УДК 633.853.494: 632.954: 577.112
APPLICATION OF HERBICIDES IS A RESERVE TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF SPRING RAPSEED OIL SEEDS UNDER CONDITIONS IN SOUTH AREAS OF THE NON-BLACK EARTH ZONE
T.F. Devyatkina, PhD in Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor; S.A. Devyatkin, postgraduate;
D.V. Bochkarev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.N. Nikolsky, PhD in Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
E.V. Tyukina, PhD in Agricultural Sciences; E.O. Obmolova, student
N.P. Ogarev Mordovia State University, Agrarian Institute, Saransk, Republic of Mordovia, Russia,
The results of the current research deal with the effect of the complex application of antidicotyledonous and anticereal herbicides on the chemical and qualitative composition of spring rapeseed oil seeds under conditions in the south areas of the Nonchernozem zone. It was found that the applied combinations of herbicides by reducing competition from weeds increased the nitrogen content in oilseeds and did not have a statistically confirmed effect on the accumulation of phosphorus and potassium. The absolute removal of nitrogen against the background of herbicides increased 1.5 times, phosphorus - 1.3, potassium - 1.4 times. According to the level of the main macronutrients removal by rapeseed, they could be represented as following N > K2O > P2O5. The decrease in weediness led to an increase in the protein content in rapeseed oil seeds by 9%. The reverse pattern was observed for the accumulation of fat. In the control, its concentration was higher by 5%. When using herbicides, the collection of crude protein and fat per unit area depended on the crop yield and in all years of research was the largest on Etamaster + Miura (47% and 67%) and Etamaster + Zelor (40% and 61%).
Keywords: spring rapeseed, herbicide, chemical composition, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, crude protein, crude fat.
CHANGES IN THE FERTILITY OF THE MEADOW-CHERNOZEM SOIL AND THE PRODUCTIVITY OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS UNDER THE AFTER-EFFECT OF URBAN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND ZEOLITE-CONTAINING AGRICULTURAL ORE
K.N. Stelmakh, postgraduate; A.N. Arefyev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor,
E.E. Kuzina, PhD in Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
The results of the current research determined that the most significant impact on the optimization of the physicochemical properties of the meadow-chernozem soil was exerted by the aftereffect of urban sewage sludge in combination with zeolite-containing agricultural ore. The cation-exchange capacity against their background exceeded the initial values by 4.76-5.59 meq/100g of soil, total exchangeable bases by 6.37-7.51 meq/100g of soil, the pHCl value by 1.10-1.38 units The total productivity of crops against the background of a unilateral aftereffect of urban sewage sludge was higher than the control by 1.48-3.59 t/ha, and against the background of their complex aftereffect with zeolite-containing agricultural ore by 2.89-5.85 t/ha.
Keywords: meadow-chernozem soil, urban sewage sludge, zeolite-containing agricultural ore, cation-exchange capacity, total exchangeable bases, acidity, productivity.
THE EFFECT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL FERTILIZERS AND CHEMICAL PROTECTANTS ON THE SOWING QUALITIES OF AGRICULTURAL SEEDS
N.P. Chekaev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
Yu.V. Blinokhvatova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.V. Nushtaeva, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor; V.O. Nogaev, postgraduate student.
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
The article presents data on the positive effect of microbiological fertilizers that contain nitrogen-fixing, phosphorus- and potassium-mobilizing bacteria, and have biofungicidal properties on the sowing qualities of spring wheat, peas, lentils and sunflower seeds. Microbiological preparations increased the germination energy of untreated spring wheat seeds to 96-100% (control – 92%); laboratory germination at the same time was at the level of germination energy or slightly higher. The germination characteristics of seeds treated with Tiara (thiamethoxam) and Stinger (tebuconazole) were lower - germination energy was 86-97% (control 84%); germination ability was 91-99% (control 96%). Indicators of the length, mass and volume of seedlings and roots in the course of the treatment with biological preparations were higher than the control variant. The best results were obtained when treating non-pretreated wheat seeds with biological preparations Azotovit + Phosphatovit, RizoBash, BioAzFC and Phytosporin-M. The germination energy and germination ability of peas during treatment with biological preparations increased, respectively, by 4-10% and 6-12%, by 2-10% and 3-8% (in the case of treated seeds). Sunflower seeds treated with Maxim andKruiser, were characterized by lower values of germination energy, which indicates a decrease in the activity of growth processes of the treated seeds, although no sharp changes in germination values were observed: 89-93% depending on the biological preparation (the highest when treated with Phytosporin-M). In general, the positive effect of the studied microbiological preparations on the growth activity of seeds, including those treated with protectants, was revealed, which indicates the compatibility of the preparations. However, the germination energy of the treated seeds was noticeably less, therefore, the protectants somewhat delay the germination process.
