PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR SORGHUM WHEN USING HUMIC PREPARATIONS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION
О.P. Kibalnik1, Candidate of Biological Science, chief research worker;
I.G. Efremova1, Candidate of Agricultural Science, senior research worker;
D.S. Semin1, Candidate of Agricultural Science, chief research worker;
V.V. Pronko2, Doctor of Agricultural Science, professor;
A.V. Erokhina1, senior research worker
The article presents the results of studying the effect of humic preparations on the yield and quality of sugar sorghum biomass. The objects of the research were varieties Capital (St), Sahara, Volunteer, Sevilla, Chaika. The experiment was laid on the experimental field of Federal State Budget-ary Scientific Institution “Russian Research and Design Technological Institute for Sorghum and Corn” (“Rossorgo”) according to a two-factor scheme (factor A – variety, factor B – humates) in different weather conditions. Differentiated responsiveness of varieties to treatment with humic preparations was noted. Both single and double application of K-Humate-Na with micro-elements led to an increase in plant height, flag leaf area, biomass, and dry matter yield. Under the conditions of our experiments, the maximum yield of green mass was observed in the Sahara variety with the double use of K-Humate-Nа on average for two years (34.2 t/ha). Humic preparations also caused an increase in the content of crude protein in the dry biomass harvest of the Sahara variety in 2017-2018. (K-Humate-Nа with micro-elements by 21.8-23.1%), crude fat (Reasil Forte Carb-N-Humic by 45.4-54.5%, respective-ly). The results of the field studies confirm the advisability of using salts of humic acids in the form of presowing and leaf treatments in the cultivation of sugar sorghum.
Keywords: sugar sorghum, varieties, humic preparations, biomass yield, dry matter collection, protein and fat yield
FORMATION OF DRY MASS BY AGROPHYTOCENOSIS OF PERENNIAL GRASSES BASED ON TETRAPLOID RED CLOVER
Zh.S. Neliubina1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
N.I. Kasatkina1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
I.Sh. Fatykhov2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
1 Federal State-Funded Institution of Science Udmurt Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, Izhevsk, tel.: +7 (3412) 62-96-98;
In the field fodder production of the Middle Urals, red clover remains the main fodder crop, which is used both in single-species and polyspecies crops. The tetraploid type red clover is of par-ticular value, as it is more productive, winter-hardy, disease-resistant, providing a feed yield with a high crude protein content. Determination of leaf area, photosynthetic activity, dynamics of accumula-tion of dry matter of red tetraploid clover in agrophytocenoses has been little studied, but of practical interest. In 2013-2017 In the Udmurt Research Institute of Agriculture, on sod-podzolic soils, formation specifics of dry mass of agrophytocenoses of perennial grasses based on Kudesnik red clover were studied. To create polyspecies agrocenoses, we used timothy grass, alfalfa, Lotus corniculatus, and Eastern galega. The leaf area varied depending on the composition of the agrophytocenosis from 34.4 thousand m2/ha in the branch stage to 107.2 thousand m2/ha in the flower bud stage. The main contribution to the formation of the assimilation surface of grass mixtures was made by red clover (66.7-92.4%). The photosynthetic potential was the highest (948-1034 thousand m2 x day/ha) in grass mixtures clover + timothy grass, clover + alfalfa and in single-species sowing of clover. Determina-tion of the dynamics of the accumulation of dry matter showed that in the branch-bud period there was the greatest increase in dry matter. The yield of dry matter in this stage was 525-647 g/m2, while in mixed crops this indicator was significantly higher than in single-species clover crops. By the flower-ing stage, the dry matter decreased to 474-618 g/m2. The yield of dry matter of agrophytocenoses was 67-76% formed due to the first mow. The most productive (4.7 t/ha) in the first mow was a mix-ture of clover with timothy grass.
Key words: tetraploid clover, grass mixtures, leaf area, dynamics of dry matter accumulation, yield.
