AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Agronomy


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.001

FODDER PRODUCTIVITY OF HERBS BASED ON UPRIGHT BROME WITH THE APPLICATION OF GROWTH STIMULATORS WHEN HARVESTING FOR FORAGE
V.G. Vasin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
M.S. Krieger, postgraduate student;
S.A. Vasin, undergraduate
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Samara State Agrarian University, Ust-Kinelsky, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents data on the productivity of grass mixtures with smooth and upright brome, as well as with garden burnet when using stimulants Growth Matrix and Gumi-20M. The studied mixtures also included sand sainfoin, bastard alfalfa, and bird's-foot trefoil. The study covers fruiting stage, during which the yield and chemical composition were monitored (the content of protein, fat, fiber, ash and carotene was recorded), as well as an analysis of fodder merits was carried out (such parameters as the collection of digestible protein and metabolic energy were assessed), the proportion of components in mixtures and the nature of shoots at the beginning of the regrowth of grasses in spring.
Four-component grass stands with sand sainfoin and bastard alfalfa showed maximum productivity. The growth of the indicator, as the legume component was added to the mixture, was not always manifested. The best yield indicators, as a rule, were recorded in variants where the crops were treated and in mixtures with the legume component.
Studies have shown that in the herbage, the grass component prevailed over legumes. The smallest proportion of the component was formed by bird's-foot trefoil and garden burnet. The dependence of the percentage of the components on the treatment variant was not revealed.
Keywords: smooth brome, upright brome, garden burnet (Burnet polygamum), sand sainfoin (Onobrýchis arenária), bastard alfalfa (Medicago varia Martyn), bird's-foot trefoil, yield, component fraction, chemical composition, fodder merits, digestible protein, Growth matrix, Gumi-20M.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.002

FOLIAR DRESSING OF CROPS WITH HUMIC FERTILIZERS IN THE EXPERIMENTAL CROP ROTATION
V.S. Plaksina, Senior Research Officer,
A.N. Astashov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
FSBSI RosNIISK «Rossorgo», Saratov, Russia, tel. (8452)794969; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Under the conditions of the right bank of Saratov Oblast, the crop response to the preparation with a high humic acid content, applied in a four-field crop rotation, was studied. The objects of the study were fodder crops of stationary grain-fallow-tilled crop rotation – grain sorghum, Sudan grass, phacelia, Japanese millet. Humic fertilizers had a positive effect on plant growth processes, thereby contributing to the formation of green mass. For the "ripe plant height" parameter, the maximum excess of indicators was noted in Sudan grass, compared to the control option. Concerning the parameter "inflorescence length", in the options treated with Zdoroviy Urozhay, the excess was 20.7% in grain sorghum and 24.7% in Japanese millet. The application of Reasil Forte Carb-N-Humic had a positive effect on the inflorescence length parameter of Japanese millet and grain sorghum, increasing it by 12.0 and 14.9 %, respectively. When using Reasil Forte Carb-N-Humic, the increase in crop biomass was 4.4-9.4%, compared to the control. The application of Zdoroviy Urozhay proved to be much more effective. When using it, biomass yield increased by 7.6-13.8 %. Foliar dressing with Zdoroviy Urozhay had a significant impact on grain yields in all options of the experiment. The increase was 12.5-39.3 %. When using Reasil Forte Carb-N-Humic, the increase was 6.7-11.8 %. In the experiments, the maximum effect was obtained when applying the fertilizer Zdoroviy Urozhay, compared to Reasil Forte Carb-N-Humic. Japanese millet and Sudan grass were the most responsive to foliar dressing. The results of the studies confirm the effectiveness of humic fertilizers in the form of foliar dressing treatments in the cultivation of forage crops.
Keywords: foliar dressing, humic acids, yield, grain sorghum, Sudan grass, phacelia, Japanese millet.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.003

ASSESSMENT OF PHYTOSANITARY CONDITION IN GRAIN LEGUME CROPS CULTIVATION IN THE FOREST-STEPPE ZONE OF THE VOLGA REGION
А.L. Toigildin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
М.I. Podsevalov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
I.А. Toigildina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
D.E. Ayupov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, senior lecturer;
R.А. Mustafina, post-graduate student.
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin", Ulyanovsk, Russia, tel. 8(8422)55-95-75, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the data on weed infestation and root rot of legume crops (soybean, pea, lupine, and chickpea). Pea crops were the most competitive against the weed component of agrophytocenoses. Reduction of weed infestation was greatest in the variants with deep tillage – up to 25-27 cm, in comparison with minimal tillage (12-14 cm); thus, the amount of weeds in the soybean crops decreased by 24.4, in the pea crops – 24.0, in lupine – 13.5, and in chickpea – by 16.7 %.
Seed treatment of legume crops with Delit Pro 0,5 l/ha (pyraclastrobin, 200 g/l) + Extrasol 1 l/ha (Bacillus subtilis, Ch-13 strain) reduced the incidence of root rot compared to the control variant, and the biological efficiency of seed treatment was 91,5% (for chickpea) to 96,2% (for pea).
It was found that reduction of weed infestation is a more significant factor affecting the yield of legume crops than the degree of root rot, and optimizing the negative effects of these leads to an increase in productivity to a greater or lesser extent. Yield retention in soybean as a result of adaptive-integrated plant protection was 0.22 t/ha, in pea – 0.27, in lupine – 0.23, and in chickpea – 0.16 t/ha.
Keywords: legume crops, tillage, plant protection, crop yield, weed infestation, root rot.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.004

