of variation in vegetative and generative parameters were found. The greatest variability (V > 20.0%) was established by the stem thickness, the number of primary branches, the number of beans per plant, the thousand grain weight, the productivity of one plant, the number of seeds per plant, yield. We identified the chickpea varieties which differ by a great thousand grain weight (k-434, k-542), a significant stem length (k-163 Kubansky 163, k-400 Sredneaziatsky 400), and a larger number of seeds from one plant (k-574, k-596). The chickpea varieties were clustered by minimum Euclidean distances in the eighteenth iteration step (the Euclidean distance was 16.88). The clusters were grouped into seven ones that differ significantly at the 5 % level in the studied traits. A correlation coefficient matrix was calculated. It allowed the interpretation of 66 relationships, of which 17 were found to be significant at the 5% level. The use of factor analysis helped to identify the significant weights of the variables on the components.
Keywords: chickpea, variety, traits, dendrogram, cluster, correlation, matrix, factor.

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UDC 631.53.048:631.559
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.014

EVALUATION OF BIOMASS YIELDS OF GREEN BRISTLE GRASS (SETARIA ITALICA SUBSP. ITALICA) DEPENDING ON AGRICULTURE TECHNIQUES
T.V. Rodina1, Senior research fellow; V.I. Zhuzhukin2, Doctor of Agricultural sciences, professor; А.N. Astashov1, Candidate of Agricultural sciences
1Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Russian Scientific and Research, and Design Technological Institute of Sorghum and Maize", Saratov, Russia, tel. 8(8452) 79-49-69; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Saratov State Agrarian University named after N.I. Vavilov@, Saratov, Russia

Green bristle grass is a promising fodder crop for the arid conditions of the Lower Volga region. The results of the study of the effect of seeding rate and width of row spacing on the above-ground biomass yield of the green bristle grass variety Stachumi 3 are presented in the article. The research was conducted on the experimental field of the FSBSI "Russian Research Institute of Sorghum and Maize," which is located in the suburban microzone of Saratov district and is territorially located in the southern part of the black soil zone of the Lower Volga region. The climate of the region is sharply continental, arid. The soil of the experimental field is southern chernozem. The results obtained were confirmed by the analysis of dispersion of a two-factor experiment on the study of six gradations of factor A (seeding rate from 1.25 to 7.50 mln pieces/ha) and three gradations of factor B (row-spacing 70, 30, and 15 cm), according to which significant differences in the effect of seeding rate on the above-ground biomass yield of green bristle grass were found. On average over the four years of the study, the highest crop yield was obtained in the milky ripeness phase when sowing with a row-spacing of 15 cm and with a planting rate of 5.00 mln/ha - 31.77 t/ha, and when the row-spacing was increased from 30 to 70 cm, the biomass yield was 29.53 and 21.53 t/ha, respectively.
Keywords: green bristle grass, biomass yield, biochemical composition, protein, two-factor analysis of variance, seeding rate, row spacing.

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UDC 631.8+635.64
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.013

INFLUENCE OF THE HUMIN FERTILIZER "GUMOSTIM” ON TOMATO PRODUCTIVITY
V.I. Gryazeva, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor;
Y.V. Koryagin, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor;
N.V. Koryagina, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University",
Penza, Russia, tel. 8(412)-628373, email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

One of the most promising areas of improving the productivity of tomato and the quality of its yield is the regulation of growth using biologically active substances. Under the conditions of OAO "Penzensky Teplichny Combinat" the effect of biologically active fertilizer of humic nature "Gumostim" on the growth, development and yield of tomato was studied. It was found that the application of "Gumostim" on the tomato seedling crop significantly affected the rate of phenological phases and contributed to a more powerful development of the above-ground part of the tomato plants. The highest percentage of fruit setting was observed in tomato plants where Gumostim was applied to both seeds and plants during the flowering and fruiting phase, and the percentage of fruit setting on the second brush was higher than on the first brush. The earliest yield was obtained when the treatment of both seeds and plants with the fertilizer Gumostim in the phase of fruiting, and was 7.1 t/ha, which was 1.7 t/ha higher than the control. The share of early harvest in the total yield was 19.7 to 20.1 %, compared to 19.1 % in the control. Yields for the variants of the experiment with the fertilizer Gumostim varied from 30.9 to 35.3 t/ha, with 28.3 t/ha. The increase in yields compared to the control was from 2.6 to 7.0 t/ha. The highest productivity per plant and per square metre was in the variant of joint treatment of seeds and plants during the fruiting phase, 4.41 g and 20.99 g respectively, which was 1.0 g more and 4.75 g more than in the control. In the same variant there were the highest indicators on the chemical composition of tomato fruits. The dry matter content was 7.6 %, sugar - 2.6 %, ascorbic acid - 26.8 %.
Keywords: humic fertiliser Gumostim, tomato, interphase periods, tomato vegetative mass, yield, biochemical composition of fruit.

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UDC 631.8
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.021

GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF SUGAR BEET PLANTS WHEN APPLYING DIFFERENT POLYFUNCTIONAL PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
S.A. Semina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
E.V. Zheryakov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
Yu.I. Zheryakova, Postgraduate
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. (8412)628-151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article represents the research on effect of foliar treatment of plants with different types of multifunctional growth regulators on the formation of photosynthetic activity indicators and productivity of a sugar beet. We found that 10 days after the first foliar treatment with micronutrients, the leaf area increased by 4.57-5.80 ths. m2/ha, compared to 3.72 ths. m2/ha on the control. The same trend in the increase of the leaf area and the formation of photosynthetic potential remained throughout the vegetation season. The highest content of chlorophyll was seen after the reapplication of POLYDON Amino Zinc – it counted 67.01 IU; and the lowest – 61,67 IU on the control. A greatest mass of root crops was obtained on the variant with the treatment by POLYDON Boron – 796 g. It is 57 g more than when using POLYDON Amino Zinc, and 66 g – POLYDON Amino Boron- Molybdenum. The foliar treatment with multifunctional growth regulators resulted in yield increases of 3.1-11.0 %. The highest sugar content was observed with the foliar treatment by POLYDON Amino Boron-Molybdenum – 16.47 %. The most productive variant in terms of white sugar yield is the triple treatment with POLYDON Boron – 11.67 t/ha.
Keywords: sugar beet, fertilizers, micronutrients, leaf area, yield.

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UDC 631.8
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.018

EFFECT OF A COMPLEX HUMIC PREPARATION ON THE SOWING QUALITIES OF VEGETABLE SEEDS
А.V. Nushtaeva, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Assistant-Professor;
Y.V. Blinokhvatova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Assistant-Professor.
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Penza State Agrarian University”,
Penza, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studying the effect of the complex preparation Gumi-Omi containing a complex of organic humic substances with mineral macroelements N, P, K and microelements B, Cu on seed germination and biomass quality of radish and lettuce varieties. The research objects were radish varieties Champion, Vsesozonyi and lettuce variety Raznotsvetnoe Kruzhevo, and cress variety Vesennyi. The positive effect of Gumi-Omi preparation was revealed only at low concentrations, % (mass). The germination energy was the same as in the control plant at a concentration of 0.1 % or increased to 100 (control 90) with 0,01-0,7 % (radish Champion), to 90-95 (control 85) with 0.05-0.1 % concentrations (lettuce variety Raznotsvetnoe Kruzhevo). Seed germination reached 100% in the concentration range of 0.01-0.7%. At concentrations above 1.5 %, a decrease in germination was observed. The maximum values of length and weight of roots and shoots corresponded to the concentration range of 0.35-0.7 %; however, the best values of root to sprout ratio were recorded at a concentration of 0.01-0.1 %. When the drug concentration was increased to 1-2 %, a significant reduction in all indicators of seed germination was observed compared with the control. The results indicate the advisability of using the preparation Gumi-Omi rather at later stages of plant development.
Keywords: humic acids, biological farming, macroelements, microelements, vegetable production, agrochemistry