CHANGES IN SEED PRODUCTIVITY OF ECHINACEA PURPUREA DEPENDING ON THE SOWING TERMS AND THE METHOD OF WEED CONTROL
V.A. Gushchina1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
E.O. Nikolskaya2, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Deputy Head of Department
"Penzenskaya lesosemennaya stantsiya";
N.Yu. Lobanova1, Postgraduate
2 Branch office of FSI Roslesozashchita – Forest Protection Centre of Penza Oblast, Russia
To produce high-quality pharmaceutical plant raw materials, the plantation cultivation of medici-nal plants is necessary. However, this is finite because of a limited number of seeds. One of the main indicators for evaluating the success of introducing a crop into production is seed productivity. Therefore, the aim of the research is to develop the cultivation technology elements of Echinacea purpurea for seeds that ensure the optimal realization of its productivity potential in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga Region. Experimental work was carried out on the meadow chernozemic soil of the experimental field of the FSBEI of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University" in 2014...2018. During the winter and early spring sowing of Echinacea purpurea, various ways of protecting it from the weed component were studied. As a research result, it was found that the effect of the aftereffect of sowing dates and methods of weed control also remained in the sec-ond year of plant life. On average for three years, in the first year of planting Echinacea 28...38 gen-erative shoots develop per square meter, each of which forms 366...484 achenes with a mass of 1.39...1.68 g and the plumpness rate of 74...84 %. The most optimal conditions for seed setting are formed both in early winter sowing and early spring one with manual removal of weeds, three-time row-to-row processing and application of the herbicide Lazurit SP before Echinacea seedlings' ap-pearance, followed by weeding with Miura in the phase 2-4 leaves of the weed. The yield of seeds, sown in autumn, counted 642.3 kg/ha, 598.7 and 644 kg/ha, respectively. In spring sowing, it was 16...19 % lower. Thus, the studied techniques of cultivation of Echinacea purpurea allow forming a high yield of high-quality seeds.
Keywords: Echinacea purpurea, inflorescences, seed plumpness, productivity.
EFFECTS AND AFTEREFFECTS OF DIATOMITE AND ITS COMBINATIONS WITH MANURE ON THE TOTAL CARBON CONTENT IN THE SOIL AND THE YIELD OF VEGETABLE CROPS
E.E. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor
The objective of the research was to study the unilateral effect and aftereffect of 2 to 6 t/ha of diatomite and combined effect and aftereffect of diatomite with manure on the total carbon content in the arable layer of leached chernozem and the yield of vegetable crops in the forest-steppe condi-tions of the Middle Volga region. The studies were conducted from 2014 to 2019. The experiment was deployed in time and across the territory. Studies have established that in view of the effect and af-tereffect of manure, the total carbon content exceeded the initial values by 0.075-0.104%. In the vari-ants with diatomite, the total carbon content at the end of the research exceeded the initial values by 0.012-0.029%. The most significant effect on the accumulation of total carbon was exerted by the combined effect and aftereffect of diatomite with manure. The total carbon content, in view of the effect and aftereffect of diatomite and manure, exceeded the initial values by 0.098-0.122%. The highest effect in terms of impact on yield was provided by the combined effect and aftereffect of diatomite and manure. The yield of winter garlic in view of the effect and aftereffect of diatomite and manure increased by 39.6-66.2%, carrots by 29.6-46.9%, beetroots by 21.0-44.9%.
Key words: leached chernozem, diatomite, manure, total carbon, yield, garlic, carrots, beetroot.
THE FERTILITY OF CHERNOZEMIC SOILS ON THE MORAINE DEPOSITS
S.P. Lomov1, Doctor of Geographic Sciences, Professor;
V.S. Lomov2, Student
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State University
Moraine deposits in the Penza oblast were formed as a result of the destruction of the Oka-Don glacier of the lower boundary of the neo-Pleistocene during warming [6, 15, 16]. The thickness of the main moraine can be ≈ 30.0 m [8, 10]. In terms of spacing, glacial deposits of the Don horizon pre-dominate in the western part of the oblast. In current physical-geographical conditions, they are placed as the cover on watersheds and used in the agro-ecosystem. The composition and properties of soils on morainic deposits are special due to their structural state, peculiar distribution of physical clay fractions, low humus content and low fertility.
Keywords: moraine complex, soil properties, soil recovery stage, virgin land.