PRODUCTIVITY RESPONSE OF OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS) TO ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NUTRITION AT DIFFERENT SPACING
E.K. Yeboah1;
K.G. Santo2;
D. AFreh-Ntiamoah2;
E. Ackah3
1Berekum Senior High School, Ghana Education Service, Berekum, Bono, Ghana, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. (correspondent author), ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8439-5489;
2Department of Horticulture and Crop Production, University of Energy and Natural Resource, Sunyani, Ghana, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
3Department of Crop and Soil Science, College of Agriculture Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ashanti-Mampong, Ghana, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5046-3981

The need to continually update farmers’ knowledge on cropping practices such as crop fertilization for high crop performance due to intensive cultivation prompted a study to evaluate the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizer on the growth, yield and post-harvest quality of okra planted at different spacings. Two experiments were conducted in the 2019 major season from April to June and minor season from August to December at the University of Energy and Natural Resources (UENR), Department of Agriculture Demonstration Farm at Berekum Senior High School in the Berekum Municipality in the Bono Region of Ghana. The experiments were a 2*6 factorial, laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with plant spacing and fertilizer application as the treatment factors with 2 and 6 levels respectively, resulting in 12 treatment combinations. Applied fertilizer treatments were 10 t/ha Poultry manure (PM), 10 t/ha Cattle manure (CM), 220 kg/ha NPK 15-15-15, 5 t/ha CM + 110 kg/ha NPK 15-15-15 and 5 t/ha PM + 110 kg/ha NPK 15-15-15 while plants were being spaced at 60 cm x 35 cm and 50 cm x 42 cm.
Results from the experiments revealed no significant effect of plant spacing on the growth and yield of okra, except number of leaves per plant and fruit girth. Plant spacing at 50 cm x 42 cm mostly enhanced the growth and yield of okra in both seasons. Fertilizer application significantly improved vegetative growth and yield of okra except in the minor season where number of seeds per fruit was not significantly affected. Mineral-organic fertilizer proved superior in increasing growth and yield of okra throughout the study. Combined application of cattle manure and NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer resulted in the highest fresh fruit yield of 863.44 kg/ha and 894.6 kg/ha in the major and minor seasons of 2019, respectively. The study therefore recommends the combination of cattle dung as an organic manure with NPK fertilizer in appropriate levels and wider intra row spacing for okra production.
Keywords: Berekum, Inorganic, Mineral-organic, Okra, Productivity, Spacing.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.005

PECULIARITIES OF FORMATION OF YIELD STRUCTURE ELEMENTS IN WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MINERAL NUTRITION
V.V. Koshelyaev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
I.P. Koshelyaeva, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
N.M. Guryanova, Candidate of Economic Sciences
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 62-83-73, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The peculiarities of the formation of yield structure elements in six varieties of winter wheat at different levels of mineral nutrition have been studied. The correlations between the elements of the varieties' yield structure and the grain yield value have been presented. It was found that yield is strongly correlated with such elements of structure as productive tillering, the number of productive stems per m2 and the number of grains in the main ear (r = 0.808876...0.981697). It is shown, that the variety, providing grain yield of 6...7 t/ha, should form the elements of structure of the following parameters: productive tillering – 2,0...2,2; the stem density – 600...650 productive stems per m2; the number of grains in the main ear – 31...33 pieces; the thousand-grain weight – 46...47 g; the weight of a ear grain – 1,15...1,20 g. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of the main elements of yield structure in the formation of grain yield in the variety profile and under different nutritional conditions in order to justify methods for managing the production process.
Key words: winter wheat, varieties, productivity, grain weight, productive tillering, productivity elements, yield structure.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.006

THE INFLUENCE OF ELEMENTS OF BIOLOGICAL FARMING ON THE WATER PROPERTIES OF MEADOW-CHERNOZEM SOIL
A.N. Arefyev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Е.Е. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The actual direction of modern agrarian science in the conditions of agricultural intensification in the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Volga region is the development and introduction of agrobiological methods preventing anthropogenic degradation in agrolandscapes. In this connection, the aim of the research was to study the effect of manure, legume and cruciferous siderates and their combinations with a stubble biodestructor and a non-productive part of the crop rotation on the water properties of meadow-chernozem leached low-humus medium-powered medium-loam soil. In order to implement the objective, field experiments were conducted in the first agro-soil district of Penza Oblast in the period from 2017 to 2020. The research showed that manure, green manure and their combined use with stubble biodestructor and а non-market part of the crop rotation crops had a definite effect on the change of water properties of the meadow-chernozem soil. It was established that the influence of green manure on the water properties of the meadow-chernozem soil was at the level of the fertilized fallow. The most significant change in the water properties of the meadow-chernozem soil was provided by manure and leguminous green manure in combination with a stubble biodestructor and a non-market part of the crop rotation yield. The value of the lowest moisture capacity on their background increased by 1.3-1.4 %. The reserve of productive moisture in the arable layer at the beginning of winter wheat vegetation in 2018 ranged from 39.7 to 40.7 mm, before sowing corn in 2019 – from 19.7 to 19.9 mm, before sowing annual grasses in 2020 – from 32.4 to 32.9 mm.
Keywords: meadow-chernozem soil, manure, green manure, stubble biodestructor, non-market part of the crop, lowest moisture capacity, moisture, water supply.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.007