Key words: microbiological fertilizers, chemical protectants, germination energy, seed germination ability.
EFFECT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL BIOFERTILIZERS ON COTTON FIBER QUALITY AND EXPRESSION OF GENES RESPONSIBLE FOR THE TRAIT DEVELOPMENT
Sh.Kh. Mamatkulova1, junior researcher; G.F. Mamatkulova1, research intern;
V.S. Kamburova1, Candidate of Biological Sciences, head of laboratory;
M.М. Darmanov1, Candidate of Biological Sciences, head of laboratory; E.А. Latypova2, assistant-professor
Cotton is one of the most important natural fiber crops. 20% of cultivated land worldwide and 33% of irrigated farmland is subject to salinity, and this area is increasing by 10% annually. It is known that salt stress has a negative effect on all main physiological and phenotypic parameters of cotton, including the main trait - fiber quality. To reduce negative effects of salt stress on cotton, two complementary approaches are used: creation of salt-tolerant varieties and improvement of agrotechnological methods using different biostimulants. In this connection the effect of biostimulants on fiber quality parameters and expression of gens responsible for development of this trait was studied. Our studies have shown that the use of microbial fertilizers has a positive effect on fiber quality parameters. In this case the preparation Rizokom-1 had the greatest positive effect. This preparation increased one of the most important fiber quality parameters - fiber length. Besides, Rizokom-1 maximally increases fiber strength of cotton without reduction of its homogeneity index. The morphological data were confirmed by the results of expression of corresponding genes. Thus, Rizokom-1 and Micro-1 preparations significantly affected the expression level of genes responsible for synthesis of sugars (SPS and SuSy) and unsaturated fatty acids (FAD2), as well as for synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides (CESA2). The mechanism of action of the preparation Hosyl on fiber quality is mainly due to its effect on the expression level of genes regulating hormone biosynthesis involved in cotton fiber development.
Keywords: cotton, salt stress, microbial fertilizers, fiber quality, gene expressions.
EFFECT OF DIATOMITE AND POULTRY MANURE ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GRAY FOREST SOILS AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY
K.Y. Kovalsky, post-graduate student,
А.N. Arefiev, Doctor of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor,
Е.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural sciences, professor,
Е.Е. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor
The aim of the research was to study the effect of diatomite norms from 4 to 10 t/ha and their combinations with poultry manure on the physical and chemical properties of gray forest soils and crop productivity. To fulfill the goal, field experiments were conducted in the Vadinsk-Mokshan agro-soil district of Penza region in the period from 2019 to 2021. The studies determined that the most significant effect on increasing the capacity of cation exchange, the amount of exchangeable bases, decrease in the concentration of hydrogen ions in the soil absorbing complex had the effect and aftereffect of diatomite in the complex with poultry manure. It was found that the highest effect on the productivity of corn, spring wheat and annual grasses was the use of diatomite in combination with poultry manure. At the same time, the efficiency of corn productivity increased by 47.8-59.6%; the productivity of spring wheat increased by 26.8-35.4%; the productivity of vetch-oats increased by 22.8-36.6%. The total productivity of crops in the grain and fallow crops rotation ranged from 13.03 to 14.11 t/ha g.u. exceeding the control by 34.75-45.92 %.
Keywords: diatomite, poultry manure, gray forest soil, cation exchange capacity, amount of exchangeable bases, acidity, productivity, corn, spring wheat, annual grasses.
