DUST STORMS IN THE VOLGOGRAD REGION, THEIR MANIFESTATION AND PREVENTION
The article presents long-term observational materials on the frequency and intensity of dust storms on the territory of the Volgograd region. A map chart of the number of dust storms in the designated territory is made, and the reasons for their occurrence are also considered. It is shown in which cases the damage from them will be great, the thought about the necessary measures to prevent dust storms is clearly carried out. It is indicated how forest-reclamation measures should be tied to the danger that exists for this part of the region with specific soil and climatic conditions. The structure of the territory according to the wind-erosion potential is given in detail. Map charts on the soil erodibility of the Volgograd region will also be useful for choosing measures for protecting the soil from wind erosion. The dust storm climatology and the volume losses due to deflation, that were identified during dust storm manifestation in 1969, 1972, 1984 and 2015, as well as summary results of this article, undoubtedly expand and specify knowledge about deflation patterns, about mechanisms of deflationary adverse natural phenomena, reveal a number of previously unclear questions about the role of forest reclamation in areas prone to deflation and reveal how the parameters of forest belt systems need to be adapted to the specific conditions of the wind erosion development.
Keywords: soil deflation, dust storms, climatology, forest shelter belts, distribution, factors, orography, number, recurrence rate, erodability.
INFLUENCE OF AVAILABLE MOISTURE ON THE STRUCTURAL INDICATORS AND YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT AND SPRING BARLEY DEPENDING ON THE METHODS OF MAIN SOIL TREATMENT UNDER ADAPTIVE PLANTS GROWTH SYSTEMS OF THE NORTHERN CASPIAN SEA REGION
А.А. Zibarov, Candidate of Agricultural sciences; К.А. Rodin, Candidate of Agricultural sciences; N.P. Melikhova, Candidate of Agricultural sciences; D.S. Tegesov, Candidate of Agricultural sciences; E.V. Zinchenko, Candidate of Agricultural sciences All-Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Agriculture, Volgograd, Russia, tel. +7 (8442) 60-24-36
The article presents research materials obtained in the Northern Caspian conditions, which allowed to enrich the studied problem with new knowledge and to prove that the maximum supply of spring moisture was accumulated in variants of chisel processing with the working bodies of the “Rancho” with loosening up to 0.35 m and plowing with a PN-4-35 plow to a depth of 0.20-0.22 m, which averaged over the years of the experiments was 48.3 and 47.7 mm, respectively. The minimum stock of productive moisture was accumulated in the variant of surface tillage and amounted to 44.6 mm. By the end of the summer, these differences became almost equal. Thus, in the variant of chisel processing with the working bodies of the “Rancho” with loosening up to 0.35 m in August, on average, 39.2 mm remained for the research years, and in the variant of the surface tillage with a BDT-3 to a depth of 0.10-0.12 m – 31.8 mm. In the variant of chisel processing with the working bodies of the “Rancho” with loosening up to 0.35 m, all individual indicators of winter wheat and spring barley were the greatest. Also, in this variant of tillage, the maximum yield was obtained both for winter wheat and spring barley, and on average for the research years it was 1.82 and 1.41 t/ha, respectively. In the variant of surface tillage with BDT-3 to a depth of 0.10-0.12 m, it was minimal and amounted to 1.29 and 0.76 t/ha, respectively.
Key words: adaptive farming systems, methods of basic tillage, biometric indicators, yield, winter wheat, spring barley.
INFLUENCE OF PLACEMENT METHODS ON PRESERVATION AND QUALITY OF JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE TUBERS WHEN STORING IN CONDITIONS OF A VEGETABLE STOREHOUSE
The article presents data from two years of research to identify the most optimal of traditional methods of storing Jerusalem artichoke tubers of the Skorospelka variety. As part of the study, the following methods of storage tubers were studied: a polypropylene bag, a plastic box, and a bulk in a vegetable storehouse with unregulated conditions. Shelf life was 102 and 194 days. In the first year of storage, the weight loss of the tubers was 16.4-22.5%. In the second year, the highest storeability of the tubers was recorded when stored in bags; the weight loss was 5%. The method of storage of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in polypropylene bags in some years provided less damage from diseases and the storeability was 49-64% higher compared with storage in a bulk and in plastic boxes. The method of storing tubers of Jerusalem artichoke in a bulk contributed to their wilting by 1.7-5.8% compared with storage in bags and boxes. During storage of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in boxes, their carbohydrate complex was destroyed to a lesser extent. The fiber content in terms of absolutely dry matter was reduced by 0.2-2.5%, or 0.9-1.1% less than when stored in bags and in a bulk. The content of watersoluble carbohydrates was 2.5-4.8%, which was 3.3-7.4% less than during storage in a bulk. According to the results of research, the most optimal of the traditional methods of Jerusalem artichoke tubers storage was the storage in bags.