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Private animal husbandry, feeding, technologies of feed preparation and production of livestock products


УДК 636.085.62
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.004

THE USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL PROTEIN FEED FOR FATTENING BROILER DUCKLINGS
D.G. Poghosyan1, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor;
M.A. Shalov2, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor
1Federal State-Funded Educational Institution Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 628-151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University named after V. M. Kokov", Nalchik, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of research on the possibility of using unconventional protein feeds, such as canola and camelina meal, in feeding ducklings of the Blagovarsky cross with broiler fattening technology. It was found that the inclusion of 5% of camelina meal in the compound feed instead of sunflower meal does not have a negative effect on the growth rate of young birds, their livability, slaughter yield and feed conversion. It is not considered rational to increase camelina meal, instead of sunflower one, in the content up to 10%, since it is accompanied by a decrease of the European Efficiency Factor by 8.9% due to a decrease in meat productivity and the livability of ducklings by 3.7 and 6.7%.
The inclusion of 5% canola meal instead of sunflower led to an increase in the live weight of ducklings in the first and second half of fattening by 2.8 and 3.4% (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. The inclusion of 10% canola meal contributed to obtaining a higher live weight of young birds at the age of 21 days and at the end of fattening by 3.8 and 4.5% (P < 0.05), compared with the control. Replacing 5 and 10% of sunflower meal with a similar amount of canola meal in duckling feed resulted in an increase of the European Efficiency Factor by 8.3 and 12.8%, which increased the profitability of meat production by 4.9 and 8.0%.
Keywords: fattening, broiler ducklings, compound feed, camelina meal, canola meal, average daily gain, slaughter yield, European Efficiency Factor.

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UDC 636.085.7: 519.865.7
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.009

DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS FOR CREATING A NEW IN-DEMAND PRODUCT BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF YEAST FOR SILAGE
S.N. Bikonya1,2, postgraduate student; O.V. Kochetkova1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
G.Yu. Laptev1,2, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor; E.A. Brazhnik1,2, postgraduate student
1Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Volgograd State Agrarian University, Volgograd, Russia, tel.: +7(8442)41-30-94, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2BIOTROF Limited Liability Company, Pushkin, St. Petersburg, Russia, tel.: 8(812)322-85-50, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This article presents an analysis of the business process of developing yeast for silage, taking into account scientific justification, describes the stages of scientific development, responsible operators, required resources, test results of the resulting product, as well as the process of its registration. The process models have been successfully applied in practice and have shown their effectiveness. Research and analysis of the process of a new product development were carried out at the enterprise engaged in the development and production of animal feed additives BIOTROF LLC, St. Petersburg. Scientific and production experience in laying silage from perennial grasses (cereal-bean mixture) with the developed yeast was carried out on the basis of the Agricultural Production Cooperative Kobralovsky, Leningrad region. Graphical models of the process in eEPC notation were created using the ARIS tools, namely the ARIS Express. As a result of the analysis of business process models, the efficiency indicators of the designed process were calculated. For this process, all the resources of the company's scientific and technical base were involved - a molecular genetic laboratory and a production laboratory. The discussed business process model allows you to get a finished product in the shortest possible time, from the moment you realize the need to develop the required product till you obtain all the permits for its sale. Consideration of possible risks allows you to predict the course of events during the design. This model has been successfully applied in the development of a new product - yeast for silage, Biotrof®2+. Conducting scientific and production experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the new preparation. The use of Biotrof®2+ contributed to a faster acidification of the silage mass, prevented the destruction of protein (in the initial mass, the protein content was 14.5%, in the experiment – 13.4%, in the control – 12.5%). When feeding the prepared silage with a new yeast, the dairy productivity of cows increased (milk fat content increased by 2.5%, milk yield – by 8.6%). The dose of application of the preparation was determined – 1 liter per 30 tons of green mass.
Keywords: modeling, business process, design, new product development, yeast for silage, feed nutrition.

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UDC 637.182
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.019

QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF MILK REPLACERS FOR ARTIFICIAL FEEDING OF YOUNG PETS
D.G. Pogosyan, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department; D.S. Chirkova, magister; G.А. Abuzyarova, Lecturer of the Department
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. (8412)628-151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article provides an overview of the current market for modern dog and cat milk replacers. Data on the composition of natural milk of dogs, cats and milk replacers according to literature data are given. The results of laboratory research on estimation of quality of substitutes of Royal Canin designed for artificial feeding of newborn kittens "Babycat milk" and puppies "Babydog milk" are presented. In the tests carried out, the composition of the milk replacers and regenerated milk for kittens and puppies did not differ significantly. At the same time, the actual fat, mineral and dry matter content of the reconstituted milk corresponded with the composition of natural dog and cat milk. However, the lactose content was 1.5-2 times higher, and the protein content, on the contrary, was 20-45 % lower than the values typical for natural milk. Based on the conducted research a new recipe for a universal dry milk mixture for artificial feeding of puppies and kittens is proposed, which includes in different combinations: whey protein concentrate, casein, dried cream, palm dried fat, vitamin and mineral premixes. The proposed formulation will eliminate the disadvantages of existing imported counterparts through a more adapted composition to natural milk, but this requires additional research on animals.
Keywords: agalactia, reconstituted milk, milk replacer, protein content, milk fat, lactose, acidity.

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UDC 636.2.082.25:636.2.034:626.234.1
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.020

MILK PRODUCTIVITY OF DAUGHTERS OF DIFFERENT SIRES
OF THE HOLSTEIN BREED
V.V. Lyashenko, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
I.V. Kaeshova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.V. Gubina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
N.Yu. Chupsheva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Lecturer
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University",
Penza, Russia, tel (8412) 628-151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The productive and breeding abilities of animals are largely determined by their origins. Sires, especially those belonging to the leading lines of the Holstein breed, have a great impact on the cow production in dairy cattle breeding. According to the purpose of work, the article present data of a comparative assesment of the Holsteins breed's cow productivity of milk of different sires' daughters of Wis Burke Ideal 1013415 line. The research was conducted under the conditions of intensive technology of a modern dairy complex with a cow population of more than 13 ths. animals, total production of 175 ths. tons and milk yield per cow of 11900 kg of milk. The results of the research prove the valuable breeding abilities of the sires, which are confirmed by the high milk productivity of their daughters. In two completed lactations the milk yield of the daughters (n = 510) of four sires averaged from 8964.1 kg to 10171.5 kg of milk. The mass fraction of fat in milk ranged from 3.59 to 3.84 % and the mass fraction of protein – from 3.12 to 3.18 %. When comparing daughters of different bulls in terms of milk production, there is a reliable difference in individual key indicators for a full lactation and 305 days of lactation. Concerning the lactation period, there are differences in the sires' daughters productivity: all daughters of the Wis Burke Ideal 1013415 bulls are characterized by high productivity qualities. The dairy output level indicates purposeful breeding and selection work with the herd.
Keywords: technology, holstein breed, line, sires, milk productivity, cows, lactation.