PROTECTION EFFICIENCY OF LENTIL CROPS FROM WEEDS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SOUTHERN FOREST-STEPPE OF THE OMSK REGION
T.V. Marakaeva, PhD in Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
T.V. Gorbachev, PhD in Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
E.V. FAlaleeva, PhD in Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
The current paper deals with data from field experiments for 2018-2020 on an ordinary, low-humus, medium loamy chernozem in the conditions of the southern forest-steppe of the Omsk region. Sowing was carried out in the second decade of May in an ordinary way, variety Vekhovskaya. The seeding rate is 1.2 million germinating grains per hectare. The repetition in the experiment is fourfold; the placement of plots is systematic. Herbicide treatment was carried out in the phase of full shoots of the culture and the weed component. The flow rate of the working fluid is 200 l/ha. Records and observations were carried out according to accepted methods. The purpose of the research is to study the effectiveness of the use of herbicides against a complex of weeds on lentil crops. The density of standing of cultivated plants by options in 2018 and 2019 was from 104 to 119pcs/m2, and in 2020 from 82 to 107pcs/m2. The use of herbicides to protect lentil crops from weeds contributed to an increase in the safety of plants in all years of research. The effectiveness of the use of herbicides is confirmed by the fact that, on average, over three years of research, when treating crops with Tapir and Global, a weak degree of weed damage was noted in the agrophytocenosis of lentils (the proportion of weeds was from 1.0 to 8.2%). The effectiveness of herbicides was high, on average over three years of research, the reduction in the proportion of weeds when treated with Tapir and Global by 73.2% and 90.9%, respectively. On average, over three years, a significant increase in the yield of lentil grain in the variant with Tapir, compared with the control, was 0.57 t/ha (НСР05= 0.27 t/ha). When the crops were protected with the herbicide Global, in comparison with the control, the increase in grain yield was also significant and amounted to 1.16 t/ha. When crops were treated with the Tapir herbicide, the protein content in the grain increased significantly by 2.9%, and by Globalom by 3.8%. The level of profitability in the variants with weed protection was 76.2 and 119.9%, while in the variant without herbicide treatment it was 29.2%.
Keywords: lentil, variety Vekhovskaya, weed damage, herbicide, Tapir WSC (water soluble concentrate), Global WS (water solution), productivity, biochemical composition, economic efficiency.
EFFECTS OF GROWTH REGULATORS OF THE CHALCONE GROUP ON YIELD AND DISEASES OF SPRING CEREAL CROPS IN THE WESTERN PIEDMONT OF THE URAL MOUNTAINS
I.N. Medvedeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
S.V. Chirkov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
Z.А. Upilkova, Candidate of Economic Sciences, assistant-professor,
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education
On the basis of the three-year (2017-2019) research conducted at Perm Agro-Technological University named after academician D.N. Pryanishnikov by scientists from two departments - general chemistry and general agriculture, and plant protection, the results of studying the methods of protection of spring cereals (wheat and barley) against the most harmful diseases of fungal etiology in the the western piedmont of the Ural Mountains are presented. The aim of the work was to develop methods of protection against common root rot and helminthosporiosis of spring cereals of wheat and barley using growth regulators permitted in the Russian Federation and new drugs of the chalcone group as an alternative to the use of more toxic fungicides of systemic action and, consequently, reducing the environmental burden in agrophytocenosis. The results showed that the tested chalcones MBAF, R and BBAF, R were not inferior in effectiveness to the approved ones (Zircon, R and Epin-Extra, R) and even surpassed them in some indicators: increase in disease resistance (spreading and development). Field germination of both wheat and barley was higher when treated with chalcones - 78.2 % and 77.3 %, respectively. The development of common root rot in spring wheat below the economic injury level was ensured after treatment with Zircon, R, chalcone MBAF, R and BBAF, R by 9.9%, 9.6% and 9.4% respectively during the tillering period. On spring barley, the variant using the chalcone MBAF, R was the most effective: the development of stripe disease during the flowering period was minimal - 1.33 %. During the doughiness period, all preparations significantly reduced the development of stripe disease on spring barley, on wheat - only chalcones, used in the pre-sowing treatment. Biological effectiveness of dressing was higher in all the crops in comparison with the spraying method. On both cereal crops the highest biological effectiveness was achieved by the BBAF, R chalcone (76.4 % and 76.0 %) used by the method of dressing. Both chalcones applied by the method of dressing, provided a significant increase in the yield of spring cereal crops in all years of the study.