ASSESSMENT OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS AFTER ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE FEATURES AND PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY
V.I. Gryazeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
Yu.V. Koryagin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
N.V. Koryagina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
N.I. Sigov, student
Sunflower in the Russian Federation is the main oilseed crop. To recommend the optimal cultiva-tion regions and the active introduction of sunflower varieties and hybrids into production, it is im-portant to know the adaptive potential, which is assessed by the value of the parameters of pheno-typic plasticity and stability. The selection of a variety should be determined by the limiting factors of the region in which it will be grown. In the conditions of the Penza region, sunflower hybrids of Syn-genta (four hybrids), Euralis (one hybrid), Maysadur (one hybrid) and Pioneer (one hybrid) were stud-ied for a set of economically valuable traits and phenotypic plasticity. It was found that the Bacardi hybrid had the shortest growing season of 114 days. The Mas 80 IR hybrid by Maysadur turned out to be late ripening, the growing season of which was 125 days. The plant height in the studied sunflower hybrids was in the range of 166-174 cm. The low-growing hybrid in the experiment was the Amis hy-brid by Euralis, the height of which was 166 cm, and the tall one was the Fortimi hybrid (174 cm). On average, for two years, the yield of sunflower hybrids in the experiment ranged from 2.05 to 3.25 t/ha. The average yield for all hybrids was 2.7 t/ha. The Fortimy (2.9 t/ha), Tristan (2.85 t/ha), Bacardi (3.25 t/ha) hybrids by Syngenta and the PE 63 LE 10 hybrid by Pioneer (2.95 t/ha) exceeded the average yield. The phenotypic plasticity index varied from 0.76 to 1.2. All hybrids of the Syngenta company (Neoma, Fortimi, Tristan, Bacardi) and the hybrid of the Pioneer company (PE 63 LE 10) are environ-mentally plastic. The phenotypic plasticity index is 1.0-1.2 and 1.09, respectively. The rest of the hy-brids require increased attention during cultivation.
Key words: sunflower, hybrid, yield, oil content, phenotypic plasticity.
YIELD AND QUALITY OF WINTER WHEAT GRAIN DEPENDING ON HUMIC FERTILIZER GUMOSTIM AND FORECROPS
S.V. Bogomazov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
А.V. Lyandenburskaya, senior teacher;
А.А. Levin, assistant-lecturer;
О.А. Tkachuk, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
Е.V. Efremova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
The research aimed to improve the elements of the technology for the cultivation of winter wheat in the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region, allowing to optimize the conditions for growth and development. The studies have established that the average yield of winter wheat with green manure fallow as a forecrop was at 3.19 t/ha, which was 0.1 t less compared with black fallow. Joint treatment of seeds and vegetative plants with humic fertilizer Gumostim significantly led to an increase in winter wheat yield by 0.46 t/ ha. The highest level of profitability (42.18%) was noted in the variant with the treatment of seeds and vegetative plants with humic fertilizer Gumostim after black fallow as the fore-crop.
Keywords: yield, grain quality, profitability, winter wheat, humic fertilizer.
THE NITROGEN CONSUMPTION BY ALFALFA CROPS DEPENDING ON THE NITROGEN NUTRITION PATTERN
M.Yu. Kozyreva, Postgraduate;
L.Zh. Basieva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
The results of field studies of nitrogen consumption in alfalfa crops depending on the nitrogen nutrition pattern and symbiotic activity of crops for 2017...2019 are presented. Experiments with the alfalfa purple were carried out in the ecological conditions of the foothill zone of the North Ossetia-Alania, on leached chernozem with a close occurrence of gravel. Mineral and symbiotrophic patterns of nitrogen nutrition of alfalfa plants were compared. It was found that in the year of planting, the ni-trogen consumption of alfalfa crops ranged from 105.0 to 135.4 kg/ha, and by the first mowing, the consumption was 1.1...1.2 times bigger than by the second mowing. In the second and third years of crop use, nitrogen consumption increased by 1.7...1.9 times compared to the year of planting. The parameters of the options with natural conditions (control) and the addition of starting doses of nitro-gen fertilizers (N30) were almost identical. In the second and third years of use of crops, parameters of options with inoculation of seeds with high-altitude inoculum (In-1800) and the addition of starting doses of nitrogen fertilizers within the background of inoculation (N30 + in) were almost identical. In these options, the amount of nitrogen consumption was more than 235 kg/ha, or 25.6...27.1 % higher than in the control variant. In total, over three years of research, in the control option alfalfa crops took 483.3 kg/ha of nitrogen. Starting doses of nitrogen fertilizers (N30) increased this indicator by only 1.4 %. Pre-planting inoculation of seeds contributed to an increase in nitrogen consumption in all options: in the option with the industrial strain of risotorphine (St. 425a) – by 17.8 %, with high-altitude inoculum within the background of adding starting doses of mineral nitrogen fertilizers (N30 + In) – by 24.6 %, with high-altitude inoculum in pure form (In-1800) – by 27.1 %.