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UDC 632.937.31 + 633.9 + 635.9+71
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.015

INTRODUCTION OF MISCANTHUS GIGANTEUS FOR ORNAMENTAL USE IN THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
V.А. Gushchina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
N.I. Ostroborodova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
А.А. Volodkin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
А.S. Lykova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, Penza, tel. (8412) 628-367, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Nowadays, ornamental grasses are an obligatory component of urban green landscapes. Introduced species such as Miscanthus gi-ganteus, a sterile triploid hybrid from the grass family, play a major role. However, under natural conditions, Miscanthus giganteus requires an average annual air temperature of +5°C to +10°C and rainfall of at least 700 mm. Penza region belongs to the zone of unstable moisture. Therefore, there was a need to determine the adaptability of Miscanthus giganteus and justify its use in landscape architecture. The planting was carried out in May 2013 by seedling method and in the open ground by rootstocks in the scheme 100 × 50 cm at the collection site of Penza State Agrarian University on light gray soil. The plants grown from seedlings proved to be stress-tolerant and in mid-July were 95 cm in height and 90 cm - grown in the open ground with a main stem thickness of 13 mm. During the winter months of 2014, both low negative temperatures and positive temperatures with insufficient snow cover were observed. However, Miscanthus overwintered well and there was no soaking or drying out of the plants in spring. The second-third, sixth-seventh years of miscanthus life were characterized by unstable moisture with HTC - 0.60-0.87, sufficient and excessive (1.27...1.60) in 2016, 2017, 2020 and 2021. Spring regrowth in the first years was observed until mid-May, in the last three years at the end of the month. Stem density varied from 74 to 196 pcs/m2, plant height was 2.20...3.85 m with stem diameter of 10...15 mm. While the stems are of different quality, they are highly decorative because of their dark cherry-colored and weeping leaves with white central veins. Therefore it can be widely used in landscape phytodesign of gardens and parks, for decorating the banks of reservoirs and in landscape flower beds.
Keywords: Miscanthus giganteus, introduction, landscaping, ornamental grasses, stress tolerance, aesthetics.

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Technologies, machinery and equipment for the agro-industrial complex


УДК 631.33.022.6
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.003

FIELD STUDY OF A SEEDER EQUIPPED WITH ROLLER SEEDING UNITS WITH TRUNCATED RUBBER CONES ON THE VALVES
N. P. Laryushin, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; 
D.Yu. Parfenov, PhD student;
A. V. Shukov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor; 
R. R. Devlikamov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor.
FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia tel. (8412) 628 517, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article describes the design and operation of an experimental grain seeder equipped with roller seeding units with truncated rubber cones on the valves. Moreover, graphical and experimental dependences of the uneven distribution of seeds along the length of the furrow during the sowing of winter wheat Clavdia 2 on the speed of rotation of the roller, the diameter of the upper part of the spike and the angle of inclination of the spikes of the experimental seeding unit with truncated rubber cones on the valve are presented. The work on studying the influence of the seeding unit designs was carried out by comparing the basic seeder SZ-5,4 with an experimental seeder equipped with new roller seeding units with truncated rubber cones on the valves. The results of the research showed that an experimental seeder with roller seeding units with truncated rubber cones on the valves steadily performs the process of sowing seeds of winter wheat Clavdia 2 in compliance with all necessary agrotechnical requirements. With the improvement of sowing quality indicators, there is a decrease in the instability of the overall seeding rate, the uneven distribution of seeds along the length of the furrow, damage to the seed material, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the yield of the cultivated crop.
Keywords: seeding unit, rotational speed, diameter, spikes, angle of inclination, winter wheat seeds, Clavdia 2.

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UDC 631.362.3
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.005

THEORETICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF THREE-BLADE ROTARY FEEDER
A.V. Machnev1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
V.A. Machnev2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; O.Yu. Machneva2, postgraduate student;
A.V. Bykov1, senior lecturer; V.D. Shilina1, senior lecturer; D.O. Chernyaev1, senior lecturer
1Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow State University of Food Production, Moscow, Russia, tel. (937) 43-43-711, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia

The analysis of resource-saving technologies of cultivation and refinement of agricultural crops confirmed that the use of PSS pneumatic sorting tables allows to somewhat reduce the costs of cleaning and sorting. However, the imperfection of their designs and uneven grain supply reduces the effectiveness of their use. Therefore, the purpose of the research was to improve the quality of post-harvest processing of grain crops, the development of a rotary feeder. To achieve this goal, research methods and techniques have been developed. A pneumatic sorting table equipped with a three-blade rotary feeder with an outer diameter of 80 mm with straight blades located at an angle of 120 degrees has been developed. The process of grain flow motion in the hopper was studied and dependencies were established to determine grain motion in the hopper, the time of grain motion in the area under consideration and the speed of grain motion at the exit from the hopper, which was 1.167 m/s. The equations of motion of the blades for the outer and inner diameter of the rotary feeder are established, according to which the actual coordinates of their motion and displacement of the shaft axis of the rotary feeder from its original position are calculated. Calculations have determined that with an outer diameter of 0.08 m of the rotary feeder, grain velocity of 1.02 m/s, an angular velocity of 2.9 s-1, the displacement of the shaft axis of the rotary feeder from its original position at a 360 degree rotation angle will be 160 mm. This will reduce the unevenness of grain supply, and grain shattering, increase laboratory and field germination, improve the content of the output groups of full-fledged grain and, consequently, improve the quality of post-harvest processing of grain crops by a developed pneumatic sorting table equipped with a three-blade rotary feeder.
Keywords: rotary feeder, equations of blade motion for external and internal diameters, grain, cleaning, sorting, grain motion speed, pneumatic sorting table.

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UDC 631.348.4
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.012

THEORY AND PRACTICE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TWO-DISC DISTRIBUTING DEVICES FOR SEED PREPARATION
O.Yu. Machneva1, postgraduate; K.Z. Kukhmazov1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
A.V. Machnev2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
V.A. Machnev1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
I.A. Uspensky3, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
B.N. Fedorenko2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
A.V. Yashin1, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor
1Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia,
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Moscow State University of Food Production", Moscow, Russia,
3Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Ryazan State Agrotechnological University Named after P.A. Kostychev", Ryazan, Russia, tel. (937) 43-43-711, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

One way of preserving grain from harvest to emergence is to prepare the seed for sowing. It is known as seed dressing. Single-disc chamber seed dressers are the most widely used, but at maximum flow rates the quality of the treatment is significantly reduced. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to develop a treatment chamber distributor to improve the quality of seed dressing in cereal crops. To solve this problem, it was necessary to develop a double-disc distributing device which is capable to improve the quality of treatment, to carry out a theoretical justification of its application, as well as to give a preliminary evaluation of the device use under laboratory conditions. For this reason, a double-disc distributing device has been developed. It is capable of redistributing the seed flow between the lower solid disc and the upper annular disc when changing the flow rate. Classical mechanics and mathematics were the basis of theoretical research. As a result, we have determined the forces exerting on the seed, the differential equations of motion of a constrained material particle and the motion of the seed on rotating discs in analytical form of a two-disc distributing device consisting of upper annular and lower solid discs with polymer spreaders, and the critical speed of the drive shaft 13,5 s-1, which determines the moment of the seed sliding on discs. The actual angular velocity (56.5 s-1) was found to be 4.2 times greater than the critical velocity of 13.5 s-1, which is sufficient to produce a uniform flow of seeds with discs directed towards the deflectors. The evaluation of the application of the developed device under laboratory conditions provides a maximum seed supply of 5.84 kg/s, a non-uniformity of 3.1 %, and a seed crushing of 0.04% by the dresser. This has a positive effect on the seed dressing quality.
Keywords: seed treatment, seed preparation machine, seed, two-disc distributing device, differential equations, upper annular disk, angular velocity, lower solid disc.