Keywords: barley, root rot, fungicides, growth regulators, yield, pesticides, disease prevalence and development.
УДК 633.2+ 631.81.095.337
SEED PRODUCTIVITY OF FESTULOLIUM DEPENDING ON CULTURATION METHODS IN THE FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
A.A. Galiullin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor; E.A. Kalinichev, postgraduate student
For the successful application of festulolium in a new region, in particular in the forest-steppe of the Penza region, one of the main tasks is to create a sustainable seed production system based on energy and resource saving. Therefore, the aim of the current research was to examine the aftereffect of pre-sowing treatment of festulolium seeds with complex microelement fertilizers and biological preparations on seed productivity. The research was carried out in 2019-2021 at the experimental site of Penza State Agrarian University (Penza, Ryussia). The aftereffect of the use of micro- and biofertilizers (Azosol-36, Extra, Megamix-Profi, Siliplant, Zircon, Agrika, Agrika + microelements, Agat-25 Super) was observed during the treatment of seeds with festulolium varieties VIK-90 and Izumrudny on indicators of photosynthetic activity of agrocenosis and the formation seed production in the second growth year. As a result of the research, it was found that the examined growth regulators had a positive effect on the formation of leaf area, photosynthetic potential and net productivity of photosynthesis. When used for seed treatment the Izumrudny variety of bacterial preparation Agrika + microelements the maximum quantity of generative sprouts was noted - 712 pcs/m2, the greatest length of inflorescences - 23.5 cm, the number of spikelets in the inflorescence - 41.0 pcs., the number of seeds in the inflorescence - 79.0 pcs and weight of 1000 seeds - 3.27 g. Seed productivity was 845 kg/ha, which is 24.9% higher than the control.
Keywords: festulolium, microelement fertilizers, photosynthesis, seed yield.
THE EFFECT OF SENICATION AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MINERAL NUTRITION ON THE YIELD OF CERTIFIED WINTER WHEAT SEEDS
V.V. Koshelyaev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; R.R. Denmukhamedov, post-graduate student;
I.P. Koshelyaeva, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor
Senication is carried out not only in conditions of favorable plant development, but also in a number of cases, such as unfavorable weather conditions during the ripening period, the need to organize an earlier start of harvesting, stimulation of grain maturation on lateral shoots to obtain seeds with less matrix variability. The aim of the researches was to study influence of senication on certified seeds yield and to substantiate optimal concentration of working solution providing high yield of seeds at various levels of mineral nutrition. We used 10, 20 and 30 % working solutions of ammonium nitrate + 1 % working solution of 2,4-D ester as a senicant. Winter wheat crops were treated against three mineral nutrition backgrounds. The results show that the high yield of seeds, optimum ratio of net income to expenditures and, consequently, higher level of profitability of winter wheat seed production is observed when the plants are treated with 20% working solution of ammonium nitrate + 1% working solution of 2,4-D ester against the background of applying N16P16K16 during sowing + N68 in spring dressing.
Keywords: winter wheat, senication, seed yield, fractional composition..