Keywords: alfalfa, nutrition pattern, symbiotic activity, mineral nitrogen, biological nitrogen, ni-trogen consumption.
LEAVES AREA AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS OF DOMINANT PLANTS OF RURAL PASTURES IN THE STEPPE BELT OF MOUNT ARAGATS IN ARMENIA
T.A. Sargsyan, postgraduate;
M.A. Navasardyan, PhD in Biology;
B.K. Mezhunts, Doctor of agricultural sciences
Center for Ecological-Noosphere Studies of the National Academy of Sciences RA, Yerevan,
The article summarizes the scientific results on the assimilation surface and the content of pho-tosynthetic pigments in the leaves of plants in the main meadow groups of the southwestern slope of Mount Aragats (1300-1900 m above sea level). Under the strong influence of environmental and an-thropogenic factors these territories are characterized by low productivity, therefore, they need effi-cient improvement. Within the framework of this scientific article, the task was set to create a data-base of experimental data on biological parameters responsible for the yield farming. The objects of the current research were the following types of cereals – Goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica), Cheat grass (Bromus tectorium), Bluegrass (Poa bulbosa), Wheatgrass (Agropyron repens), Barley (Hordeum bulbosum), legumes – Sainfoins (Onobrychis radiata), Clover (Trifolium pratenium), Cow vetch (Vicia variabilis), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and herbs – Leafy spurge (Euphorbia virgata), Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), Scabiosa (Scabiosa bipinnata), Catnip (Nepeta Mussini), Yarrow (Achillea milleteminium), Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). The leaf area was determined by the gravimetric method, pigment extraction was carried out using dimethyl sulfoxide, and their content was measured on an SF-16 spectrophotometer. A wide range of fluctuations in the leaf area in individual species was revealed (0.9-11.5), while the difference between meadow groups was insignificant (4.0-5.9 dm2/plant). The amount of pigments in the leaves of herbs was 22% less than that in cereals and legumes, and the ratio of chlorophylls A and B varied within 1.8-3.5. Thus, on the studied foraging grounds, the maxi-mum leaf area was found in perennial cereals, the sum of pigments and chlorophyll A – in legumes, and chlorophyll B – in herbs.
Key words: leaves area, photosynthetic pigments, wild plants, natural pastures, steppe belt.
THE EFFECT OF POULTRY MANURE AND LIME AMELIORANT ON ACID-BASIC PROPERTIES OF LEACHED BLACK SOIL (CHERNOZEM) AND THE YIELD OF CROPS
N.P. Chekaev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
Е.G. Kulikova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
А.V. Lesnov, a post-graduate student
The article shows the results of three-year field experiments to study the effect of different dos-es of chicken manure and lime ameliorant on the physicochemical properties of leached chernozem and the yield of cultivated crops in the experimental plots. The studies were carried out on the exper-imental field of Penza State Agrarian University (Penza Region, Mokshansky District). As a result of, it was revealed that when different doses of chicken manure were applied, an aftereffect increase in acidity was observed in the second and third years. The use of a lime ameliorant reduces acidification and increases the effectiveness of the applied doses of chicken manure. The use of doses of chick-en manure from 2 to 10 t/ha (dry matter) had a positive effect on the grain yield of both the first crop after application, and the second and third. The highest productivity of the studied crops was ob-served in the variants with the introduction of 6 to 10 t/ha of manure. Against the background of lim-ing, the effectiveness of their application increased.
Keywords: chicken manure, lime ameliorant, acid-base soil properties, yield.
