Agronomy


УДК 575:633.11
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.002

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESISTANCE OF BREEDING SAMPLES OF WINTER WHEAT TO CEREAL LEAF BEETLE (OULEMA MELANOPUS L.) IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS FOOTHILL ZONE
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor
T.S. Abieva, Candidate of Biological Sciences
N.T. Khokhoeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
N.N. Doguzova, PhD student
North Caucasus Research Institute of Mountain and Foothill Agriculture – branch of the Federal State Scientific Center Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, SKNIIGPSH VNC RAS, Russia, RSO Alania
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 The article presents the results of studies of the resistance of the breeding material of winter soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to the phytophagous beetle, cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus Z.). The research was conducted in 2019-2021 at the FSBI SCNIIGPSH VNC RAS. The objects of research were 128 varieties of winter soft wheat from the VIR collection, of various ecological and geographical origin. The purpose of the research is to study the gene pool of winter soft wheat and create a new source material for breeding for resistance to cereal leaf beetle. There are 31.3% of varieties that are resistant. They are Torrild, Mereke 70, Zhadyra, Kobra, Soraja, Fenezia, Dorota, Olivin, Zaritsa, Muza, Areal, Teslo, Kredo, Bizel, Frontana, Renan, Zysk, Biggar, AK biday, Alacris, Cina 7, Solara, Chornobrova, Batko, Zvytyaga, Astella, Lilit, Verita, Batum, Khmel'nychanka, Vatazbok, Markola, Zolotoy bezosty, Omskaya 5, Pionerskaya 32, Nebokrai, Lasuma, Blago, Kamyshlanka 4, Jadvisia. The correlation coefficient between the degree of leaf damage and an ear length is -0.56 (negative, average), between the degree of leaf damage and the number of grains in an ear is -0.68 (negative, strong), between the degree of leaf damage and the weight of the grain from an ear and the plant productivity index (PPI) is negative and very high -0.93 and -0.86, respectively.
All productivity elements had significant correlation coefficients, but the highest are r = -0.93 (with the weight of grain from an ear) and r = -0.86 (plant productivity index). The source material for use in breeding programs for resistance to cereal leaf beetle has been isolated.
Keywords: breeding, stability of winter soft wheat, cereal leaf beetle.

Publication information View article


УДК 633.15
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.010

YIELD AND BIOCHEMICAL STATUS OF CORN DEPENDING ON THE MINERAL NUTRITION AND THE PLANT POPULATION DENSITY
S.A. Semina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
I.V. Gavryushina, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.S. Paliychuk, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. (8412)628-151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies on the effect of various dosages and methods of applying mineral fertilizers on the formation of yield and biochemical composition of corn phytomass depending on the density of standing plants. The studies were carried out on leached heavy loam chernozem. Pre-sowing application of mineral fertilizers in the norm N120 P90 contributed to an increase in the yield of green mass by 26%, and dry matter by 20.6%. The transfer of nitrogen part (N 30) to soil dressing increased the collection of raw biomass by 49.8%, and dry biomass by 27.1% relative to the level of natural soil fertility. An additional raw biomass and dry biomass (39.2 % and 39.3%, relatively) were obtained when N120 P90К60 was applied. On a non-fertilized agricultural background, when nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers are applied and nitrogen fertilization is carried out, the increase in phytomass yield is noted to a density of 100 ths. units/ha. The maximum yield was obtained at a density of 90 ths units/ha on the background of N120P90К60. A single application of mineral fertilizers supported the improvement in the protein content of the feed and increased the crude protein content in the biomass by 1.04-1.36%. When nitrogen fertilizers were applied in portions, the increase was 2.64 % to the natural fertility level and 1.39 % compared to a single application of nitrogen-phosphorus nutrition. On the non-fertilized agricultural background with increasing density of plants, a decrease in protein provision of the biomass was noted. On the variants with the application of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers, the increase was noted up to the density of 80 ths. pcs/ha. And on the background of N120P90К60 it was up to 70 ths. pcs/ha. The same pattern was seen in the content of raw fat.
Keywords: corn, density, fertilizers, green mass, yield, protein.