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UDC 631.358
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.006

ACTIVE SIDE DIVIDER OF THE COMBINE HEADER FOR HARVESTING PEAS
K.Z. Kukhmazov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor; I.E. Karasev, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
B.M. Meloyan, Postgraduate;
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education
«Penza State Agrarian University»,
Penza, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article concerns the problem of reducing losses during harvesting of tangled and dowm leguminous crops, particularly peas. This scientific research describes the proposed active side divider of the combine header made in the form of a disc cutter, which is mounted on the hydraulic motor shaft, and a counter-cutting plate fixed to the angled surface of the header sidewall. A methodology for determining the losses of the combine harvester header with the proposed active side divider has been developed. Also we have presented the results of laboratory and field studies to justify the design and operating parameters of the active side divider, conducted in accordance with GOST 28301-2015 "Grain harvesters. Test methods" on pea harvesting. After processing the experimental data, we obtained function equations and drew graphs of pea loss value dependencies on design and operating parameters of the active side divider. The findings have shown that the header with the proposed active side divider steadily performs the technological process at a disc cutter rotation frequency of  120 min- 1, a number of disc cutter teeth  – 8 pcs., and an operational speed of the combine  – 7 km/h. In this case, pea losses do not exceed the agronomic permissible losses.
Keywords: harvesting of tangled and dowm leguminous crops, combine harvester, combine header, active side divider, pea losses.

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UDC 631.333
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.016

COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF THE INNOVATIVE "TUMAN" UNITS (A SPRAYER AND A MULTI-INJECTOR) OF OOO "PEGAS-AGRO" (LLC) WHEN APPLYING LIQUID UREA-AMMONIUM NITRATE FERTILIZERS
V.А. Milyutkin1, Doctor of Techical Sciences, Professor; О.N. Kukharev2, Doctor of Techical Sciences, Professor
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education
"Samara State Agrarian University", Kinel, Samara region, Russia, tel. (927) 264-41-88, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education
"Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. (927) 363-68-45, @mail.ru

Due to the increasing demand for liquid fertilizers caused by their better characteristics, especially for arid conditions and in connection with the predicted global warming, agrarian universities of Russia conduct scientific and production researches on the development of innovative technologies with various technical means for effective application of UAN liquid fertilizers when they are filled with natural deficit meso (sulfur-S) and microelements (copper, zinc, boron and others) on major crops (experiments were conducted on winter wheat crops). UAN fertilizer, among other things, has a positive effect for plants due to the prolonging effect of nitrogen in three components - nitrate (8%), ammonium (8%) and amide (16%). Amide nitrogen itself is absorbed by plants through the leaves, which makes it possible to increase the fertilizer efficiency through a complex nutrition of leaves and roots. The design of technical means for UAN application has a decisive influence on their use in different crops and development phases. In connection with these circumstances, the classification of existing technologies and technical means has been carried out with the research of the products of the Samara enterprise "Pegas-Agro" (LLC), which are quite demanded in the agro-industrial complex of Russia. The machinery considered and presented in the article is distinguished by a promising possibility of completing on a single, integrated transport and energy platform with various purpose machines-adapters for agrochemical treatment of crops during the whole cycle of their development. Out of the wide range of special and serial complete agricultural machines (sprayers) for application of liquid fertilizers the research showed the advantageous effect of innovative Russian units - a multi-injector "Tuman-2M" on the yield of winter wheat varieties "Basis" selected
by Samara Research Institute, compared with a spraying boom sprayer "Tuman-2" by almost 20% at application rate of UAN+S - 200 l/ha with improvement of grain quality, which increased the efficiency of agricultural production. At the same time the results of experiments confirmed a significant, more effective effect of liquid fertilizer UAN + S (N - 24 %, S - 2 %) on the yield of winter wheat from 20 to 60 % compared to the crops without fertilizers.
Keywords: farming, grain, production, technology, fertiliser, UAN, liquid, application, surface, injectable, multi-injector

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UDC 651.054.21
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.017

QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE CRITERIA FOR INSTALLING OF THE VIBRATION SENSOR ON DIAGNOSTIC OBJECTS
I.M. Zyabirov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-Professor;
A.I. Zyabirov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University",
Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 628-569, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper presents the results of measurements of vibration parameters of the threshing drum mechanism of a combine harvester ACROS under operating conditions. The results of a multifactorial experiment allowed to determine the significance of the influence of radial clearance in the shaft bearing, the size of the drum imbalance, the tension of the variator drive unit and the rotational speed of the mechanism on vibrations with determining the optimal point of installation of a vibration sensor D-14 on the body of the bearing support to register measurement of amplitude-frequency characteristics through the developed prototype of the control and diagnostic device.
Keywords: vibration, threshing drum, diagnosis, parameter, planning, variance, probability, methodology

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Agronomy


УДК 633.853.494: 632.954: 577.112
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.005

APPLICATION OF HERBICIDES IS A RESERVE TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF SPRING RAPSEED OIL SEEDS UNDER CONDITIONS IN SOUTH AREAS OF THE NON-BLACK EARTH ZONE
T.F. Devyatkina, PhD in Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor; S.A. Devyatkin, postgraduate;
D.V. Bochkarev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.N. Nikolsky, PhD in Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
E.V. Tyukina, PhD in Agricultural Sciences; E.O. Obmolova, student
N.P. Ogarev Mordovia State University, Agrarian Institute, Saransk, Republic of Mordovia, Russia,
tel. 89022315599; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The results of the current research deal with the effect of the complex application of antidicotyledonous and anticereal herbicides on the chemical and qualitative composition of spring rapeseed oil seeds under conditions in the south areas of the Nonchernozem zone. It was found that the applied combinations of herbicides by reducing competition from weeds increased the nitrogen content in oilseeds and did not have a statistically confirmed effect on the accumulation of phosphorus and potassium. The absolute removal of nitrogen against the background of herbicides increased 1.5 times, phosphorus - 1.3, potassium - 1.4 times. According to the level of the main macronutrients removal by rapeseed, they could be represented as following N > K2O > P2O5. The decrease in weediness led to an increase in the protein content in rapeseed oil seeds by 9%. The reverse pattern was observed for the accumulation of fat. In the control, its concentration was higher by 5%. When using herbicides, the collection of crude protein and fat per unit area depended on the crop yield and in all years of research was the largest on Etamaster + Miura (47% and 67%) and Etamaster + Zelor (40% and 61%).
Keywords: spring rapeseed, herbicide, chemical composition, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, crude protein, crude fat.

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УДК 631.453:631.524.84:631.879.2:549.67
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.007

CHANGES IN THE FERTILITY OF THE MEADOW-CHERNOZEM SOIL AND THE PRODUCTIVITY OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS UNDER THE AFTER-EFFECT OF URBAN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND ZEOLITE-CONTAINING AGRICULTURAL ORE
K.N. Stelmakh, postgraduate; A.N. Arefyev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor,
E.E. Kuzina, PhD in Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
Penza, Russia, tel. 8(412) 62-85-65, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The results of the current research determined that the most significant impact on the optimization of the physicochemical properties of the meadow-chernozem soil was exerted by the aftereffect of urban sewage sludge in combination with zeolite-containing agricultural ore. The cation-exchange capacity against their background exceeded the initial values by 4.76-5.59 meq/100g of soil, total exchangeable bases by 6.37-7.51 meq/100g of soil, the pHCl value by 1.10-1.38 units The total productivity of crops against the background of a unilateral aftereffect of urban sewage sludge was higher than the control by 1.48-3.59 t/ha, and against the background of their complex aftereffect with zeolite-containing agricultural ore by 2.89-5.85 t/ha.
Keywords: meadow-chernozem soil, urban sewage sludge, zeolite-containing agricultural ore, cation-exchange capacity, total exchangeable bases, acidity, productivity.