PHYTOSANITARY MONITORING OF SEEDS OF THE MAIN GRAIN CROPS
V.I. Gryazeva, Candidate of Agricultural sciences;
О.М. Kasynkina, Candidate of Agricultural sciences
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. (8412)628373, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The main prerequisite for the integrated plant protection is phytosanitary monitoring and pest prediction, which should be a system of collection, accumulation, analysis and use of phytosanitary information for the purpose of targeted and optimal implementation of plant protection measures. Under the conditions of Penza region the quality of seed material and condition of seed crops of major grain crops has been studied using modern methods of phytosanitary monitoring. It was found that the dominant pests on the crops of cereal crops are bread flea (Phyllotreta Vittula Redt.), wheat thrips (Haplothrips tritici), scarab beetle (Anisoplia austriaca beetle), various types of aphids. Among diseases there are powdery mildew, Septoria, rust, spot disease. Fields are dominated by weeds of canada thistle and chamomile, pansies, bindweed and field thistle. On average over the two years, 62160 ha have been treated with herbicides, 48900.5 ha with insecticides and 43544 ha with fungicides. The pesticide load was mainly in June and July. An average of 9,425 tonnes of spring grain crop seeds were sown in the Penza district farms in two years. Of these, 6,711.36 tonnes were treated against diseases and pests. 2866,2 tons were treated with fungicides, 441,5 tons – with insecticides, 4362,66 tons – with insectofungicides. The pesticide load (per physically treated area) was 0.76 kg/ha in these years. This is an optimum value. A load of up to 1 kg/ha is considered safe.
Keywords: phytosanitary monitoring, seed crops, seeds, pests, diseases, weeds, pesticide load.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.008

INFLUENCE OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON THE QUALITY OF SAFFLOWER SEEDS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA
O.A. Timoshkin1;
T.Ya. Prakhova1;
V.G. Druzhinin2
1Federal State-Funded Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Center of Fibre Crops, Lunino, Russia, tel. +79534479608, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The aim of the research was to assess the sowing qualities and yielding properties of safflower seeds, depending on the use of growth regulators. The research was carried out in 2018-2020 on the experimental field of the Federal State-Funded Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Center of Fibre Crops, a separate subdivision of the Penza Research Institute of Agriculture. The object of research was safflower seeds treated with growth regulators Albite (0.5 l/t), Humate+7 (1.0 l/t), Humate K/Na (1.0 l/t) and Zircon (1.0 l/T). All seeds treated with growth stimulants had strong seedlings, the length of which reached 0.99-1.18 cm, which was 0.07-0.26 cm higher than in the control. Zircon growth regulator promoted an increase in seedling length by 0.26 cm (28.3%) and seedling weight by 1.4 g (25.3%) compared to the control. The maximum seedling weight gain was observed when using Humate K/Na, and amounted to 2.62 g (+47.3% to control). High germinating power was noted in the variant with Zircon application – 78.3%, germination rate – 79.9%. Application of Humate K/Na increased laboratory seed germination up to 81.5%. Weight of 1000 seeds ranged from 39.84 g (when treated with Albite) to 40.95 g (when treated with Humate+7). The highest rate of seed uniformity was noted in variants with Zircon and Humate+7, and amounted to 89.9 and 87.6%. The use of growth regulators reduced seed husk content to 42.7-44.1%, with 46.6% in the control variant. On average, over three years, a higher yield of safflower seeds was noted in variants with Zircon and Humate K/Na growth stimulants, the productivity of which was 1.40-1.54 t/ha and 1.39-1.51 t/ha.
Keywords: safflower, seeds, sowing quality, germinating power, laboratory germination capacity, weight of 1000 seeds, productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.009

SYMBIOTIC ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF PEA
V.V. Koshelyaev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
I.P. Koshelyaeva, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 62-83-73, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A feature of pea plant nutrition is its unique ability to form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with nodule bacteria. The symbiosis effectiveness depends on many factors, including the genotypic characteristics of the varieties. The study of the symbiotic activity of different varieties is therefore an important task related to increasing yields. There were two purposes of the study. The first was to examine the peculiarities of symbiotic apparatus formation in pea varieties, and the second was to determine the forms with more active symbiosis. The object of research were varieties of pea: Faraon, Flagman 12, Roket, ESO. It was found that there was no significant difference regarding the number of root nodules during the stem extension stage, flowering and flatpod formation. More intense differences in the number of nodules are noted between the phases. Therefore, the number of them depends to a large extent on the conditions during the plant's vegetation period. At the same time, it was found that varietal differences in symbiotic activity were evident in such indicators as mass and duration of active nodule functioning (ASP), degree of air nitrogen fixation and nitrogen fixation coefficient. As a result, the Roket and ESO varieties were found to have more dynamic symbiotic activity. Consequently, the production process efficiency, expressed by dry matter mass, was higher in the Roket and ESO varieties than in the Faraon and Flagman 12 varieties.
Keywords: peas, variety, active nodules, symbiotic potential, symbiosis activity, air nitrogen.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.010

POTENTILLA ALBA L. – VALUABLE MEDICINAL RAW MATERIAL
I.I. Meshkov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
V.E. Torikov, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
A.I. Meshkov, Applicant
Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education «Bryansk State Agrarian University», Bryansk Oblast, Vygonichsky District, Kokino selo, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