Key words: Jerusalem artichoke tubers, method of storage, habit, storeability, biochemical composition.
INFLUENCE OF PLANTING TIME AND TYPES OF THE PLANTING MATERIAL ON THE SURVIVABILITY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF COMMON HOP (Humulus lupulus L.)
In hop production, the time of the planting and the type of planting material are of great importance, mainly because the condition of the hop plant and the care technology during the growing season in the first and subsequent years depend on the time of the planting and the material used. The article presents data on the results of research when planting new hopyard with different types of planting material and the time of their planting. Under production conditions, shortening the period of low market fruiting and obtaining a good harvest of cones in the second year are possible only when using annual seedlings as planting material. In the first year, the survivability and yield of plants during the autumn planting by annual seedlings is higher than during the spring one. In the second and third years of planting, the dependence of the crop on the type of planting material used was maintained. In less favorable years survival rate decreased, and in more favorable years it increased. The best option for planting hopyards was the autumn planting of annual seedlings in the first and second decades of October, which allowed us to maintain survivability at a high level. For novice farmers and enterprises, in order to save money, stem cuttings can be used as planting material when laying hopyards. During the period prior to the beginning of abundant fruiting of hops, the duration of which is two years from planting, it is possible to resolve the issues of acquiring the necessary hop growing equipment, ensuring the production of a hop harvester and a dryer.
Key words: planting material, stem cutting, annual seedlings, spring and autumn planting, survivability, yield, fruiting.
ASSESSMENT OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MINERAL NUTRITION
The introduction of varieties, that are capable of maximizing the resources of the technology of their cultivation into production, is a promising, environmentally safe and economically beneficial direction of development of grain production. The aim of the work is to assess and identify winter wheat varieties that can realize the potential of grain yield at various levels of intensification of mineral nutrition. To achieve this goal, two factorial field experience was carried out. Factor A – varieties of winter wheat, factor B – levels of mineral nutrition. As a result, it was found that, on average, over the years of the research, the highest grain yield of winter wheat varieties was formed with a combination of applying fertilizer N16 P16 K16 in autumn when sowing and N68 in top dressing in spring. Over the years of research the Skipetr and Moskovskaya 56 varieties formed higher yields – 6.1 and 6.0 t/ha, respectively. The yield of varieties Nemchinov 57 and Clavdia 2 was lower and amounted to 5.6 t/ha. The grain yield of the Bezenchukskaya 380 and Fatinya varieties was formed somewhat lower – 5.4 and 5.1 t/ha, respectively.
Key words: winter wheat, varieties, yield, mineral nutrition, fertilizer.
INFLUENCE OF COMPLEX SULFUR-CONTAINING MICROELEMENT FERTILIZERS ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF MILK THISTLE (SILIBUM MARIANUM) IN CONDITIONS OF THE FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
The article presents the results of studies on the influence of exogenous seed treatment and foliar dressing of grass stand with complex sulfur-containing microelement fertilizers on seed productivity, technological and biochemical properties of the fruit of the milk thistle of the variety Debut. The greatest positive effect was achieved with the exogenous treatment of milk thistle seeds with a complex sulfurcontaining fertilizer Megamix-Zinc, the fruit yield – 1.23 t/ha, increase – 0.34 t/ha (38.2%); the content of oil – 35.9%; of protein – 29.8 and 7.0%; in relation to the control it increased by 7.6%, the content of essential amino acids was 149.5 mg/g of DM (dry matter) (in control – 124,0 mg/g of DM). With double foliar top dressing of milk thistle crops during the rosette and budding phase, the fruit yield amounted to 1.06-1.19 t/ha, in relation to the control it increased by 0.17-0.3 t/ha; oil content – by 2.9-7.0%, protein – by 1.4-2.9%. The highest yield of milk thistle seeds of 1.47 t/ha was obtained with foliar dressing of plants and seed treatment with Megamix-Zinc. The oil content was 35.3%, protein – 25.4%, flavonolignans – 3.06%, acid number – 0.28.