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УДК 631.87
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.009

THE EFFECT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL FERTILIZERS AND CHEMICAL PROTECTANTS ON THE SOWING QUALITIES OF AGRICULTURAL SEEDS
N.P. Chekaev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
Yu.V. Blinokhvatova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.V. Nushtaeva, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor; V.O. Nogaev, postgraduate student.
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
Penza, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents data on the positive effect of microbiological fertilizers that contain nitrogen-fixing, phosphorus- and potassium-mobilizing bacteria, and have biofungicidal properties on the sowing qualities of spring wheat, peas, lentils and sunflower seeds. Microbiological preparations increased the germination energy of untreated spring wheat seeds to 96-100% (control – 92%); laboratory germination at the same time was at the level of germination energy or slightly higher. The germination characteristics of seeds treated with Tiara (thiamethoxam) and Stinger (tebuconazole) were lower - germination energy was 86-97% (control 84%); germination ability was 91-99% (control 96%). Indicators of the length, mass and volume of seedlings and roots in the course of the treatment with biological preparations were higher than the control variant. The best results were obtained when treating non-pretreated wheat seeds with biological preparations Azotovit + Phosphatovit, RizoBash, BioAzFC and Phytosporin-M. The germination energy and germination ability of peas during treatment with biological preparations increased, respectively, by 4-10% and 6-12%, by 2-10% and 3-8% (in the case of treated seeds). Sunflower seeds treated with Maxim andKruiser, were characterized by lower values of germination energy, which indicates a decrease in the activity of growth processes of the treated seeds, although no sharp changes in germination values were observed: 89-93% depending on the biological preparation (the highest when treated with Phytosporin-M). In general, the positive effect of the studied microbiological preparations on the growth activity of seeds, including those treated with protectants, was revealed, which indicates the compatibility of the preparations. However, the germination energy of the treated seeds was noticeably less, therefore, the protectants somewhat delay the germination process.
Key words: microbiological fertilizers, chemical protectants, germination energy, seed germination ability.

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УДК 577.12
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.011

EFFECT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL BIOFERTILIZERS ON COTTON FIBER QUALITY AND EXPRESSION OF GENES RESPONSIBLE FOR THE TRAIT DEVELOPMENT
Sh.Kh. Mamatkulova1, junior researcher; G.F. Mamatkulova1, research intern;
V.S. Kamburova1, Candidate of Biological Sciences, head of laboratory;
M.М. Darmanov1, Candidate of Biological Sciences, head of laboratory; E.А. Latypova2, assistant-professor
1Center of Genomics and Bioinformatics, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, tel. +998 99 846-41-02, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. 8 (9680) 32-19-80, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Cotton is one of the most important natural fiber crops. 20% of cultivated land worldwide and 33% of irrigated farmland is subject to salinity, and this area is increasing by 10% annually. It is known that salt stress has a negative effect on all main physiological and phenotypic parameters of cotton, including the main trait - fiber quality. To reduce negative effects of salt stress on cotton, two complementary approaches are used: creation of salt-tolerant varieties and improvement of agrotechnological methods using different biostimulants. In this connection the effect of biostimulants on fiber quality parameters and expression of gens responsible for development of this trait was studied. Our studies have shown that the use of microbial fertilizers has a positive effect on fiber quality parameters. In this case the preparation Rizokom-1 had the greatest positive effect. This preparation increased one of the most important fiber quality parameters - fiber length. Besides, Rizokom-1 maximally increases fiber strength of cotton without reduction of its homogeneity index. The morphological data were confirmed by the results of expression of corresponding genes. Thus, Rizokom-1 and Micro-1 preparations significantly affected the expression level of genes responsible for synthesis of sugars (SPS and SuSy) and unsaturated fatty acids (FAD2), as well as for synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides (CESA2). The mechanism of action of the preparation Hosyl on fiber quality is mainly due to its effect on the expression level of genes regulating hormone biosynthesis involved in cotton fiber development.
Keywords: cotton, salt stress, microbial fertilizers, fiber quality, gene expressions.

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УДК 631.89:631.412:631.524.84
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.012

EFFECT OF DIATOMITE AND POULTRY MANURE ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GRAY FOREST SOILS AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY
K.Y. Kovalsky, post-graduate student,
А.N. Arefiev, Doctor of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor,
Е.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural sciences, professor,
Е.Е. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. 8(412) 62-85-65, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The aim of the research was to study the effect of diatomite norms from 4 to 10 t/ha and their combinations with poultry manure on the physical and chemical properties of gray forest soils and crop productivity. To fulfill the goal, field experiments were conducted in the Vadinsk-Mokshan agro-soil district of Penza region in the period from 2019 to 2021. The studies determined that the most significant effect on increasing the capacity of cation exchange, the amount of exchangeable bases, decrease in the concentration of hydrogen ions in the soil absorbing complex had the effect and aftereffect of diatomite in the complex with poultry manure. It was found that the highest effect on the productivity of corn, spring wheat and annual grasses was the use of diatomite in combination with poultry manure. At the same time, the efficiency of corn productivity increased by 47.8-59.6%; the productivity of spring wheat increased by 26.8-35.4%; the productivity of vetch-oats increased by 22.8-36.6%. The total productivity of crops in the grain and fallow crops rotation ranged from 13.03 to 14.11 t/ha g.u. exceeding the control by 34.75-45.92 %.
Keywords: diatomite, poultry manure, gray forest soil, cation exchange capacity, amount of exchangeable bases, acidity, productivity, corn, spring wheat, annual grasses.

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УДК 635.652.07:632.954(571.13)
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.015

PROTECTION EFFICIENCY OF LENTIL CROPS FROM WEEDS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SOUTHERN FOREST-STEPPE OF THE OMSK REGION
T.V. Marakaeva, PhD in Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
T.V. Gorbachev, PhD in Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
E.V. FAlaleeva, PhD in Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
Omsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin, Omsk, Russia, phone: (3812) 65-01-57, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The current paper deals with data from field experiments for 2018-2020 on an ordinary, low-humus, medium loamy chernozem in the conditions of the southern forest-steppe of the Omsk region. Sowing was carried out in the second decade of May in an ordinary way, variety Vekhovskaya. The seeding rate is 1.2 million germinating grains per hectare. The repetition in the experiment is fourfold; the placement of plots is systematic. Herbicide treatment was carried out in the phase of full shoots of the culture and the weed component. The flow rate of the working fluid is 200 l/ha. Records and observations were carried out according to accepted methods. The purpose of the research is to study the effectiveness of the use of herbicides against a complex of weeds on lentil crops. The density of standing of cultivated plants by options in 2018 and 2019 was from 104 to 119pcs/m2, and in 2020 from 82 to 107pcs/m2. The use of herbicides to protect lentil crops from weeds contributed to an increase in the safety of plants in all years of research. The effectiveness of the use of herbicides is confirmed by the fact that, on average, over three years of research, when treating crops with Tapir and Global, a weak degree of weed damage was noted in the agrophytocenosis of lentils (the proportion of weeds was from 1.0 to 8.2%). The effectiveness of herbicides was high, on average over three years of research, the reduction in the proportion of weeds when treated with Tapir and Global by 73.2% and 90.9%, respectively. On average, over three years, a significant increase in the yield of lentil grain in the variant with Tapir, compared with the control, was 0.57 t/ha (НСР05= 0.27 t/ha). When the crops were protected with the herbicide Global, in comparison with the control, the increase in grain yield was also significant and amounted to 1.16 t/ha. When crops were treated with the Tapir herbicide, the protein content in the grain increased significantly by 2.9%, and by Globalom by 3.8%. The level of profitability in the variants with weed protection was 76.2 and 119.9%, while in the variant without herbicide treatment it was 29.2%.
Keywords: lentil, variety Vekhovskaya, weed damage, herbicide, Tapir WSC (water soluble concentrate), Global WS (water solution), productivity, biochemical composition, economic efficiency.