White cinquefoil (Potentilla alba L.) is a valuable medicinal raw material. It is a perennial herbaceous plant that grows 8-25 cm in height and has a thick, long (up to 50 cm or more), low-branched, black-brown rhizome, which is light on the cut. It has shortened perennial vegetative and annual generative shoots that form a root rosette. As a result of the research, microdiagnostic signs of white cinquefoil raw materials were established: a crystal-bearing lining with calcium oxalate druses, the stomata of the anamocyte type, hairs of three types; a rounded petiole with a beam type structure; numerous calcium oxalate druses in phloem cells and core rays. Merchandising indicators of herb quality and underground organs were determined: humidity – 12.5 and 5.8%, total ash – 8.4 and 3.7%, insoluble ash in 10% solution of HCL – 4.1 and 0.5%, extractive substances – 43.7 and 34.2%, respectively. The presence of flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, saponins and essential oil in the raw material was proved by qualitative tests, thin-layer chromatography and HPLC. The quantitative content of the main groups of biologically active substances in the herb and underground organs of white cinquefoil was found: by permanganometry – flavonoids 2.44±0.08 and 0.09 ± 0.01%, tannins 5.18± 0.24 and 26.63± 0.96%; by complexometric titration method – 3.57±0.28 and 16.18±0.14%, saponins 0.011±0.002 and 0.038±0.004%, essential oil 0.057% in the herb, respectively. In chemical terms, the plant is poorly studied. Of particular interest is the study of such BAS groups as polyphenol compounds and saponins. Data on the quantitative composition of tannins, flavonoids and saponins differ greatly from different authors or are not available at all. In traditional medicine, the raw materials of the plant are widely used for the treatment of various diseases. Of special interest is the use of white cinquefoil to correct the hormonal state of the thyroid gland. White cinquefoil is quite widespread on the territory of the central chernozem region of Russia, but measures to preserve its raw materials and introduce the plant into culture are highly required.
Keywords: anatomical signs of medicinal raw materials, microdiagnostic signs of raw materials, merchandising indicators of herb quality, biologically active substances in herb, medicinal value.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.011

METHODS FOR INCREASING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF THE WHITE SWEET CLOVER
O.A. Timoshkin1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
O.Yu. Timoshkina1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
R.V. Veldin2, Postgraduate
1Federal State Budget Research Institution «Federal Research Center for Bast Fiber Crops», Tver, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia.

Research on the methods of increasing the productivity of a new variety of the white sweet clover, called Almaz, was carried out in 2017-2020 at the experimental field of a separate subdivision of the Federal Center for Bast Fiber Crops in Penza. The application of micro- and biofertilizers (Megamix Profi, GUMI 20, AgroVerm) in pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar fertilizing was studied. The application of mineral fertilizers Р60К60 on formation of the white sweet clover agrocenosis in the year of sowing, nutritive value and productivity in the year of use were also studied. As a result of studies it was found that under the conditions of arid and hyperarid periods of the melilot vegetation in 2017-2020 the studied preparations had a positive effect on the formation of agrocenosis and indicators of plant development by the end of the growing season of the first year of plant life. Thus, the germination and safety of plants, as well as increased values of plant height, number of wintering buds, weight and root volume, respectively. The effect of seed treatment and foliar fertilizing with bio- and microfertilizers was evident in the year of use by an increase in dry matter yield by 4.7-11.1%; the use of mineral fertilizers provided an additional 10.5 % of dry matter yield. The seed treatment was more effective than foliar fertilization, with a 3.8 % higher dry matter yield. An improvement in the nutritive value of the green mass of the sweet clover was noted – the crude protein content increased by 0.3-0.8 %, the crude fiber content decreased by 0.3-0.7 %. The content of exchange energy, feed units in one kg of dry matter and digestible protein in one feed unit varied slightly in the options.
Keywords: white sweet clover, elements of technology, micro- and biofertilizers, productivity.

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Veterinary and zootechny


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.012

THE USE OF HEAT-TREATED LUPINE IN THE DIETS OF LAYING HENS AT THE "AVANGARD" POULTRY FARM
Y.N. Prytkov, Doctor of Agricultural sciences, professor;
B.V. Ageev, post-graduate student;
Е.V. Bochkaryova, post-graduate student;
K.V. Kiselyova, post-graduate student
Agrarian Institute of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education
"National Research Mordovian State University named after N.P. Ogarev", Saransk, Russia, tel.(8342) 25-41-04, е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In the diets of laying hens, readily available protein is an important component. As the poultry industry grows, so does the need for good quality feed. The problem of finding quality and cheap protein components increases every year. First of all, this happens when the cost of raw materials increases significantly with stable nutritional values; low yields also affect the increase in prices. Each day, many agricultural enterprises monitor the feed market in order to find the most appropriate ingredients for the production of quality feed. This paper examines the effect of feeding a white variety of lupine thermally treated on the performance of laying hens. To study the effect of lupine on the diet of laying hens, a scientific and economic experiment was carried out, two groups of poultry being selected. The control group received a basic diet without lupine and the experimental group received a diet with heat-treated lupine.
Keywords: laying hens, lupine, feed protein, animal survivability, egg production, feed conversion, poultry farming.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.013