Key words: milk thistle, complex sulfur-containing microelement fertilizers, yield, seed productivity, technological and biochemical properties.
YIELD AND QUALITY OF SPRING TRITITICALE GRAIN WHILE USING NANOKREMNIY AND SILIPLANT IN CONDITIONS OF FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
NanoKremniy and Siliplant preparations stimulated growth processes, which contributed to an increase in the parameters of photosynthesis of spring triticale agrocenoses. The maximum values of the leaf surface – 34.6 thousand m2/ha, of the photosynthetic potential – 1.82 million m2 days/ha, of the net productivity of photosynthesis – 3.26 g/m2 per day, of the ear grain size – 36-38, of grain weight per spike – 1.2-1.3 g were observed during seed treatment and double foliar top dressing in the tillering and heading phase with the NanoKremniy preparation. When presowing seed treatment was used, the highest grain yield of triticale (4.05 t/ha on average over three years) was obtained using the preparation NanoKremniy. A reliable increase in the control amounted to 0.8 t/ha (32.5%). Silicon-containing preparations NanoKremniy and Siliplant contribute to improving the technological properties of spring triticale grains. Indicators of the grain unit on the variants of experience amounted to 776-781 g/l. The greatest indicator of the grain unit (781 g/l) was when the preparation NanoKremniy was used for seed treatment. The grain hardness in relation to the control increased by 4.0-11.0%, the content of raw gluten – by 1.5- 2.1%, of protein – by 2.7-3.1%. Foliar plant nutrition with silicon-containing preparations in different phases of the growing season had a significant impact on increasing yields and improving the technological properties of spring triticale Ukro grain. On average, over three years, the yield of grain according to the variants of the experiment was 34.4-4.49 t/ha, the increase relative to the control was 0.39-1.43 t/ha (12.5-48.6%). The highest grain yield (4.49 t/ha) was obtained by double feeding with the preparation NanoKremniy during the tillering and heading stages, the grain yield increase was 1.43 t/ha (48.6%). The maximum indicators of the technological properties of spring triticale grain were obtained by double foliar fertilization of plants with the NanoKremniy preparation: grain unit – 792 g/l, hardness – 62%, raw gluten – 26.2%, protein – 15.8%.
Key words: spring triticale, microelement fertilizers Siliplant and NanoKremniy, yield, technological properties of grain.
THE FORMATION OF SAFFLOWER AGROCOENOSIS IN THE CONDITIONS OF FOREST-STEPPE OF MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
A.N. Kshnikatkina2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; T.Y. Prakhova1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences; A.A. Shchanin2, post-graduate 1FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, workers settlement Lunino, Russia 2FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia
The purpose of the research was to study the formation of productive agrocoenosis of safflower in the conditions of the Middle Volga region. The studies were conducted in 2015-2018 on the fields of the Penza Institute of Agriculture. The growing season of safflower in 2015 proceeded in insufficiently moistened conditions with HTC – 0.76, with an average daily temperature of 21.3 °C. In 2016, the vegetative period of safflower proceeded in moderately moistened conditions with HTC – 1.1 and an average daily temperature of 20.1°C. The vegetation period of 2017 was characterized as insufficiently moistened with HTC – 0.82 units. The conditions of 2018 were severe, HTC was only 0.4. The seedlings of the culture appeared in nine days. After 71 days, the flowering phase began, it lasted on average about 30 days. The duration of the period from flowering to ripeness of safflower was 36 days. The growing season of safflower in the conditions of the Middle Volga region averages 116 days. Field germination of safflower varied within 71.2-77.6%, the safety of plants for harvesting ranged from 93.6 to 96.5%. The largest leaf area of safflower was formed during the flowering phase (22.9-26.8 thousand m²/ha). The value of the photosynthetic potential ranged from 1.98 to 2.55 million m² × day/ha. The highest net productivity of photosynthesis was observed in 2018 and 2016 and amounted to 2.95 and 2.99 g/m² × day, respectively. Safflower, on average over four years, formed a fairly high and stable yield: 1.19 and 1.32 t/ha. The maximum yield of safflower seeds was obtained in 2016 and averaged 1.32 t/ha. Key words: safflower, yield, growing season, field germination, photosynthetic activity.