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УДК: 632.95:632.488.43:633.11.13.16
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.016

EFFECTS OF GROWTH REGULATORS OF THE CHALCONE GROUP ON YIELD AND DISEASES OF SPRING CEREAL CROPS IN THE WESTERN PIEDMONT OF THE URAL MOUNTAINS
I.N. Medvedeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
S.V. Chirkov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
Z.А. Upilkova, Candidate of Economic Sciences, assistant-professor,
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education
«Perm State Agro-Technological University named after Academician D.N. Pryanishnikov», Perm, Russia, tel. 89097316715, е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

On the basis of the three-year (2017-2019) research conducted at Perm Agro-Technological University named after academician D.N. Pryanishnikov by scientists from two departments - general chemistry and general agriculture, and plant protection, the results of studying the methods of protection of spring cereals (wheat and barley) against the most harmful diseases of fungal etiology in the the western piedmont of the Ural Mountains are presented. The aim of the work was to develop methods of protection against common root rot and helminthosporiosis of spring cereals of wheat and barley using growth regulators permitted in the Russian Federation and new drugs of the chalcone group as an alternative to the use of more toxic fungicides of systemic action and, consequently, reducing the environmental burden in agrophytocenosis. The results showed that the tested chalcones MBAF, R and BBAF, R were not inferior in effectiveness to the approved ones (Zircon, R and Epin-Extra, R) and even surpassed them in some indicators: increase in disease resistance (spreading and development). Field germination of both wheat and barley was higher when treated with chalcones - 78.2 % and 77.3 %, respectively. The development of common root rot in spring wheat below the economic injury level was ensured after treatment with Zircon, R, chalcone MBAF, R and BBAF, R by 9.9%, 9.6% and 9.4% respectively during the tillering period. On spring barley, the variant using the chalcone MBAF, R was the most effective: the development of stripe disease during the flowering period was minimal - 1.33 %. During the doughiness period, all preparations significantly reduced the development of stripe disease on spring barley, on wheat - only chalcones, used in the pre-sowing treatment. Biological effectiveness of dressing was higher in all the crops in comparison with the spraying method. On both cereal crops the highest biological effectiveness was achieved by the BBAF, R chalcone (76.4 % and 76.0 %) used by the method of dressing. Both chalcones applied by the method of dressing, provided a significant increase in the yield of spring cereal crops in all years of the study.
Keywords: barley, root rot, fungicides, growth regulators, yield, pesticides, disease prevalence and development.

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УДК 633.2+ 631.81.095.337
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.018

SEED PRODUCTIVITY OF FESTULOLIUM DEPENDING ON CULTURATION METHODS IN THE FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
A.A. Galiullin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor; E.A. Kalinichev, postgraduate student
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 62–81–51; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

For the successful application of festulolium in a new region, in particular in the forest-steppe of the Penza region, one of the main tasks is to create a sustainable seed production system based on energy and resource saving. Therefore, the aim of the current research was to examine the aftereffect of pre-sowing treatment of festulolium seeds with complex microelement fertilizers and biological preparations on seed productivity. The research was carried out in 2019-2021 at the experimental site of Penza State Agrarian University (Penza, Ryussia). The aftereffect of the use of micro- and biofertilizers (Azosol-36, Extra, Megamix-Profi, Siliplant, Zircon, Agrika, Agrika + microelements, Agat-25 Super) was observed during the treatment of seeds with festulolium varieties VIK-90 and Izumrudny on indicators of photosynthetic activity of agrocenosis and the formation seed production in the second growth year. As a result of the research, it was found that the examined growth regulators had a positive effect on the formation of leaf area, photosynthetic potential and net productivity of photosynthesis. When used for seed treatment the Izumrudny variety of bacterial preparation Agrika + microelements the maximum quantity of generative sprouts was noted - 712 pcs/m2, the greatest length of inflorescences - 23.5 cm, the number of spikelets in the inflorescence - 41.0 pcs., the number of seeds in the inflorescence - 79.0 pcs and weight of 1000 seeds - 3.27 g. Seed productivity was 845 kg/ha, which is 24.9% higher than the control.
Keywords: festulolium, microelement fertilizers, photosynthesis, seed yield.

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УДК 633.63+631.82
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.019

THE EFFECT OF SENICATION AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MINERAL NUTRITION ON THE YIELD OF CERTIFIED WINTER WHEAT SEEDS
V.V. Koshelyaev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; R.R. Denmukhamedov, post-graduate student;
I.P. Koshelyaeva, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 62-83-73, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Senication is carried out not only in conditions of favorable plant development, but also in a number of cases, such as unfavorable weather conditions during the ripening period, the need to organize an earlier start of harvesting, stimulation of grain maturation on lateral shoots to obtain seeds with less matrix variability. The aim of the researches was to study influence of senication on certified seeds yield and to substantiate optimal concentration of working solution providing high yield of seeds at various levels of mineral nutrition. We used 10, 20 and 30 % working solutions of ammonium nitrate + 1 % working solution of 2,4-D ester as a senicant. Winter wheat crops were treated against three mineral nutrition backgrounds. The results show that the high yield of seeds, optimum ratio of net income to expenditures and, consequently, higher level of profitability of winter wheat seed production is observed when the plants are treated with 20% working solution of ammonium nitrate + 1% working solution of 2,4-D ester against the background of applying N16P16K16 during sowing + N68 in spring dressing.
Keywords: winter wheat, senication, seed yield, fractional composition..

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УДК663.15 + 57.083.13 582.84
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.013

ECOLOGICALLY JUSTIFIED METHODS OF SELECTION OF STRAINS OF MICROMYCETES WITH HIGH CELLULASE ACTIVITY
G.V. Ilyina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor;
S.A. Sashenkova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor;
D.Yu. Ilyin, Candidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor; A.R. Dashkina, student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution oh Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents information concerning the established interrelations between a number of ecological and physiological parameters of cultures of soil mycelial fungi and their productive capacity. These interrelations can be used as a basis for individual selection of strains with high lignocellulasic potential. The technological point of expanding the range of cultures with rich enzymatic potential is to create a reserve of strains to be included in complexes of cellulose-degrading microorganisms. This can be used for the destruction of cellulose-containing wastes, as well as for composting processes of crop residues. The paper contains information about original approaches to individual selection and selection of cultures of mycelial fungi obtained on the basis of natural strains collected from gray forest soil extract. The selection criteria were resistance to elevated temperature and enzymatic activity. Cultures were allocated to the Sabouraud medium, and individual colonies were divided. After the sporulation, the generic assignment and then the species of the cultures were determined. Later, monosporous sifting was carried out, and the monosporous cultures were risen, the parameters of which were evaluated. Screening was performed using modified Getchinson’s medium. Cellulase activity was determined at the level of qualitative assessment (using the Congo red indicator). The pigmentation degree of colonies during sporulation was estimated visually. We established positive correlations between the pigmentation intensity of the colony, its thermal stability and enzymatic activity. Having selected three species of promising strains, we studied their enzymatic activity. We assessed the stability of physiological and morphological characteristics and enzymatic activity of cultures to spontaneous dissociation in a series of ten passages. As a result of the research, we developed methods of express selection of promising strains and obtained four promising cultures for inclusion in a complex of decomposers for composting cellulose-containing wastes and crop residues.
Keywords: selection of microorganisms, individual selection, ecology of mycelial fungi, bioconversion of wastes, enzymes, cellulose.