THE INFLUENCE OF AN ENTOMOLOGICAL FEED ADDITIVE ON BIOCHEMICAL AND PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF FARM POULTRY
G.V. Ilyina, Doctor of Biological sciences, professor;
D.Y. Ilyin, Candidate of Biological sciences, assistant-professor;
L.L. Oshkina, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor;
S.А. Sashenkova, Candidate of Biological sciences, assistant-professor;
А.V. Ostapchuk, Candidate of Biological sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Penza, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article contains information on the results of an experiment on the introduction of an entomological feed additive into the diet of "Cobb-500" cross broilers. The milling of dry material of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) was studied as a supplement. The biochemical profile of the investigated additive was preliminarily studied. The researches, used as a basis of the work, were aimed at studying the productivity indexes (average daily gain) and a number of biochemical blood indexes (total protein, albumin fraction, cholesterol of different fractions) of fattening poultry. A traditional diet based on mixed fodder was used as a control. The results of the research indicate the stimulation of anabolic processes in the poultry organism due to the use of the feed additive. An average daily gain increased by 11.5-13.2% over the control; the content of total blood protein increased by 6.8-9.2% due to the albumin fraction. The content of triglycerides in the blood increased more significantly (by 16.3-20.4% compared to the control). An increase in serum cholesterol content was also observed, and the growth of this index due to high-density lipoprotein fraction (HDL) should be regarded as a positive moment. The fact of excessive accumulation of abdominal fat in the experimental group (by 8.0-11.5% relatively to the control) should be regarded as negative against the background of stable weight gain. In this regard, it is promising to conduct similar studies with a supplement that has undergone entomological fat extraction.
Keywords: poultry production, feed additives, entomological protein, black soldier fly, farm poultry physiology.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.014

GROWING STEERS WITH RYE-CONTAINING MIXED FODDERS
А.Y. Lavrentiev1, professor;
V.S. Sherne2, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor
1Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Chuvash State Agrarian University», Cheboksary, Russia, tel. 89278646863, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2ООО «Naturalnye Produkty Povolzhya» (LLC), Cheboksary, Russia, tel. 89278472390

Concentrated feed plays an important role in balancing ruminant diets in terms of energy, protein, minerals and biologically active substances. Cereal grains are an indispensable component of feed concentrates for farm animals. Rye occupies a special place among cereal crops as components of mixed fodders. Despite the fact that rye is a very common cereal crop in the Non-Black Earth zone of the Russian Federation, it has not yet found wide application in the compound feed industry.
Rye not suitable for food purposes can be used for the production of mixed fodder, but it is quite suitable for feeding farm animals. To prove scientifically the norms of rye introduction into the composition of mixed fodders in order to expand the possibility of its use in feeding growing steers is of current interest today. For carrying out the experiment four groups of growing steers have been formed and four recipes of mixed fodder-concentrates with various rates of rye introduction (0, 20, 30, 40 %) have been developed. The fulfilled researches show that mixed fodders prepared in accordance with the developed recipes allow balancing rations of young cattle grown for meat in accordance with detailed norms of feeding of agricultural animals with a comparatively low specific weight of concentrated fodders. Inclusion of rye in the composition of mixed fodders from 20 to 40% does not reduce the balance of the diet of animals of experimental groups as compared with the control. The gross and average daily gain of live weight did not differ significantly between the steers of the first three groups. The animals from the fourth group fed with a mixed fodder containing 40% rye yielded to the control animals by 5.6 kg of gross weight gain and by 43 g or 4.9% on the average daily gain. At the same time, 5.87-6.03 EFU were used per 1 kg of live weight gain.
Keywords: young animals, growing, rye, mixed fodder, ration, gain, feed consumption, nutrients, ration structure.

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ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.015

BENCH TESTS OF THE MODERNIZED TRACTOR DIESEL
V.A. Ovtov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.A. Orekhov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.V. Polikanov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
Yu.V. Polyvyany, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
E.P. Shitov, student
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, tel.: 89093192710, е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The car and tractor diesel engines are used in various natural and climatic zones of the country, where the ambient temperature varies in a wide range. The effective performance of a diesel engine largely depends on the performance properties of fuel and lubricants exposed to ambient temperatures. The purpose of this work is to study and substantiate the temperature of the fuel in the filling cavity of the high-pressure fuel pump, which ensures the optimal technical and economic performance of the diesel engine. The purpose of the work was achieved by analyzing scientific publications in domestic and foreign peer-reviewed journals, by conducting bench tests of the fuel pump and brake tests of a diesel engine under conditions of a forced change in fuel temperature. Using the method of planning a multifactorial experiment, the optimal temperature range of diesel fuel was determined, which provides the effective performance of a tractor diesel engine. The studies made it possible to determine the optimal technical and economic indicators of a tractor diesel engine.
Keywords: diesel, diesel fuel, torque, effective power, temperature, pressure.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.016

THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION OF THE DESIGN- TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME OF THE MODERNIZED THERMAL VACUUM EXTRUDER
A.A. Kurochkin1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
V.M. Zimnyakov2, Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor
1Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Penza State Technological University", Penza, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 49-56-99, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 628-359, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of theoretical studies on the justification of rational technical parameters of a single-screw thermal vacuum extruder. The chambers of preliminary and final drying of the extrudate were the object of the study. On the basis of modern views on the nature of the interaction of water steam and air flows in a limited volume of vacuum chambers of the extruder, the article proves one of the possible ways to increase the efficiency of the finished product dehydration. In order to simplify the design and increase the intensity of extrudate dehydration, the upgraded thermal vacuum extruder is proposed to be equipped with preliminary and final dehydration chambers with a uniform vacuum system. The conducted research has obtained equations that can be useful to determine the mass airflow rate introduced into the vacuum chambers of the machine. Its influence on the main design and technological parameters of the system also can be determined. It is the system that provides the thermal vacuum effect of the extrusion process. The analytical expressions presented in the article are the basis for calculating the area of cross-sections of the vacuum pipes connecting the preliminary and final dehydration chambers of the extruder with its vacuum system. The results obtained, along with the parameters received experimentally, make it possible to confirm its basic design and technological parameters with sufficient accuracy for the accepted values of the modernized extruder.
Keywords: thermoplastic extrusion, extrudate, thermal vacuum effect, vacuum chamber.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.017