USAGE OF A NEW PLANT PRODUCTIVITY INDEX FOR EVALUATION OF WINTER WHEAT BREEDING MATERIAL
An important problem in the selection process is to increase the efficiency of selection of a selection material on the basis of productivity using selection indexes. We used the most popular indexes in breeding practice (Mexican, Canadian, spike linear density index, as well as a new modification of the index – plant productivity index (PPI)) to determine the most effective and informative index indicators to determine the breeding value of winter wheat genotypes in various environmental conditions. The studies were conducted on 120 varieties of winter soft wheat in the foothill zone of the Central Caucasus. As a result of the conducted research, it was established that the greatest information content on productivity in the “genotype-environment” relationship was obtained during the assessment by the PPI index. The correlation analysis revealed reliable relationships between the yield of winter wheat variety samples and the plant productivity index, which showed the highest value, r = 0.93. Reflecting productivity as a result of genotype-environment interaction, PPI helps to identify resistant genotypes for bio- and abiostressors, which allows preliminary assessment of the adaptive properties of the breeding material, and using the index itself as a marker of adaptability.
Keywords: winter wheat, variety, productivity, selection indexes.
YIELD OF MODERN CHICKPEA VARIETIES DEPENDING ON THE METHOD OF SEEDING AND FORECROPS
The article presents the data of a field experiment on the study of yield of chickpea modern varieties selected at FSBSI RusRISC "Rossorgo" depending on the method of sowing and its forecrop. In the experiment it was found that, depending on a year of the research, the effect of factors in the overall variability of the chickpea varieties yield differed. In 2017, according to the results of a three-factor analysis of variance, it was found that the contribution of factor A to the total variability was 1.32%, that of factor B – 64.00%, of factor C – 4.66%, the interaction A*B – 7.11%, A*C – 2.05%, B*C – 12.23%, A*B*C – 4.80%, the remains (unrecorded factors) – 3.83%. The yield ranking of chickpea varieties was carried out in the following sequence: Benefis> Sfera> Bonus> Sharik> Sokol> Galileo. On the field variant with a 45 cm row spacing and with spring wheat as a forecrop, the Sharik variety formed the highest yield (7.34 t/ha). In 2018, it was found that the contribution of factor A to the overall variability was 8.97%, that of factor B – 43.19%, of factor C – 18.88%, the interaction A*B – 18.77%, A*C – 1, 65%, B*C – 2.03%, A*B*C – 3.97%, the remains (unrecorded factors) – 2.54%. The yield ranking of chickpea varieties was carried out in the following sequence: Bonus> Galileo> Benefis> Sfera> Sharik> Sokol. On the field variant with a row spacing of 70 cm, and with spring barley as a forecrop, the variety Sfera formed the highest yield (3.38 t/ha). In 2017, chickpea varieties significantly differed in seed yield (Benefis, Galileo, Sfera (factor A)), but Bonus and Sokol varieties did not significantly differ in yield from Sharik. In 2018, the chickpea varieties Sharik, Sokol differed significantly, and the Benefis variety did not significantly differ in yield from the Sfera variety and the Galileo variety, and the Bonus variety from the Galileo variety.
Key words: chickpea, variety, factor, interaction, yield, row spacing, forecrop.
ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF WINTER TRITICALE CULTIVATION IN AGRIBUSINESS ENTITIES
Crop production is one of the fastest growing industries. The production of many types of crop products is profitable and provides positive financial results to agricultural enterprises. However, at present, negative trends continue to appear in the development of the crop growing industry: reduction of agricultural land and sown areas, the formation of their irrational structure, a decrease in the rate of renewal of fixed assets and capital supply, the instability of production volumes of most types of products, the level of profit and profitability of production. In the current natural and economic conditions of the Middle Volga region, the main gross grain harvest should be provided by winter crops. Achieving this goal is envisaged by increasing the sown area of winter grains, increasing their productivity by introducing more advanced cultivation technologies and introducing new promising varieties with stable productivity in different weather conditions. One of the promising crops, at present, is winter triticale – winter-resisting, high-yielding, resistant to a complex of abiotic and biotic environmental factors. Based on the materials of a particular entity of agribusiness, indicators of economic efficiency of production and sale of grain of winter triticale “Krokha” are determined.
Key words: grain crops, winter triticale, winter resistance, high yield, economic efficiency.