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УДК 633.11 + 631.81
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.020

YIELD STRUCTURE OF SPRING WHEAT WHEN APPLYING FERTILISERS AND STIMULATING PREPARATIONS
V.G. Vasin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; N.G. Mikhalkin, post-graduate student;
N.V. Vasina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor; V.E. Kim, post-graduate student;
E.S. Fadeeva, post-graduate student
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education «Samara State Agrarian University», Ust-Kinelsky, Kinel, Samara region, Russia, tel.: 8(927)783-83-48 е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of evaluation of yield structure, productivity and grain quality of spring wheat when using new liquid mineral fertilizers in the form of microfertilizer mixtures Megamix and organo-mineral preparation Aminokat 30%, in the forest-steppe conditions of the Middle Volga region in 2019-2021. It was found that the application of fertilizers and preparations during the growing season significantly affect the value of wheat yields. In all the variants, an increase in yield was observed with the application of stimulating preparations. During the three years of research, the average wheat yield was between 2.08 and 3.58 t/ha. The best values were obtained in variants treated with Aminokat 30% and Megamix Profi. The highest indicators were noted on the background of N45P45K45 fertilizers.
Keywords: mineral fertilizers, spring wheat, Megamix Profi, Megamix Nitrogen, yield, yield structure, grain quality, microelements.

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Private animal husbandry, feeding, technologies of feed preparation and production of livestock products


УДК 636.2.082.25:636.237.21
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.004

MILK PRODUCTIVITY AND THE NATURE OF LACTATION PERFORMANCE OF BLACK-AND-WHITE COWS
T.V. Shishkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
E.V. Zdorovyeva, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of higher education Penza State Agrarian University,
Penza, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 628380, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The purpose of the work is to evaluate cows by milk productivity and the nature of lactation performance, taking into account their blood level by the Holstein breed. To achieve this goal, the task was set to determine the milk productivity and the characteristic features of lactation of experimental cows. The research was carried out in the conditions of the Educational and experimental farm Ramzai of FSBEI HO Penza SAU. The object of research was the first-calf heifers of a Russian Black Pied. The groups were formed taking into account the blood level by the Holstein breed. The first group included cows with a blood level below 50% (37% on average in the group), the second with 50% blood level, the third over 50% (63% on average in the group). As a result of the research, it was found that a 62% increase in blood level by the Holstein breed in cows on the farm had a positive effect on the milk productivity of cows. The best quantitative indicators of milk production were demonstrated by first-calf heifers that have over 50% of blood level by the Holstein breed. Their superiority over low-blood animals was 1216 kg, and over half-blood 350 kg. There was also a significant difference of 866 kg between low-blood and half-blood animals in favor of the latter. The nature of the lactation performance of cows improves with the increase of blood level by the Holstein breed. Cows with a blood share of more than 50% had the lowest drop of 7.8% per month, and their low-blood peers had the highest (11.9%). Half–blood animals showed an intermediate result of 8.2%. The complete lactation indicator (CLI) in high-blood cows was 76% and was higher than in low-blood peers by 6.9%. Half-blood animals also differed positively from low-blood ones by 5.9% in terms of CLI value.
Keywords: breed, blood, milk productivity, lactation.

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УДК 636.087.73
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.008

PROTEIN BIOCONVERSION AND FEED EFFICIENCY OF SHEEP WHEN INCLUDING NON-TRADITIONAL FEED ADDITIVES IN THEIR DIETS
M.F. Grigoriev1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
N.M. Chernogradskaya1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.I. Grigorieva2, senior lecturer; A.V. Popova1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor; M.M. Doktorov2, student
1FSBEI HE Arctic State Agrotechnological University, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia;
2FSAEI HE Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University,
Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the main results of assessing the conversion of nutrients and energy of feed into the edible part. Earlier, studies were conducted to study the influence of different norms of feed additives from local natural raw materials on the growth and development indicators, meat productivity of sheep in the conditions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). It was revealed that the inclusion of the studied additives in the diets of sheep during the fattening period allowed to increase the live weight by 3.67 and 0.88%, and the slaughter yield by 2.31 and 1.88%. The change in the feeding conditions of sheep during the fattening period eventually had a positive effect on the conversion of nutrients and feed energy into the edible part. During the analysis, an increase in protein yield per removable live weight was by 7.01 and 5.92%, and the energy output per removable live weight increased by 9.23 and 8.0%. At the same time, the conversion of feed protein into food protein increased by 4.16 and 3.67%, and the feed metabolizable energy into the energy of slaughter products increased by 0.57 and 0.26%, respectively. There was also a decrease in protein consumption per kg of live weight gain by 16.87 and 4.22%. Thus, the inclusion of non-traditional feed additives from local natural resources in the diets of sheep during the fattening period contributed to the improvement of meat productivity, better conversion of protein into edible part.
Keywords: meat productivity, efficiency, fattening, conversion, protein, fat.

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УДК: 636.3.033
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.017

SLAUGHTER AND MEAT QUALITIES OF LAMBS OF THE ROMANOV BREED DEPENDING ON SLAUGHTER AGE
R.R. Ganeev1, acting director of OOO "Konny Zavod Sovetsky";
S.М. Marchenko1, veterinarian of ООО "Konny Zavod Sovetsky"; М.Y. Zverko2, post-graduate student
1ООO "Konny Zavod Sovetsky", stanitsa Sovetskaya, Kirovsky urban district, Stavropol Krai, Russia;
2FSBEI HE Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy,
Moscow, Russia, tel.: 89289113847, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the indices of slaughter and meat qualities of lambs of the Romanov breed, depending on the age of slaughter. The research was carried out at OOO "Konny Zavod Sovetskiy", Stavropol Krai, Kirovsky urban district, stanitsa Sovetskaya, on lambs of the Romanov breed. Thirty lambs were fattened to eight and nine months of age and five lambs from each group were subsequently slaughtered. The difference in live weight of the lambs influenced the slaughter qualities of the lambs at eight and nine months of age. Meat qualities of the Romanov breed lambs in these age groups were also investigated in terms of carcass morphological composition, slaughter qualities and meatiness coefficient. These differences in the indicators made it possible to determine at what age it is more appropriate to slaughter lambs, obtaining better meat. It was established that if higher-quality mutton is to be obtained, the slaughtering should take place at eight months of age because the edible part, in the flesh-to-bone ratio, of eight-month-old lambs is higher than that of nine-month-old lambs. It is therefore more appropriate to fatten Romanov lambs until they are eight months old.
Keywords: lambs, Romanov sheep breed, meat productivity, slaughter quality of lambs, slaughter weight, morphological composition of carcasses, meatiness coefficient, carcass weight.

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Technologies, machinery and equipment for the agro-industrial complex


УДК 631.362.3
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.002

JUSTIFICATION OF THE USE OF A ROTARY FEEDER IN PNEUMATIC MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT
A.V. Machnev1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
V.A. Machnev2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
K.Z. Kukhmazov2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
I.A. Uspensky3, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor,
P.N. Khorev2, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor, V.A. Merzlyakov1, Master
1Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education
"Moscow State University of Food Production", Moscow, Russia, tel. (937) 43-43-711, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education
"Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia; 
3Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher education
"Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev", Ryazan, Russia

From year to year, the agricultural sector of the economy of the Russian Federation is faced two tasks: the first is harvesting grain crops at a short stated agrotechnical time, and the second – to preserve the quality of food and seed grains until the moment of product sale or sowing. One of the most effective ways to preserve the quality of food and seed grains is its cleaning and sorting. They are performed by pneumatic sorting tables of periodic and continuous operations type. In our country, the most common types of tables are PSS-0.2, PSS-2.5, PS-10, TDV 150. They have a classic scheme of pneumatic systems, vibration tables with decks and their drive mechanisms. Their disadvantages include the impossibility of uniform grain supply and increased threshing at the outlet due to the lack of grain supply devices in the hoppers, which reduces the quality of cleaning and sorting. To eliminate the identified shortcomings, we have developed, manufactured and tested a pneumatic sorting table with a rotary feeder. At first, the best type of rotary grain feeder was specified, which turned out to be a three-bladed rotary feeder with a grain supply of 0.45 kg/s and a non-uniformity of supply of 12.5%. Then, comparative studies were carried out for the chosen type of rotary feeder and the quality indicators of the technological process were determined. We compared the developed pneumatic sorting table, equipped with a three-blade rotary feeder, to the base table PSS-0.2. It was found that when cleaning the grain of winter soft wheat of "Lgovskaya 8" variety (thousand grain weight — 46.4 g, moisture content — 14.2%, and density — 1.6 g/cm3), the studied device reduces the grain crushing by 0.06 % and non-uniformity of supply (11.5%). Also, it increases the laboratory and field germination (2% and 5%, respectively), the content of the most valuable output groups III and IV by 21.2% with a slight decrease in supply by 0.01% and productivity per hour of main operating time 0.04 t/h Thus, the possibility of using the rotary feeder in pneumatic machines is proved.
Keywords: grain, pneumatic sorting table, cleaning, sorting, rotary feeder, deck, grain supply