ADVANTAGES OF LIQUID MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON THE BASE OF KAS-32 IN COMPARISON WITH SOLID FERTILIZERS (AMMONIUM NITRATE) ON SUNFLOWER AND CORN
V.А. Milyutkin1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor;
V.N. Sysoev1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
А.N. Makushin1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
N.G. Dluzhevskiy2, technician engineer, deputy director;
S.V. Bogomazov3, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
2 Public Joint Stock Company "KuibyshevAzot", Togliatti, Samara Region, Russia,
The scientific article presents the materials of experimental studies of Samara State Agrarian University to study the effectiveness of liquid mineral nitrogen and nitrogen-sulfur-containing fertilizers based on KAS-32 in comparison with solid one (ammonium nitrate) produced by PAO Kuibyshev-Azot (Togliatti, Samara region). The experiment was carried out in the technologies of row crops cultivation: sunflower and corn (for grain), using both agricultural machines of AO Eurotechnika (Samara) and the AMAZONEN-Werke company (Germany).
Keywords: machinery, technology, "MINI-Till", liquid fertilizers, application, yield, quality, sun-flower, corn.
Veterinary and zootechny
THE ASSESSMENT OF SERVICING BULLS BY THE OFFSPRING QUALITY
T.V. Shishkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
Т.А. Guseva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
In recent decades, complex economic and estimated breeding values of animals have been widely used. They are determined on the basis of centralized collection and analysis of data on the results of using bulls in various natural and economic conditions. In our country, the breeding quali-ties of servicing bulls are assessed by the productive qualities of their daughters. Studies to assess servicing bulls by the quality of their offspring were carried out in the conditions of OOO (LLC) “UK “Rusmolko” of Penza oblast. For this purpose, servicing bulls of the Holstein breed of Alta Genetics Russia were selected, the breeding value of bulls was assessed by a set of traits, the productivity of the daughters of bulls was analyzed in terms of production qualities, the servicing bulls were as-sessed by comparing their daughters with the peers, the implementation of the genetic potential of cows’ productivity was considered, the milk yield of the daughters was calculated depending on NM$ (lifetime net merit) and PTA (predicted transmitting ability).
As a result of the research, it was found that when selecting servicing bulls for assigning to a herd, it is permissible to be guided by the indicators of the lifetime merit index, it is also advisable to be guided by the calculation of the predicted milk yield according to the predicted transmitting ability index.
Keywords: servicing bulls, Holstein breed, breeding value, production qualities.
MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SKIN OF PREGNANT EWES OF TUSHIN BREED AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FEEDING
O.K. Gogaev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.R. Demurova, Candi-date of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
Yu.V. Nakonechny, applicant
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
To establish the optimal amount of nutrients in the diets required for the pregnant sheep, in the conditions of the distant-mountain keeping of the North Caucasus in 2018, after tupping, 120 Tushin ewes were selected for the third lambing, which were divided into four groups 30 heads each. Ewes of the control group received a food ration prepared in accordance with the standards of the All-Russian Research Institute of Animal Husbandry (VIZH) (2003). The ration of the second, third and fourth groups of ewes was increased in total nutritional value by 10%, 15% and 20%, respectively, compared with the diet of the control group. The study of skin structure was carried out using prepa-rations made from pregnant ewe skin samples taken from five heads from each group. It was found that, depending on the season of the year and severity, the skin of the experimental ewes underwent significant changes: the thickness of the skin and its layers decreased, the activity of sweat and se-baceous glands decreased, the hair follicles and the diameter of the collagen fiber bundles de-creased in size. The greatest decrease in these parameters occurred in the skin of ewes that were pregnant and received a diet prepared in accordance with the VIZH standards (17.1%). Similar chang-es occurred in the thickness of the epidermis, pilar and reticular layers. The smallest decrease in the thickness of the skin and its layers occurred in the group of ewes under high feeding conditions. The study of horizontal sections of the skin of the experimental groups of ewes showed that the level of feeding during the lambing period did not affect the number of follicles in the hair group. In the groups of ewes that received an increased level of feeding, the number of follicles per unit of skin area decreased by 8.0-13.9%, which is associated with an increase in body condition and, according-ly, an increase in skin area.
Key words: feeding level, skin, epidermis, pilar layer, reticular layer, sebaceous gland, sweat gland, hair follicles.