УДК663.15 + 57.083.13 582.84
ECOLOGICALLY JUSTIFIED METHODS OF SELECTION OF STRAINS OF MICROMYCETES WITH HIGH CELLULASE ACTIVITY
G.V. Ilyina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor;
S.A. Sashenkova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor;
D.Yu. Ilyin, Candidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor; A.R. Dashkina, student
The article presents information concerning the established interrelations between a number of ecological and physiological parameters of cultures of soil mycelial fungi and their productive capacity. These interrelations can be used as a basis for individual selection of strains with high lignocellulasic potential. The technological point of expanding the range of cultures with rich enzymatic potential is to create a reserve of strains to be included in complexes of cellulose-degrading microorganisms. This can be used for the destruction of cellulose-containing wastes, as well as for composting processes of crop residues. The paper contains information about original approaches to individual selection and selection of cultures of mycelial fungi obtained on the basis of natural strains collected from gray forest soil extract. The selection criteria were resistance to elevated temperature and enzymatic activity. Cultures were allocated to the Sabouraud medium, and individual colonies were divided. After the sporulation, the generic assignment and then the species of the cultures were determined. Later, monosporous sifting was carried out, and the monosporous cultures were risen, the parameters of which were evaluated. Screening was performed using modified Getchinson’s medium. Cellulase activity was determined at the level of qualitative assessment (using the Congo red indicator). The pigmentation degree of colonies during sporulation was estimated visually. We established positive correlations between the pigmentation intensity of the colony, its thermal stability and enzymatic activity. Having selected three species of promising strains, we studied their enzymatic activity. We assessed the stability of physiological and morphological characteristics and enzymatic activity of cultures to spontaneous dissociation in a series of ten passages. As a result of the research, we developed methods of express selection of promising strains and obtained four promising cultures for inclusion in a complex of decomposers for composting cellulose-containing wastes and crop residues.
Keywords: selection of microorganisms, individual selection, ecology of mycelial fungi, bioconversion of wastes, enzymes, cellulose.
УДК 633.11 + 631.81
YIELD STRUCTURE OF SPRING WHEAT WHEN APPLYING FERTILISERS AND STIMULATING PREPARATIONS
V.G. Vasin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; N.G. Mikhalkin, post-graduate student;
N.V. Vasina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor; V.E. Kim, post-graduate student;
E.S. Fadeeva, post-graduate student
The article presents the results of evaluation of yield structure, productivity and grain quality of spring wheat when using new liquid mineral fertilizers in the form of microfertilizer mixtures Megamix and organo-mineral preparation Aminokat 30%, in the forest-steppe conditions of the Middle Volga region in 2019-2021. It was found that the application of fertilizers and preparations during the growing season significantly affect the value of wheat yields. In all the variants, an increase in yield was observed with the application of stimulating preparations. During the three years of research, the average wheat yield was between 2.08 and 3.58 t/ha. The best values were obtained in variants treated with Aminokat 30% and Megamix Profi. The highest indicators were noted on the background of N45P45K45 fertilizers.
Keywords: mineral fertilizers, spring wheat, Megamix Profi, Megamix Nitrogen, yield, yield structure, grain quality, microelements.
Private animal husbandry, feeding, technologies of feed preparation and production of livestock products
MILK PRODUCTIVITY AND THE NATURE OF LACTATION PERFORMANCE OF BLACK-AND-WHITE COWS
T.V. Shishkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
E.V. Zdorovyeva, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of higher education Penza State Agrarian University,
The purpose of the work is to evaluate cows by milk productivity and the nature of lactation performance, taking into account their blood level by the Holstein breed. To achieve this goal, the task was set to determine the milk productivity and the characteristic features of lactation of experimental cows. The research was carried out in the conditions of the Educational and experimental farm Ramzai of FSBEI HO Penza SAU. The object of research was the first-calf heifers of a Russian Black Pied. The groups were formed taking into account the blood level by the Holstein breed. The first group included cows with a blood level below 50% (37% on average in the group), the second with 50% blood level, the third over 50% (63% on average in the group). As a result of the research, it was found that a 62% increase in blood level by the Holstein breed in cows on the farm had a positive effect on the milk productivity of cows. The best quantitative indicators of milk production were demonstrated by first-calf heifers that have over 50% of blood level by the Holstein breed. Their superiority over low-blood animals was 1216 kg, and over half-blood 350 kg. There was also a significant difference of 866 kg between low-blood and half-blood animals in favor of the latter. The nature of the lactation performance of cows improves with the increase of blood level by the Holstein breed. Cows with a blood share of more than 50% had the lowest drop of 7.8% per month, and their low-blood peers had the highest (11.9%). Half–blood animals showed an intermediate result of 8.2%. The complete lactation indicator (CLI) in high-blood cows was 76% and was higher than in low-blood peers by 6.9%. Half-blood animals also differed positively from low-blood ones by 5.9% in terms of CLI value.
Keywords: breed, blood, milk productivity, lactation.