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УДК 621.436.24
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.003

TWO-PHASE MIXING IN TRACTOR DIESEL: THEORY, EXPERIMENT, TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS
A.P. Ukhanov1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
M.V. Ryblov1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
M.D. Dubin1, postgraduate student; D.A. Ukhanov2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor
1Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
Penza, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2Federal Autonomous Institution 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology
of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

The article is devoted to the problem of improving the power, fuel-economic and environmental performance of tractor diesel engines due to the organization and practical implementation of mixing in two phases. The first phase is carried out in the intake stroke by distributed injection of a certain dose of finely dispersed activator (gasoline, kerosene, alcohol, biofuels, etc.) into the branches of the diesel intake pipeline. The second phase is carried out in the compression stroke by injecting the main dose of motor fuel into the cylinder medium containing local ignition centers formed due to the pre-flame preparation of the activator-air mixture that entered the cylinder in the first phase. The features of the calculation of diesel indicators for two-phase mixing are given, taking into account the ratio of motor fuel and activator. Theoretical foundations for the software for electronic control of activator injection in the first phase of mixing are considered. An electronic system of distributed activator injection has been developed, which provides metered injection of activator into the branches of the diesel intake pipeline with electromagnetic injectors in the intake stroke, while the dose of the activator is coordinated with the mass consumption of motor fuel. The results of experimental studies show that, depending on the type and dose of the activator, two-phase mixing increases the power and torque of the diesel engine by 3-12%, reducing the smoke content of exhaust gases by up to 50% compared to the operation of the diesel engine in standard configuration without injection of the activator in the first phase of mixing.
Keywords: tractor diesel, two-phase mixing, activators, electronic system of distributed injection of activator, indicators.

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УДК 665.7.035 + 665.753
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.006

THERMO-OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF DIESEL MIXED FUEL
D.A. Ukhanov1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; A.D. Cherepanova1, PhD Chemistry;
A.P. Ukhanov2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
A.A. Khokhlov3, PhD in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor
1Federal Autonomous Institution The 25th State Research Institute of chemmotology
of the Ministry of Defense Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia;
2Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
3Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University, Ulyanovsk, Russia

An important operational property of motor diesel fuels (DF), which characterizes their resistance to oxidation at high temperatures with the formation of solid oxidation products, is thermal-oxidative stability. An effective method for assessing the thermal-oxidative capacity in laboratory conditions at the Diesel Fuel System (DFS)-2 facility is the dynamic method, which consists in pumping the test fuel along the heated surface for a certain time at constant temperatures and fuel consumption. According to the indicators of the amount of deposits in the form of solid oxidation products on the control surfaces and the temperature of the beginning of their formation, a conclusion is made about the resistance of the tested fuel to oxidation. One of the types of diesel fuel for automotive and tractor engines is a mixed diesel fuel obtained by mixing commercial petroleum diesel fuel and camelina oil. Thus the practically significant task is to determine the indicators of thermal-oxidative stability of such a mixed fuel by a dynamic method. The results of the current research in terms of thermal-oxidative capacity indicators show that the tested mixed fuel is superior to commercial oil diesel fuel in terms of resistance to the formation of deposits in the form of solid oxidation products.
Keywords: deposits, diesel fuel, camelina oil, mixed fuel, thermal-oxidative stability, indicators.

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УДК 631.33.022.6
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.010

LABORATORY STUDIES OF A SOWING UNIT OF A GRAIN SEEDER WITH CONTINUOUS RUBBER COATING OF A VALVE WITH TRUNCATED CONE-SHAPED SPIKES
D.Yu. Parfenov, Postgraduate; N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
A.V. Shukov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
R.R. Devlikamov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 628 517, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of laboratory studies on a sowing unit of a grain seeder with a continuous coating of a valve made of rubber with truncated cone-shaped spikes. Research into an experimental device aims to find rational values for its design and operating parameters and is carried out with a laboratory unit mounted on a tillage bin. The paper presents two-dimensional sections of the graphical dependence characterizing the uniformity of seed distribution along the length of the furrow from the design and operating parameters of the experimental sowing unit of a grain seeder with a continuous coating of a valve made of rubber with spikes (frequency of rotation of the roller, diameter of the tip of the spikes, angle of inclination of the spikes). They have the shape of truncated cones and provide the best qualitative indicators of such an experimental seeder unit [1, 2, 4, 8].
Keywords: seed-sowing unit, rotation frequency, laboratory installation, diameter, spikes, angle of inclination.

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УДК 651.054.21
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.014

IMPLEMENTATION OF A STATISTICAL METHOD FOR FINDING THE OPTIMAL INSTALLATION POINT OF A VIBRATION SENSOR
I.M. Zyabirov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.I. Zyabirov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 628-569, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The results of studies of measurements of vibration parameters of the mechanism of the threshing drum of the ACROS grain harvesters under operating conditions (trust partnership Pugachevskoe) are presented. The implementation of active multifactorial planning of the experiment made it possible to determine the importance of the effect of radial and axial clearances in the shaft bearings on the vibration process, the magnitude of its imbalance, the state of the drive of the variator of the rotational rate of the mechanism. It was determined where the optimal point of installation of the vibration sensor D-14 is on the bearing support of the threshing drum for recording the amplitude-frequency parameters of vibration signals by the designed model of the control and diagnostic device.
Keywords: vibration, threshing drum, diagnostics, parameter, planning, dispersion, methodology.

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УДК 631.331
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.61.1.021

A NEW DESIGN OF THE GRAIN SEEDER SEEDING DEVICE EQUIPPED WITHA SECTIONAL TYPE COIL WITH GROOVES ARRANGED ALONG A HELICAL LINE
N. P. Laryushin1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; I.A. Pershin2, junior researcher;
A. V. Shukov1, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
T.A. Kiryukhina1, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor.
1Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 628 517, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2Federal State-Funded Scientific Institution All-Russian Research Institute for the Use of Machinery and Petroleum Products in Agriculture, Tambov, Russia, tel. (4752) 446 414, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

When sowing with grain seeders to obtain the highest and stable yields of cultivated crops, seeding devices, as well as coulters, remain one of the most important working parts of sowing machines , since the quality of sowing depends on their work. They provide a guaranteed constant flow of sown seeds, the maximum possible stability of a given seeding rate, minimal damage to the sown seeds, as well as the possibility to sow seeds that differ in their dimensional characteristics, and to quickly adjust to a given seeding rate. Improving the quality indicators of sowing grain crops by further improving the technological process and the device of a coil seeding machine having a sectional type coil with grooves arranged along a helical line is relevant for the agroindustrial complex of the Russian Federation. The article describes the design and the schematic diagram of the new seeding device of a grain seeder equipped with a sectional type coil with grooves arranged along a helical line, which allows a greater distribution of seeds along the length of the groove formed by the seeder coulter increases, and there is also a decrease in the crushing of seeds, which will further increase the yield of the cultivated crop.
Keywords: sectional coil, seeding device, helical line, seeds, grain seeder.

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