Publication information View article


УДК 632.4.01/.08
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.008

EVALUATION OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES TO RESISTANCE TO BROWN RUST IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FOOTHILL ZONE OF THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate professor; N.N. Doguzova, Postgraduate
North-Caucasian research institute of Hill and Foot-hill Agriculture - branch of Federal State Budgetary
Research Institution of Federal Research Centre "Vladikavkaz Scientific Centre of RAS", Vladikavkaz,
The Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Russia, 8(928)4876155, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of immunological studies of varieties of winter wheat. We considered the issues of resistance to brown rust, intrapopulation diversity of Puccinia tritici f. sp. tritici Eriks, and methods of evaluation and selection of initial selection material with a wide genetic basis of resistance to the pathogen. The research was carried out at the field of the FSBRI of North-Caucasian research institute of Hill and Foot-hill Agriculture of Russian national research centre RAS (RSO-Alania), located in the foothill zone of the Central Caucasus in 2019-2021. Twenty-five samples of soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) from the collection of Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry and forty-seven isogenic lines (Thatcher) with Lr. genes were used as objects of research. Evaluation for non-specific resistance was carried out according to five criteria: the type of reaction (in points) and the degree of damage (in percentage points), the increase rate of the area under the curve (AUDPC), the stability and plant productivity indexes (SI and PPI, respectively). Studies of the racial composition of the pathogen populations were carried out using a universal set of wheat lines and varieties of differentiators with known resistance genes. We revealed that the effective genes of resistance to the local brown rust population included Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, Lr25, Lr30, Lr32, Lr34, Lr36, Lr39, Lr41, Lr42, Lr45, Lr47, Lr51, Lr53, Lr67. When analysing the phenotypic composition, six phenotypic groups were identified: MHTT, PGTT, RHTT, NHKP, ТQТР, QHKP. Phenotypes of the T-group, which are virulent to Lr9, Lr16, with an occurrence frequency of 40.0%, are characteristic of all grain-sowing regions of Russia and the world. They are dominant in the studied population of P. triticina. Phenotypes RHTT, QHKP, MHTT, which are avirulent to the Lr9, Lr24 genes, occur in the population with a frequency of 13.3, 3.3, 10.0%, respectively. The occurrence frequency of the phenotypic group PGTT and NHKP with an avirulence to the genes, Lr9, Lr24, Lr26, Lr2a, Lr3, is 33.3%. Genetic diversity according to Shannon's diversity index within the population is high, H = 2.51. According to the screening results, we identified winter wheat varieties, which are resistant to brown rust. They are ranked as follows: resistant – 11 samples, medium–resistant – 9, susceptible – 5. The following varieties of soft winter wheat of foreign selection – Dorota (France), Genoveva (Slovakia), Areal (Ukraine), Eltan (the USA), Verita (Slovakia), Muza (Poland), Alauda (Germany), Fenezja (Poland), Vatazbok (Ukraine), and Russian varieties Prima and Omskaya 5 – are proposed to use in breeding work as sources of non-specific resistance to Puccinia triticina. The selected sources of resistance are recommended for inclusion in wheat breeding programs for resistance to brown rust.
Keywords: winter wheat, brown rust, sources of resistance, population, breeding.

Publication information View article


Private animal husbandry, feeding, technologies of feed preparation and production of livestock products