STUDY RESULTS OF SEED DRESSING UNIT
O.N. Kukharev, Doctor of engineering sciences, professor;
I.N. Semov, Candidate of engineering sciences, associate professor;
K.S. Kondratyeva, postgraduate student
Federal State Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The materials of the article are devoted to an urgent problem which is reducing the loss of seed germination during storage in granaries. Seed dressing is the primary stage in the formation of the optimal phytopathological state of crops, which determines the further development of diseases. The equipment used by complanies for seed dressing does not always meet modern agrotechnical requirements, therefore, it is necessary to conduct research to increase the quality of seed dressing with the proposed unit, substantiating its design and technological parameters. During the implementation of the work, experimental methods were used, such as modeling, observation, experiment. As a result, a process flow diagram and a design of a unit for a grain flow disinfecting during storage were obtained and the optimal parameters of the proposed device were determined.
Keywords: seed dressing, disinfection, continuous flow.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.018

ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE GROUP COMPOSITION OF DIESEL FUELS ON THE EFFICIENT PERFORMANCE OF AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL ENGINES
D.А. Ukhanov1, Doctor of Technical sciences, professor;
М.D. Prokoptsova1, junior research associate;
I.F. Adgamov1, Candidate of Technical sciences;
А.P. Ukhanov2, Doctor of Technical sciences, professor
1Federal Autonomous Institution "25 State Research Institute of Chemistry of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation", Moscow, Russia;
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Penza, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The group composition of diesel oil (DO) predetermines the basic physical, chemical and calorific properties of fuel, which have a significant impact on the processes of evaporation, ignition and combustion of fuel in the diesel engine and, consequently, on its performance and fuel economy indicators. The group composition of diesel oil of various grades is characterized by a certain content in it of various hydrocarbon components and chemical compounds. One of the effective methods of researching the group composition of diesel oil is chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Chromatographic separation of summer and winter diesel fuel into hydrocarbon components and chemical compounds, as well as their mass-spectrometric analysis were carried out on a chromato-mass-spectrometer of the Chromatec company. The obtained mass-spectra of hydrocarbon components and chemical compounds made it possible to determine the group composition of diesel fuel brands DT-L-K5 and DT-Z-K5.
The results of test-bench runs of an automobile diesel engine D-245.12C show that the engine produces the maximum effective power when running on summer diesel and less power when running on winter diesel. Fuel efficiency indicators (hourly and specific effective fuel consumption) of the diesel engine at its operation on winter diesel oil is better in comparison to the operation on summer diesel oil. The highest values of effective efficiency are observed when the diesel is operated on winter diesel oil.
Keywords: diesel oil, chromatography-mass spectrometry, group composition, diesel, efficient indicators.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.019

CONSTRUCTION OF GRAIN SEEDER COULTER WITH A HINGE JOINT OF A SEED GUIDE AND A SOIL CULTIVATOR WITH THE COULTER BODY
N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
I.Yu. Kukushkin, postgraduate student;
A.V. Shukov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
T.A. Kiryukhina, Candidate of engineering sciences, associate professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 628 517, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The even distribution of seeds along the length and depth of the row mostly depends on the coulter, since it is one of the most responsible working parts of the seeder for sowing agricultural seeds.
The disadvantages of the available coulters include the adhesion of soil to the discs, which leads to poor compaction of the bottom of the furrow and shifting of seeds along the furrow, while the even distribution of seeds along the depth and the length of the furrow is disturbed. Moreover, modern coulters have mainly open type seed guides, which leads to the drop of seeds not to the bottom of the furrow, but to its walls, while the even distribution of seeds along the depth and along the length of the furrow is disturbed. All these disadvantages lead to a decrease in crop yields. The conducted studies aimed at improving the quality of sowing grain crops by improving the technological process of the coulters of a grain seeder with a hinge joint of the seed guide and the soil cultivator with the coulter body are relevant and have high economic and economic importance for the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation.
The article presents the device and principle of operation of the designed grain seeder coulter with a hinge joint of the seed guide and soil cultivator with the coulter body. When the coulter operates, the seeds are embedded not only due to the crumbling soil from the walls of the furrow caused by the coulter disks, but a complete and even filling of the furrow with seeds is carried out without displacement along with the soil, and also provides a more even distribution of seeds along the length and the depth of the furrow.
Key words: discs, coulter, seed guide, seeds, rectangular tube.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.10.2.020

THE RESULTS OF THEORETICAL STUDIES ON DETERMINING THE RADIAL DEFLECTION OF THE WORKING PART OF THE TEAT TUBE OF THE MILKING MACHINE
А.V. Yashin, Candidate of Technical sciences, assistant-professor;
А.V. Ovtov, Candidate of Technical sciences, assistant-professor;
P.А. Sumenkov, post-graduate student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. +79273907570, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

One of the objectives of dairy farming is to further increase the rate of milk production by increasing the milk productivity of cows. The most important reserve for increasing milk productivity is the use of milking equipment that best suits animal physiology, as well as its proper selection and operation. The analysis of existing milking device designs allowed to draw a conclusion that one of their main drawbacks is an extremely hard influence on udder receptors and consequently inhibition of milking reflex, which results in the decrease of milking intensity of a cow and in the decrease of milk yield. It is established that the most responsible element of the milking machine is milking cups equipped with teat tubes, which directly contact with an animal and are the actuating mechanisms. The research of deflection of symmetrical working part of a teat tube is based on the known principles of liquid (gas) and solid mechanics, theory of elasticity and resistance of materials, as well as of mathematical analysis. The equation of the maximum radial deflection of the working part of teat tube of the milking machine which allows to determine the interrelation of the deformation with mechanical characteristics of a used material, the basic constructive and dynamic parameters is derived. Besides, the given equation allows to determine the minimum necessary height of the working part of the teat tube with the minimum allowable thickness for creation of the wave effect of extrusion from sucker to diverter in a squeezing stroke while designing the milking machine with the squeezing effect.
Keywords: teat tube, working part, radial deflection, tension.