GROWTH OF THE CHICKEN EMBRYO AND ITS REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
R.Yu. Khokhlov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor;
S.I. Kuznetsov, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor
The article is devoted to the analysis of the relative increase in the mass and length of the chick-en embryo and its reproductive organs. Based on the data obtained, the asynchrony of changes in the studied indicators is found. It was found that the increase in the mass of the chicken embryo took place with alternating periods of increase and decrease in the growth rate of the studied indicator. The most intensive weight increase was shown by chicken embryos in the embryogenesis interval of 12-13 days. The maximum increase in the ovarian mass of a chicken embryo also occurred in this age range. The minimum weight increase of a chicken embryo was noticed in the age period of 11-12 days and 18-19 days. The increase of the embryo length has more levelled values compared to the in-crease of the embryo mass, since during the observed period (11-20 days) it was in the range of 8-12 %, and only in the range of 19-20 days it was only 3 %. The results of the study showed that the de-velopments of the oviduct and ovary are asynchronous. This is seen in the fact that the rate of ovi-duct mass growth gradually increases, while the rate of ovarian mass growth, on the contrary, de-creases during embryonic development.
Keywords: chicken embryo, oviduct, ovary, morphogenesis
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems
RESULTS OF RESEARCH OF A COIL SEEDING MACHINE WITH A CONTINUOUS COATING OF A VALVE MADE OF RUBBER WITH SPIKES
N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
A.V. Shukov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.S. Rodin, Postgraduate;
T.A. Kiryukhina, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor;
V.V. Shumaev, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor
To create a uniform and continuous flow of seeds, to ensure stable seeding of the established norm, to reduce crushing – all these are the main tasks of the seeding machine. Seeding machines must have a reliable and convenient adjustment of the seeding rate for various crops, be universal and easy to use. The work, devoted to improving the quality indicators of grain crops by advancing the technological process of the coil seeding machine with a continuous coating of a valve made of rubber with spikes, is relevant and has an important economic and business significance for the Rus-sian agroindustrial complex.
The article presents the results of laboratory studies of the coil seeding device with a continuous coating of a valve made of rubber with spikes, the results of field studies of an experimental seed drill with such seeding devices, and the dependence of the uneven distribution of seeds along the length of the row on the speed of the device unit is obtained.
The use of an experimental seeder with coil seeding devices with the continuous coating of valves of rubber with spikes showed the feasibility of using a seeder with such experimental seeding devices for sowing grain seeds in the range of 7.8...9.7 km/h. The increase in the yield of spring wheat of the "Trizo" variety, when sown with the experimental seeder, counted 12 %.
Keywords: seeder, valve, coil seeding machine, instability of general seeding, crushing, seeds.
MODEL OF THE QUALITY-POWER INDICATOR OF A ROTARY DRUM MIXER
A.V. Chupshev1, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor;
V.V. Konovalov2, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
K.M. Fudin2, engineer
Based on experimental studies, the article presents the issues of improving the quality indicators of the drum feed mixer, describes its design and operating principle. The research was conducted in accordance with the current methodology and materials presented in the article. Based on the results of approximation of the initially calculated values of the quality-power indicator, a statistical model of this quality-power indicator (0.01% kW) is obtained. The value of errors in the calculated data is ana-lyzed for correspondence with the initial data. After processing the obtained experimental data, the description of dependence diagrams on the influence of the design parameters of the working body of the drum mixer on the quality and power indicator is shown. An increase in the height of the instal-lation of blades is undesirable over 0.16 m, and an increase in the number of blades over eight leads to a rapid deterioration in the quantity-power indicator. The relevant conclusions on the application of the studied design and operating parameters in the working of the drum mixer are presented.
Keywords: drum, blade wings, blade pitch angle, power capacity, mix, mix preparation, mixing, control component, mixing model.
RESULTS OF THEORETICAL STUDIES OF A COULTER WITH A SEED DEFLECTOR, A SOIL DISRUPTURER, AND A FURROW PRESS WHEEL
A.G. Zubarev, post-graduate student;
N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Technical Science, professor;
А.V. Shukov, Candidate of Technical Science, assistant-professor
High-quality sowing is not only a uniform distribution of seeds along the length of the row, but also their seeding at a given depth, which allows getting a high-quality crop of grains. This is achieved by using an ordinary method of grain crops sowing using double-disc coulters, which place seeds in the furrow allowing direct contact of the seeds with the soil. Seeders with such working bod-ies are used in both traditional and minimal technologies for the cultivation of grain crops.