PROTEIN BIOCONVERSION AND FEED EFFICIENCY OF SHEEP WHEN INCLUDING NON-TRADITIONAL FEED ADDITIVES IN THEIR DIETS
M.F. Grigoriev1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
N.M. Chernogradskaya1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.I. Grigorieva2, senior lecturer; A.V. Popova1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor; M.M. Doktorov2, student
1FSBEI HE Arctic State Agrotechnological University, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia;
2FSAEI HE Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University,
The article presents the main results of assessing the conversion of nutrients and energy of feed into the edible part. Earlier, studies were conducted to study the influence of different norms of feed additives from local natural raw materials on the growth and development indicators, meat productivity of sheep in the conditions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). It was revealed that the inclusion of the studied additives in the diets of sheep during the fattening period allowed to increase the live weight by 3.67 and 0.88%, and the slaughter yield by 2.31 and 1.88%. The change in the feeding conditions of sheep during the fattening period eventually had a positive effect on the conversion of nutrients and feed energy into the edible part. During the analysis, an increase in protein yield per removable live weight was by 7.01 and 5.92%, and the energy output per removable live weight increased by 9.23 and 8.0%. At the same time, the conversion of feed protein into food protein increased by 4.16 and 3.67%, and the feed metabolizable energy into the energy of slaughter products increased by 0.57 and 0.26%, respectively. There was also a decrease in protein consumption per kg of live weight gain by 16.87 and 4.22%. Thus, the inclusion of non-traditional feed additives from local natural resources in the diets of sheep during the fattening period contributed to the improvement of meat productivity, better conversion of protein into edible part.
Keywords: meat productivity, efficiency, fattening, conversion, protein, fat.
SLAUGHTER AND MEAT QUALITIES OF LAMBS OF THE ROMANOV BREED DEPENDING ON SLAUGHTER AGE
R.R. Ganeev1, acting director of OOO "Konny Zavod Sovetsky";
S.М. Marchenko1, veterinarian of ООО "Konny Zavod Sovetsky"; М.Y. Zverko2, post-graduate student
1ООO "Konny Zavod Sovetsky", stanitsa Sovetskaya, Kirovsky urban district, Stavropol Krai, Russia;
2FSBEI HE Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy,
The article presents the indices of slaughter and meat qualities of lambs of the Romanov breed, depending on the age of slaughter. The research was carried out at OOO "Konny Zavod Sovetskiy", Stavropol Krai, Kirovsky urban district, stanitsa Sovetskaya, on lambs of the Romanov breed. Thirty lambs were fattened to eight and nine months of age and five lambs from each group were subsequently slaughtered. The difference in live weight of the lambs influenced the slaughter qualities of the lambs at eight and nine months of age. Meat qualities of the Romanov breed lambs in these age groups were also investigated in terms of carcass morphological composition, slaughter qualities and meatiness coefficient. These differences in the indicators made it possible to determine at what age it is more appropriate to slaughter lambs, obtaining better meat. It was established that if higher-quality mutton is to be obtained, the slaughtering should take place at eight months of age because the edible part, in the flesh-to-bone ratio, of eight-month-old lambs is higher than that of nine-month-old lambs. It is therefore more appropriate to fatten Romanov lambs until they are eight months old.
Keywords: lambs, Romanov sheep breed, meat productivity, slaughter quality of lambs, slaughter weight, morphological composition of carcasses, meatiness coefficient, carcass weight.