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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Agronomy


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.001

ASSESSMENT OF PEA VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MINERAL NUTRITION
V.V. Koshelyaev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
I.P. Koshelyaeva, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor;
N.V. Shabyshev, post-graduate student
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 62-83-73, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Assessment of pea varieties at different levels of mineral nutrition is a specific task associated with the need to increase yields and reduce vegetable protein deficiency. The aim of the work was to study the peculiarities of productivity formation of pea varieties and substantiate the optimal application of "starting" doses of mineral fertilizers, which ensure high grain yields. To achieve the goal, a two-factor field experiment was carried out. Factor A – sowing pea varieties; Factor B – mineral nutrition levels. As a result, it was found that the assessed varieties responded well to the application of low "starter" doses of mineral fertilizers (N16P16K16; N32P32K32). The pea varieties Pharaoh and Flagman 12 formed the highest grain yield when N32P32K32 was applied. The Rocket and ESO varieties also showed the highest yield of grain at the background of the application of N32P32K32 for the three-year period of the study. However, in some years there was no significant difference in yield obtained using N16P16K16 and N32P32K32 for these varieties. The highest biological yield over the years was in the variety ESO (4.3 t/ha), a slightly lower yield was in the variety Rocket (4.1 t/ha), even lower was the yield of the varieties Flagman 12 (3.6 t/ha) and Pharaoh (3.4 t/ha).
Keywords: sowing pea, varieties, yield, mineral nutrition, fertilizer.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.002

PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STRESS RESISTANCE IN WINTER WHEAT
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Senior Researcher
North Caucasian Research Institute of Mining and Piedmont Agriculture – a branch of the Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, village Mikhailovskoe, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of long-term studies of physiological processes, oxidative stress in wheat plants under the influence of phytopathogens, mineral fertilizers and fungicides. The criteria for the damaging effect of oxidative stress are the activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase and the concentration of TBA-active products. Normally, a mobile balance is maintained between the processes of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the antioxidant (AO) defense system of the cell. However, under stressful conditions, the ROS content in cells rapidly increases and oxidative stress develops.
Plant resistance to many environmental factors is determined by the plant's ability to maintain the coordinated course of physiological processes without causing their significant disruption under conditions stress. The relationship between LPO processes and nitrate reductase activity was observed in all wheat varieties. It was found that varieties reacted differently to fertilizer doses. A high negative correlation dependence r = -83 was found between LPO and NDA processes. Many pesticides, in addition to their main target effect, have additional effects on plants. Fungicides from the triazole class (Bayleton, Tilt, Fundazol) were studied. They all showed antioxidant properties. The strongest antioxidant effect was observed for the fungicide Tilt (propiconazole). Our results, regarding the close relationship between LPO and HPA processes, make it possible to use fungicides from the triazole class for increasing plant resistance to various stress factors, activating the antioxidant system in plant cells, increasing productivity. They areas chemical immunizers, they are capable of simultaneously restraining the development of diseases and affecting physiological and biochemical mechanisms that increase the resistance of plant organisms to phytopathogens and other stress factors.
Keywords: wheat, fertilizers, fungicide, nitrate reductase, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.003

THE ROLE OF GROWTH REGULATORS IN THE FORMATION OF MAIZE GRAIN CROP YIELD
S.A. Semina1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
I.V. Gavryushina1, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor;
Yu.A. Semina2, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
S.N. Alekseeva1, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor
1Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. (8412)628-151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Scientific Center of Vegetable Growing" Moscow Region, Odintsovo City District, VNIISSOK settlement, Russia


The article presents the results of studies on the effect of foliar treatment of plants with growth regulators on the formation of maize grain yield depending on the level of mineral nutrition. It was found that exogenous growth regulators had almost no effect on the number of ripened cobs on the plant, but stimulated the growth of the cob length: on an unfertilized agricultural background, the increase was 0.2-7.1 %, while when fertilizer was applied it was 2.4-6.1 %. With foliar treatment of the crops with Zircon and Plagron Vita Race on a natural agricultural background, the number of grains in the cob increased by 22-24 pcs (7.6-8.4%), and on a fertilized background the increase was 16-24 pcs (4.6-6.8%). The foliar treatment with phytoregulators on a natural agricultural background increased the grain yield per cob by 10.6 % and by 4.9 % on an improved mineral nutrition background. The higher grain yield per cob was obtained with Zircon and Plagron Vita Race treatment. In terms of grain yield at all levels of mineral nutrition, the most effective way was the use of the plant growth regulator Plagron Vita Race, which yielded an additional 10.1-13.5 % of production. In all years of research, exogenous phytoregulators showed better antistress properties in natural agricultural backgrounds.
Keywords: maize, growth regulator, cob, grain, yield.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.004