УДК 636.085.62
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.004

THE USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL PROTEIN FEED FOR FATTENING BROILER DUCKLINGS
D.G. Poghosyan1, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor;
M.A. Shalov2, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor
1Federal State-Funded Educational Institution Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 628-151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University named after V. M. Kokov", Nalchik, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of research on the possibility of using unconventional protein feeds, such as canola and camelina meal, in feeding ducklings of the Blagovarsky cross with broiler fattening technology. It was found that the inclusion of 5% of camelina meal in the compound feed instead of sunflower meal does not have a negative effect on the growth rate of young birds, their livability, slaughter yield and feed conversion. It is not considered rational to increase camelina meal, instead of sunflower one, in the content up to 10%, since it is accompanied by a decrease of the European Efficiency Factor by 8.9% due to a decrease in meat productivity and the livability of ducklings by 3.7 and 6.7%.
The inclusion of 5% canola meal instead of sunflower led to an increase in the live weight of ducklings in the first and second half of fattening by 2.8 and 3.4% (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. The inclusion of 10% canola meal contributed to obtaining a higher live weight of young birds at the age of 21 days and at the end of fattening by 3.8 and 4.5% (P < 0.05), compared with the control. Replacing 5 and 10% of sunflower meal with a similar amount of canola meal in duckling feed resulted in an increase of the European Efficiency Factor by 8.3 and 12.8%, which increased the profitability of meat production by 4.9 and 8.0%.
Keywords: fattening, broiler ducklings, compound feed, camelina meal, canola meal, average daily gain, slaughter yield, European Efficiency Factor.

Publication information View article


УДК 636.085.7: 519.865.7
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.009

РАЗРАБОТКА ПРОЦЕССОВ СОЗДАНИЯ НОВОГО ВОСТРЕБОВАННОГО ПРОДУКТА НА ПРИМЕРЕ ЗАКВАСКИ ДЛЯ СИЛОСОВАНИЯ
С.Н. Биконя1,2, аспирант,
О.В. Кочеткова1, доктор техн. наук, профессор;
Г.Ю. Лаптев1,2, доктор биол. наук, профессор;
Е.А. Бражник1,2, аспирант
1Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Волгоградский государственный аграрный университет», Россия, г. Волгоград, тел.: +7(8442)41-30-94, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2Общество с ограниченной ответственностью «БИОТРОФ», Россия, г. Санкт-Петербург, г. Пушкин, тел.: 8(812)322-85-50, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

В данной статье представлен анализ бизнес-процесса разработки закваски для силосования с учетом научного обоснования, описаны этапы научной разработки, ответственные исполнители, требуемые ресурсы, результаты испытаний полученного продукта, а также процесс его регистрации. Модели процессов были успешно применены на практике и показали свою эффективность. Исследование и анализ процесса разработки нового продукта проводили на предприятии, занимающимся разработкой и производством кормовых добавок для животных ООО «БИОТРОФ», г. Санкт-Петербург. Научно-производственный опыт по закладке силоса из многолетних трав (злаково-бобовая смесь) с разработанной закваской проводили на базе СПК «Кобраловский» Ленинградской области. Графические модели процесса в нотации eEPC были созданы с помощью инструментов системы ARIS, а именно программы ARIS Express. В результате анализа моделей бизнес-процесса были рассчитаны показатели эффективности проектируемого процесса. Для данного процесса были задействованы все ресурсы научно-технической базы компании – молекулярно-генетическая лаборатория и лаборатория производства. Обсуждаемая модель бизнес-процесса позволяет получить готовый продукт в кратчайшие сроки, от момента осознания необходимости разработки требуемого продукта и заканчивая получением всей разрешающей документации для ее продажи. Рассмотрение возможных рисков позволяет спрогнозировать ход событий при проектировании. Данная модель была успешно применена при разработке новой продукции: закваски для силосования «Биотроф®2+». Проведение научно-производственных опытов подтвердило эффективность нового препарата. Использование «Биотроф®2+» способствовало более быстрому подкислению силосуемой массы, предотвратило разрушение протеина (в исходной массе содержание протеина – 14,5 %, в опыте – 13,4 %, в контроле – 12,5 %). При скармливании приготовленного силоса с новой закваской увеличилась молочная продуктивность коров (жирность молока увеличилась на 2,5 %, удой – на 8,6 %). Была определена доза внесения препарата – 1 л на 30 тонн зеленой массы.
Ключевые слова: моделирование, бизнес-процесс, проектирование, разработка нового продукта, закваска для силосования, питательность кормов.