PRODUCTIVITY OF GUIZOTIA ABYSSINICA DEPENDING ON SEEDING RATE UNDER CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
T.Ya. Prakhova1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences; A.N. Kshnikatkina2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; A.P. Medvedev2, post-graduate 1FSBSI Federal Scientific Center of Fibre Crops, urban-type settlement Lunino, Russia 2FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia
The aim of the research was to study the productivity of Abyssinian Guizotia depending on seeding rates under conditions of the Middle Volga region. The object of the research was Medea, the new variety of Guizotia. The study of seeding standards was carried out in 2016-2018. Five seeding rates were studied from 1.0 to 3.0 million viable seeds per hectare, with a pitch of 0.5 million viable seeds. The vegetation period of the crop proceeded under conditions of moderate moisture – HTC-1.2 and constituted 111-125 days. The productivity of Guizotia varied in the range of 1.63-1.75 t/ha, depending on the seeding rate. The highest seed yield was observed in the variant with a seeding rate of 2.0 million viable seeds per hectare and constituted 1.75 t/ha. Oil content of seeds ranged from 39.5-40.8%. The higher fat content was in the seeds in the variants with seeding rates of 2.0 and 2.5 million viable seeds per hectare and constituted 40.7-40.8%. Number of capitula per plant varied from 154.8 pieces per variant with a seeding rate of 3.0 million viable seeds/ha to 186.7 units – with a seeding rate of 1.0 million viable seeds/ha. The mass of 1000 seeds varied from 3.41 to 3.65 g. The largest seeds were the Guizotia when sown with a seeding rate of 2.5 and 2.0 million viable seeds per hectare. The optimal seeding rate of Guizotia under conditions of the Middle Volga region is 2.0 and 2.5 million viable seeds per hectare.
Keywords: Guizotia abyssinica, seeding rates, yield, oil content, crop structure
PRODUCTIVITY OF THE SUNFLOWER DEPENDING ON THE CONDITIONS OF THE RELIEF, SOIL TREATMENT AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS
The purpose of the research was to identify the optimal combination of soil-protecting and mediumimproving techniques in order to increase the productivity of sunflower when it is cultivated on the slopes of a 3-5° steepness of northern exposure in the formed environmentally sustainable agricultural landscapes of the Central Russian upland of the central black earth. A three-factor experiment was carried out: factor A (relief conditions): 1. Slope 0-3°, 2. slope 3-5° of north exposure; factor B: 1. Plowing (control) – PLN-4-35 to a depth of 25-27 cm, 2. Deep nonmoldboard cultivation – SunFlower to a depth of 25-27 cm, 3. without processing (No-till); factor C: 1. Without fertilizers; 2. Green manure (white mustard); 3. Straw compost (20 t/ha). As a result of research, the effect of differences in relief conditions on the productivity of sunflower was not established. Conducting the main tillage, regardless of the method (moldboard or nonmoldboard) contributed to a significant increase in the yield of sunflower (by 0.2-0.3 t/ha) and oil content of its seeds (by 1.2-1.4%). The positive effect of compost was revealed, especially when it was applied when plowing, which ensured the highest yield of 3.21 t/ha and oil collection (1.66 t/ha). This gave grounds to continue research on other important aspects of sunflower cultivation on the slopes (3-5°) of the northern exposure, including the study of fertility indicators and soil erosion resistance, in order to expand its crops with such lands under the obligatory condition of full development of landscape farming systems.
Key words: sunflower, yield, oil content, tillage, organic fertilizers, landscape farming.
COMPLEX FERTILIZERS AS A FACTOR OF REGULATING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CORN
The article presents the results of studies of the effect of foliar treatment with complex water-soluble fertilizers with microelements on morphobiometric indicators and yield of corn, depending on the level of root nutrition. At the first level of improved root nutrition, the foliar treatment of corn with complex fertilizers made it possible to further increase the intensity of the linear growth of plants by 3.6-9.7%, and on the second – by 3.3-9.0% relative to the variants without treatment. The smallest linear increase in soil fertilization at both levels was obtained using Humate+7B. The largest number of developed cobs on fertilized agro-backgrounds were formed by plants with foliar treatment with Cytovit and EcoFus (an increase of 13.5-20.0%), and on an uncomfortable agrofone when using Siliplant universal (an increase of 9.0%). Against the background of natural soil fertility, with the use of complex fertilizers, the weight gain of one plant was 4.8-16.1%. Against the background of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers, an increase of 6.1-12.0% was obtained, and when applying N12090К60, the increase varied from 6.2 to 14.7%. At all studied levels of root nutrition, the greatest stimulating effect was obtained during the treatment of crops with Cytovit. The best indicators of phytomass yield were recorded for all agricultural backgrounds plants with foliar treatment with Cytovit, the gain to the variants without complex fertilizer was 15.8- 16.5%. EcoFus treatment turned out to be in the second place in terms of efficiency, an increase in green mass of 11.6-14.9% was obtained. The maximum yield of dry matter was formed with the complex use of Ecofus and Cytovit with mineral fertilizers – 17.4-18.0 t/ha.