Technologies, machinery and equipment for the agro-industrial complex
JUSTIFICATION OF THE USE OF A ROTARY FEEDER IN PNEUMATIC MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT
A.V. Machnev1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
V.A. Machnev2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
K.Z. Kukhmazov2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
I.A. Uspensky3, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor,
P.N. Khorev2, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor, V.A. Merzlyakov1, Master
1Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education
"Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia;
3Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher education
"Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev", Ryazan, Russia
From year to year, the agricultural sector of the economy of the Russian Federation is faced two tasks: the first is harvesting grain crops at a short stated agrotechnical time, and the second – to preserve the quality of food and seed grains until the moment of product sale or sowing. One of the most effective ways to preserve the quality of food and seed grains is its cleaning and sorting. They are performed by pneumatic sorting tables of periodic and continuous operations type. In our country, the most common types of tables are PSS-0.2, PSS-2.5, PS-10, TDV 150. They have a classic scheme of pneumatic systems, vibration tables with decks and their drive mechanisms. Their disadvantages include the impossibility of uniform grain supply and increased threshing at the outlet due to the lack of grain supply devices in the hoppers, which reduces the quality of cleaning and sorting. To eliminate the identified shortcomings, we have developed, manufactured and tested a pneumatic sorting table with a rotary feeder. At first, the best type of rotary grain feeder was specified, which turned out to be a three-bladed rotary feeder with a grain supply of 0.45 kg/s and a non-uniformity of supply of 12.5%. Then, comparative studies were carried out for the chosen type of rotary feeder and the quality indicators of the technological process were determined. We compared the developed pneumatic sorting table, equipped with a three-blade rotary feeder, to the base table PSS-0.2. It was found that when cleaning the grain of winter soft wheat of "Lgovskaya 8" variety (thousand grain weight — 46.4 g, moisture content — 14.2%, and density — 1.6 g/cm3), the studied device reduces the grain crushing by 0.06 % and non-uniformity of supply (11.5%). Also, it increases the laboratory and field germination (2% and 5%, respectively), the content of the most valuable output groups III and IV by 21.2% with a slight decrease in supply by 0.01% and productivity per hour of main operating time 0.04 t/h Thus, the possibility of using the rotary feeder in pneumatic machines is proved.
Keywords: grain, pneumatic sorting table, cleaning, sorting, rotary feeder, deck, grain supply
TWO-PHASE MIXING IN TRACTOR DIESEL: THEORY, EXPERIMENT, TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS
A.P. Ukhanov1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
M.V. Ryblov1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
M.D. Dubin1, postgraduate student; D.A. Ukhanov2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor
1Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
2Federal Autonomous Institution 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology
of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia
The article is devoted to the problem of improving the power, fuel-economic and environmental performance of tractor diesel engines due to the organization and practical implementation of mixing in two phases. The first phase is carried out in the intake stroke by distributed injection of a certain dose of finely dispersed activator (gasoline, kerosene, alcohol, biofuels, etc.) into the branches of the diesel intake pipeline. The second phase is carried out in the compression stroke by injecting the main dose of motor fuel into the cylinder medium containing local ignition centers formed due to the pre-flame preparation of the activator-air mixture that entered the cylinder in the first phase. The features of the calculation of diesel indicators for two-phase mixing are given, taking into account the ratio of motor fuel and activator. Theoretical foundations for the software for electronic control of activator injection in the first phase of mixing are considered. An electronic system of distributed activator injection has been developed, which provides metered injection of activator into the branches of the diesel intake pipeline with electromagnetic injectors in the intake stroke, while the dose of the activator is coordinated with the mass consumption of motor fuel. The results of experimental studies show that, depending on the type and dose of the activator, two-phase mixing increases the power and torque of the diesel engine by 3-12%, reducing the smoke content of exhaust gases by up to 50% compared to the operation of the diesel engine in standard configuration without injection of the activator in the first phase of mixing.
Keywords: tractor diesel, two-phase mixing, activators, electronic system of distributed injection of activator, indicators.
УДК 665.7.035 + 665.753
THERMO-OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF DIESEL MIXED FUEL
D.A. Ukhanov1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; A.D. Cherepanova1, PhD Chemistry;
A.P. Ukhanov2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
A.A. Khokhlov3, PhD in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor
1Federal Autonomous Institution The 25th State Research Institute of chemmotology
of the Ministry of Defense Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia;
3Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University, Ulyanovsk, Russia
An important operational property of motor diesel fuels (DF), which characterizes their resistance to oxidation at high temperatures with the formation of solid oxidation products, is thermal-oxidative stability. An effective method for assessing the thermal-oxidative capacity in laboratory conditions at the Diesel Fuel System (DFS)-2 facility is the dynamic method, which consists in pumping the test fuel along the heated surface for a certain time at constant temperatures and fuel consumption. According to the indicators of the amount of deposits in the form of solid oxidation products on the control surfaces and the temperature of the beginning of their formation, a conclusion is made about the resistance of the tested fuel to oxidation. One of the types of diesel fuel for automotive and tractor engines is a mixed diesel fuel obtained by mixing commercial petroleum diesel fuel and camelina oil. Thus the practically significant task is to determine the indicators of thermal-oxidative stability of such a mixed fuel by a dynamic method. The results of the current research in terms of thermal-oxidative capacity indicators show that the tested mixed fuel is superior to commercial oil diesel fuel in terms of resistance to the formation of deposits in the form of solid oxidation products.