Publication information View article


Technologies, machinery and equipment for the agro-industrial complex


УДК 631.33.022.6
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.003

FIELD STUDY OF A SEEDER EQUIPPED WITH ROLLER SEEDING UNITS WITH TRUNCATED RUBBER CONES ON THE VALVES
N. P. Laryushin, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; 
D.Yu. Parfenov, PhD student;
A. V. Shukov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor; 
R. R. Devlikamov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor.
FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia tel. (8412) 628 517, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article describes the design and operation of an experimental grain seeder equipped with roller seeding units with truncated rubber cones on the valves. Moreover, graphical and experimental dependences of the uneven distribution of seeds along the length of the furrow during the sowing of winter wheat Clavdia 2 on the speed of rotation of the roller, the diameter of the upper part of the spike and the angle of inclination of the spikes of the experimental seeding unit with truncated rubber cones on the valve are presented. The work on studying the influence of the seeding unit designs was carried out by comparing the basic seeder SZ-5,4 with an experimental seeder equipped with new roller seeding units with truncated rubber cones on the valves. The results of the research showed that an experimental seeder with roller seeding units with truncated rubber cones on the valves steadily performs the process of sowing seeds of winter wheat Clavdia 2 in compliance with all necessary agrotechnical requirements. With the improvement of sowing quality indicators, there is a decrease in the instability of the overall seeding rate, the uneven distribution of seeds along the length of the furrow, damage to the seed material, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the yield of the cultivated crop.
Keywords: seeding unit, rotational speed, diameter, spikes, angle of inclination, winter wheat seeds, Clavdia 2.

 Publication information View article


УДК 631.362.3
DOI 10.36461/NP.2022.62.2.005

ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКОЕ ОБОСНОВАНИЕ ТРЕХЛОПАСТНОГО РОТАЦИОННОГО ПИТАТЕЛЯ
А.В. Мачнев1, доктор техн. наук, доцент;
В.А. Мачнев2, доктор техн. наук, профессор; О.Ю. Мачнева2, аспирант;
А.В. Быков1, ст. преподаватель; В.Д. Шилина1, ст. преподаватель;
Д.О. Черняев1, ст. преподаватель
1Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Московский государственный университет пищевых производств», Россия, г. Москва,
2Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Пензенский государственный аграрный университет», Россия, г. Пенза,
1т. (937) 43-43-711, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Анализ ресурсосберегающих технологий возделывания и доработки сельскохозяйственных культур подтвердил, что использование пневматических сортировальных столов типа ПСС позволяет несколько снизить затраты на очистку и сортировку. Однако, несовершенство их конструкций и не равномерная подачи зерна снижает эффективность их применения. Поэтому целью исследований явилось повышение качества послеуборочной обработки зерновых культур, разработка ротационного питателя. Для решения данной цели разработаны методы и методики исследований. Разработан пневматический сортировальный стол, оснащенный трехлопастным ротационным питателем с наружным диаметром 80 мм с прямыми лопастями, расположенными под углом 120 градусов. Изучен процесс движение зернового потока в бункере и установлены зависимости для определения перемещения зерна в бункере, времени движения зерна на рассматриваемом участке и скорости движения зерна на выходе из бункера, которая составила 1,167 м/с. Установлены уравнения движения лопастей для наружного и внутреннего диаметра ротационного питателя, по которым рассчитываются действительные координаты их движения и перемещения оси вала ротационного питателя от своего первоначального положения. Расчетами определено, что при наружном диаметре 0,08 м ротационного питателя, скорости движения зерна 1,02 м/с, угловой скорости 2,9 с-1, перемещение оси вала ротационного питателя от своего первоначального положения при угле поворота 360 градусов составит 160 мм. Это приведет к снижению неравномерности подачи зерна, дробления, повышению лабораторной и полевой всхожести, улучшит содержание выходных групп полноценного зерна и, следовательно, повышению качества послеуборочной обработки зерновых культур разработанным пневматическим сортировальным столом, оснащенным трехлопастным ротационным питателем.
Ключевые слова: ротационный питатель, уравнения движения лопастей для внешнего и внутреннего диаметров, зерно, очистка, сортирование, скорость движения зерна, пневматический сортировальный стол.

Publication information View article