Key words: corn, mineral fertilizers, microelements, cob, biomass, yield.
COMPETITIVE VARIETY TRIAL OF PROMISING BREEDING MATERIAL OF INDUSTRIAL HEMP
A three-year scientific research was conducted in the comparative assessment of perspective hybrid populations of Central Russian ecotype monoecious industrial hemp in competitive variety trials. The results are hereby presented. The object of the research was three varieties of non-psychotropic industrial hemp, approved for use on the territory of the Russian Federation, and two promising breeding numbers, selected according to the results of preliminary trials of previous years. The goal of the research is to create new highly productive varieties of non-psychotropic monoecious industrial hemp that are adapted to the agro-ecological conditions of the Middle Volga region and possess higher levels, in comparison to the existing varieties, of economically valuable traits, as well as stability of the monoecious property during reproduction, with content of less than 0.1% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The main method of research works is multiple family-group selection according to a complex of selectively valuable features and properties. During the experiment, methods and schematic models generally accepted in breeding research institutions were used. The content of less than 0.1% THC in the upper parts of the inflorescences was taken as the main limiting feature of selection. Following the results of 2018 competitive variety trial cycle of promising breeding numbers, an application was submitted for inclusion of breeding number GP-7/012m under the name “Milena industrial hemp variety” in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation (RF). It is planned to perform the next stage of breeding improvement with a promising breeding number GP- 13/012v in order to increase the yield of common and long fiber in the plant stems. On the basis of the introduction of new breeding varieties of industrial hemp, it is planned to transfer scientific results to various regions of hemp-harvesting of the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation in order to increase their economic development rates, increase competitiveness of their products and ensure import substitution.
Key words: Cannabis sativa, non-psychotropic variety, breeding number, cannabinoid, tetrahydrocannabinol, competitive variety trial, economically valuable feature, oil content, fiber yield.
EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT PROTECTANTS ON HARD SPRING WHEAT DEPENDING ON THE PRECURSOR IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SOUTH FOREST-STEPPE OF WESTERN SIBERIA
The article presents the results of studies of the influence of chemical preparations (protectants), which preparative form contained various active substances, on the formation of the main elements of the structure of the harvest of hard spring wheat, depending on its precursor. The work makes it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of a disinfectant on hard spring wheat, depending on its precursor in the conditions of the southern forest-steppe of Western Siberia. As a result of the research, it was established that the highest field germination of hard spring wheat sown on clean fallow and of spring rape was provided by the drug Scarlet (76.9 and 71.3%, respectively), and on spring wheat – by Vincite (56.5 %). The lowest intensity of plant damage by root rot was observed in all variants using the drug Lamador. The benefits of clean fallow, like its predecessor, remained unchanged. The lowest susceptibility of hard spring wheat plants to root rot was noted after the clean fallow and was 17%, while for other precursors, this indicator was 33...50%. The affection of plants with root rot had a negative impact on the formation of the main elements of the structure of the crop and as a result significantly reduced the amount of the yield.
Key words: hard spring wheat, root rot, precursor, protectant, yield structure.
Veterinary and zootechny
ASSESSMENT OF THE FEMALE CHICKENS OF THE COBB-500 CROSS ON REPRODUCTIVE QUALITIES IN CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
In breeding work with meat poultry, great attention is paid to the hatching of eggs per layer, as the quantity of broilers produced depends on this indicator. Investigations were carried out in the production conditions of the second-order reproducer of the OAO (OJSC) Vasilievskaya poultry farm in the Bessonovsky district of the Penza region on female birds of the Cobb-500 cross. The parental group of the bird was completed with replacement chickens in the age of 17-18 weeks. We studied the main indicators of egg productivity (egg production on the initial layer for 50 weeks of productivity; weight of eggs, hatching eggs yield and hatching of young animals at the age of 350 days of life, yield of healthy chickens from one parent couple; safety of adult birds and live weight of layers) and morphological indicators of egg quality (weight of eggs, diameter of the air chamber, shape index, specific weight and shell thickness) of female hens at the age of 350 days of life. All indicators were compared with the standard of the Cobb-500 cross. As a result of the conducted research, the efficiency of breeding with the female birds of the Cobb-500 cross was established by reproductive qualities, which ensured more than 140 broilers from one parental pair, with 90.9% of hatching eggs and 83.4% of hatching. The productive qualities of the hens of the parent form of the Cobb-500 cross over all the studied parameters were not inferior to the standard of the cross.