The article presents the results of theoretical studies of an experimental coulter with a seed de-flector, a closed-type soil cultivator and a furrow press wheel with a rubber mass tire. The depend-ences for finding the impact coefficient of sliding friction, as well as the dependence of the speed of the wheel center and seed after impact are determined.
The article is devoted to the task of improving the quality indicators of sowing seeds of grain crops by a seeder with the experimental coulter and contains the results of a theoretical study of the design and operating parameters of the coulter with a seed deflector, a closed-type soil disrupturer and a furrow press wheel with a rubber mass tire.
Keywords: seeder, coulter, seed deflector, soil disrupturer, furrow press wheel, seeds.
THE RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF A MILKING MACHINE WITH STEPPED TEAT TUBES
A.V. Yashin, Candidate of Technical Science, assistant-professor;
Yu.V. Polyvyanyj, Candidate of Technical Science
The main task of dairy cattle breeding is to further increase the rate of milk production based on an increase in the milk yield of cows. The most important reserve for the growth of milk productivity is the use of milking equipment that best meets the physiology of animals, as well as its correct selec-tion and operation. An analysis of the designs of existing milking machines showed that one of the main disadvantages is their extremely severe effect on the teat receptors and, accordingly, inhibition of the milk flow reflex, which leads to a decrease in one-time milk yield and intensity of milking of a cow, thereby reducing milk yield. One of the points of the State Program of the Russian Federation “Development of agriculture and regulation of markets of agricultural products, raw materials and food for 2013-2020” is the technical and technological modernization of the agro-industrial complex, without which, it is impossible to fully ensure import substitution with competitive products and in-crease the economic security of the country.
Therefore, the development of a milking machine with stepped teat tubes, which contributes to an increase in the intensity of milking, is relevant and has an important national economic signifi-cance.
Keywords: milk, milk flow, milking machine, teat tube.
CONSTRUCTION OF A PLANTING MECHANISM OF A MINI POTATO PLANTER
A.S. Bochkarev, post-graduate student;
N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Technical science, professor;
О.N. Kukharev, Doctor of Technical science, professor
The planting mechanisms of the manufactured potato planters for the most part do not fully meet the agrotechnical requirements. Based on the analysis of designs of modern planting mecha-nisms, a conclusion about the advantages and disadvantages of existing potato planter designs was made. A big drawback, which especially affects the yield of the crop, is the low uniformity of distribu-tion of potato tubers along the length of the row, as well as along the depth of planting. At the same time, the deterioration in the distribution of potato tubers occurs mainly at the moment when the pota-toes are thrown to the bottom of the furrow due to the rolling of the tubers along its bottom.
The article presents the design and principle of operation of the developed planting mechanism for mini potato planters.
Keywords: mini potato planter, planting mechanism, potato, tubers rolling limiter.
RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE PROCESS OF SOIL REMOVAL AND LOADING IN GREENHOUSES
А.О. Vezirov, PhD in Technical Sciences;
P.I. Pavlov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor;
А.V. Levchenko, post-graduate student;
V.V. Korsak, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Saratov State Agrarian University named after N.I. Vavilov", Russia, Saratov, tel. +7 (8452) 74-96-50;
Growing vegetables in greenhouses allows having frequent harvests and provides the population with fresh produce year-round. Nowadays, especially with the development of organic farming, along with hydroponic farming, soil technology is widely used, plants being grown on specially prepared soil mixtures consisting of natural components. The use of this technology involves the periodic re-placement of the upper (sanitary) soil layer in greenhouses. There are practically no specialized ma-chines for performing the operation to remove the sanitary layer, and unadapted machines and equipment are used to perform this technological operation on farms. To perform this operation, a new design of a trailed machine for removing and loading soil has been proposed. The results of ex-perimental studies of the influence of operating parameters on the energy intensity of the process of removing and loading soil are presented, and the nature of the dependence of the power required to drive the machine on operating parameters has been established. The results obtained made it possi-ble to establish the actual values of the operating parameters at which the values of energy intensity and power take rational values, which makes it possible to establish the effectiveness of the pro-posed machine design, thereby completely mechanizing the process of removing and loading soil in greenhouses.
Keywords: power, energy intensity, soil mixtures, substrate, greenhouse.