Keywords: deposits, diesel fuel, camelina oil, mixed fuel, thermal-oxidative stability, indicators.
LABORATORY STUDIES OF A SOWING UNIT OF A GRAIN SEEDER WITH CONTINUOUS RUBBER COATING OF A VALVE WITH TRUNCATED CONE-SHAPED SPIKES
D.Yu. Parfenov, Postgraduate; N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
A.V. Shukov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
R.R. Devlikamov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor
The article presents the results of laboratory studies on a sowing unit of a grain seeder with a continuous coating of a valve made of rubber with truncated cone-shaped spikes. Research into an experimental device aims to find rational values for its design and operating parameters and is carried out with a laboratory unit mounted on a tillage bin. The paper presents two-dimensional sections of the graphical dependence characterizing the uniformity of seed distribution along the length of the furrow from the design and operating parameters of the experimental sowing unit of a grain seeder with a continuous coating of a valve made of rubber with spikes (frequency of rotation of the roller, diameter of the tip of the spikes, angle of inclination of the spikes). They have the shape of truncated cones and provide the best qualitative indicators of such an experimental seeder unit [1, 2, 4, 8].
Keywords: seed-sowing unit, rotation frequency, laboratory installation, diameter, spikes, angle of inclination.
IMPLEMENTATION OF A STATISTICAL METHOD FOR FINDING THE OPTIMAL INSTALLATION POINT OF A VIBRATION SENSOR
I.M. Zyabirov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.I. Zyabirov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
The results of studies of measurements of vibration parameters of the mechanism of the threshing drum of the ACROS grain harvesters under operating conditions (trust partnership Pugachevskoe) are presented. The implementation of active multifactorial planning of the experiment made it possible to determine the importance of the effect of radial and axial clearances in the shaft bearings on the vibration process, the magnitude of its imbalance, the state of the drive of the variator of the rotational rate of the mechanism. It was determined where the optimal point of installation of the vibration sensor D-14 is on the bearing support of the threshing drum for recording the amplitude-frequency parameters of vibration signals by the designed model of the control and diagnostic device.
Keywords: vibration, threshing drum, diagnostics, parameter, planning, dispersion, methodology.
A NEW DESIGN OF THE GRAIN SEEDER SEEDING DEVICE EQUIPPED WITHA SECTIONAL TYPE COIL WITH GROOVES ARRANGED ALONG A HELICAL LINE
N. P. Laryushin1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; I.A. Pershin2, junior researcher;
A. V. Shukov1, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
T.A. Kiryukhina1, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor.
When sowing with grain seeders to obtain the highest and stable yields of cultivated crops, seeding devices, as well as coulters, remain one of the most important working parts of sowing machines , since the quality of sowing depends on their work. They provide a guaranteed constant flow of sown seeds, the maximum possible stability of a given seeding rate, minimal damage to the sown seeds, as well as the possibility to sow seeds that differ in their dimensional characteristics, and to quickly adjust to a given seeding rate. Improving the quality indicators of sowing grain crops by further improving the technological process and the device of a coil seeding machine having a sectional type coil with grooves arranged along a helical line is relevant for the agroindustrial complex of the Russian Federation. The article describes the design and the schematic diagram of the new seeding device of a grain seeder equipped with a sectional type coil with grooves arranged along a helical line, which allows a greater distribution of seeds along the length of the groove formed by the seeder coulter increases, and there is also a decrease in the crushing of seeds, which will further increase the yield of the cultivated crop.
Keywords: sectional coil, seeding device, helical line, seeds, grain seeder.