Key words: female of cross Cobb-500, egg production, hatching eggs, egg quality, chickens hatchability.
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems
A DEVICE FOR ADDITIONAL CLEANING OF SUGAR BEET ROOTS
Materials of the article are devoted to the actual problem – improving the quality of cleaning sugar beet roots. In the conditions of the Middle Volga region, the harvesting of sugar beet begins in the second decade of September, which is characterized by a deterioration of the agro-physical properties of the soil, which leads to a sharp decrease in the quality of harvesting. Therefore, the sugar beet roots require additional cleaning from soil impurities after combine harvesting. The article presents the results of studies on the fractional composition of the heap and size-mass characteristics of the root crops after combine harvesting. A description of the design and principle of operation of the device for additional cleaning of root crops is given, its design and operating parameters are theoretically justified. A prototype has been manufactured and its production verification is given. It was established that at the operating speed of a feed conveyor of 2.0 m/s, the device's performance per hour of clean work was 28.0 tons, while the content of impurities in the cleaned pile did not exceed 8.0%.
Keywords: sugar beet, root crop, soil impurities, beet harvester, device for cleaning root crops, fractional composition of a heap, size-mass characteristic, rotary cleaner, elastic cleaners.
LABORATORY RESEARCH INTO SCREW FEEDER FOR SOWING GRAIN SEEDS
The article presents the results of laboratory research into an experimental screw feeder conducted in order to optimize the proposed design, which influences the improvement of the quality of sowing grain seeds. The relevance of the study is due to the improved quality of sowing grain seeds because of the development of a new type of screw feeder and the justification of its design and operating parameters. The main indicator characterizing the quality of sowing is the uneven seed distribution along the length of the row, since this indicator directly affects the yield of the cultivated crop. Conducting a multifactor experiment allowed us to find the optimal values of the outer diameter of the screw helix, pitch of the screw helix, and screw rotation frequency, at which the coefficient of variation of the uneven seed distribution along the row was the smallest. In coded and decoded form, the second order regression equations are presented, which establish the dependence of the coefficient of variation on the abovementioned screw feeder factors. A new type of screw feeder, capable of stacking grain seeds evenly, has been designed and manufactured. Screw feeder was installed and tested in laboratory conditions, based on generally accepted methods in accordance with regulatory standards.
Keywords: uneven seed distribution along the row, design and operating parameters, sowing quality, screw feeder, grain crops.
IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF EXTRUDATE DEHYDRATION IN A VACUUM CHAMBER OF A MODERNIZED EXTRUDER
The work of modern models of food extruders goes mainly with passing the extruded material into the environment, which, taking into account the processing of raw materials with high moisture content, leads to insufficient drying of the extrudate. Extrusion of raw materials in vacuum allows to eliminate this drawback. The article presents a theoretical justification for increasing the efficiency of extrudate dehydration in a vacuum chamber of a modernized extruder by computer simulation of the thermal vacuum effect. The Navier-Stokes equation averaged with the addition of Reynolds stresses and the laws of conservation of mass, moment, and energy were used to calculate the flow and heat transfer rates. Computer simulation of a simplified model of a vacuum chamber was performed using the SolidWorks Flow Simulation software module. Geometry was built in SolidWorks CAD. The data obtained by computer simulation of a simplified model of an extruder vacuum chamber confirmed the influence of the thermal vacuum effect on the characteristics of the extruded product. The created vacuum in the zone of ejection of the extruded vegetable raw material from the extruder matrix creates such fluid medium parameters that significantly increase the drying rate of the extrudate, increase its expansion index and contribute to more efficient removal of moisture from this zone.
Keywords: extruder, thermal vacuum effect, matrix die, explosion coefficient, vacuum chamber, volume flow rate.