EFFECT OF MICROFERTILIZERS BASED ON CHELATED COMPLEXES ON SEED GERMINATION
A.V. Nushtaeva, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor;
Yu.V. Blinokhvatova, Candidate of Biological Sciences;
T.A. Vlasova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
N.P. Chekaev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. 8 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The most important role in crop formation and its chemical composition is fulfilled by the balanced nutrition of plants with macro and microelements. The agrochemical approach to plant nutrition regulation is based on the removal of nutrients from the soil, the content and availability of macro- and microelements and their compensation by applying fertilizers to the planned yield. An insufficient content of several necessary microelements, namely Zn, Mo, Mn, and B, characterizes the Penza region soils In this regard, the issue of using complex forms of microfertilizers remains relevant. The influence of various concentrations from 0.1 to 10 % of the micro fertilizers preparation based on chelated complexes of elements on the germination of spring wheat seeds Triticum aestivum L. (the Tulaykovskaya 108 variety) and sunflower Helianthus annuus L. (hybrid P62LE122) was studied. The positive effect of low concentrations of the working preparation of microfertilizers on the germination of sunflower seeds was found out: an increase in germination energy from 17 %, seed germination from 5 %, and seedling biomass from 2%. With an increase in the preparation concentration, the suppression of seed germination was found. It was especially seen on spring wheat. It is assumed that the increased content of copper and zinc has a toxic effect on the cells of seedlings. The studied preparation of microfertilizers can be recommended for pre-planting treatment of sunflower seeds. Its concentration of elements includes: Mn – 30-150 mg/l, Zn – 20-80 mg/l, Cu – 3-10 mg/l, B – 10-50 mg/l.
Keywords: microelements, copper, zinc, ontogenesis, germination.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.005

PRODUCTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT CROP ROTATIONS AND METHODS OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES IMPROVEMENT IN THE FOREST-STEPPE CONDITIONS OF THE VOLGA REGION
А.L. Toigildin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
М.I. Podsevalov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
I.А. Toigildina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
D.E. Ayupov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, senior lecturer;
V.N. Ostin, post-graduate student.
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin", Ulyanovsk, Russia, tel. 8(8422)55-95-75,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of an assessment of the yield of oil-bearing crops (oilseed flax, white mustard, spring rape), winter wheat and comparative productivity of crop rotation links with two schemes of main tillage and two levels of plant protection in the stationary three-factor field experiment in the forest-steppe zone of the Volga region. During the years of the research, the crop yield of oil flax was 0.18-1.33 t/ha, of white mustard – 1.05-1.35 t/ha, of spring rape – 1.14-1.52 t/ha of oilseeds, with a significant increase under the combined treatment of soil in the crop rotation and adaptive-integrated plant protection (treatment of seeds, use of herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and bio fungicides). The yield of winter wheat varied according to the forecrop: clean fallow – 5.72 t/ha > after white mustard – 4.75 t/ha > after spring rape – 4.54 t/ha > after oilseed flax – 4.44 t/ha. An assessment of the comparative productivity of crop rotations with winter wheat showed that they can be placed in the following descending order: white mustard – winter wheat – 3.18 > oilseed flax – winter wheat – 3.14 > spring rape – winter wheat – 3.08 > clean fallow – winter wheat – 2.86 thousand grain units per 1 ha. Thus, the use of crop rotation links with cultivated fallows and partial replacement of clean fallows is a promising direction from the perspective of using arable land on the principles of crop rotation, especially in agricultural landscapes with high erosion risk.
Keywords: winter wheat, oilseed flax, white mustard, spring rape, tillage, crop protection, productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.006

BIOLOGICAL FEATURES AND ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE TRAITS OF THE GARDEN PLUM VARIETIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION
A.V. Solonkin1, Doctor of Agricultural sciences;
T.I. Alexandrova2, junior researcher
1Federal State-Funded Institution Federal Scientific Center of Agroecology, Complex Melioration and Protective Forestation of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Volgograd, Russia, tel. 8-903-376-76-92, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2Federal State-Funded Institution Caspian Agricultural Federal Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Astrakhanskaya oblast, Russia, tel. 8-929-743-87-19,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of the study of productivity and yield of plum varieties under the conditions of the arid zone of the Lower Volga region. Studies were carried out at the irrigated section of the Federal State-Funded Institution Caspian Agricultural Federal Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The research material was seven plum varieties: Renklod Altana, Chernosliv Adygeyskiy, President, Donetskaya, Stanley, Angelina, Chachakskaya. The control was presented by Renklod Altana. The results of the study of plum varieties indicate good growth and development under the arid zone of the Caspian.
Keywords: Variety, gardening, plum, products, adaptation, crown, tree trunk, fruit weight.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.007

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF GREY FOREST SOILS AND OIL-PLANT YIELDS WHEN USING THE METHODS OF BASIC CULTIVATION
E.I. Lupova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor;
D.V. Vinogradov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Ryazan State Agrotechnological University Named After P.A. Kostychev", Ryazan, Russia, tel. (8912)353516, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents an analysis of multi-year research on the development of the cultivation technology elements of the spring rape and winter cress, which provide an increase of oilseeds yield in the conditions of Ryazan Oblast. According to the experiment results, it was found that there was no significant difference in the biological activity of the soil in the crop rotation. The maximum yield of rape was observed in the option of the fallow link of crop rotation + mouldboard tillage – 31.3 dt/ha, and of winter cress – 25.6 dt/ha. In the research presented, the oil content of spring rape of the Ratnik variety was 43.4-47.6 %, of winter cress of the Lipchanka – 42.0-45.1 %. In addition, it did not depend on the cultivation intensity.
Keywords: rape, winter cress, grey forest soil, biological activity, oilseeds, yield.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.008

APPLICATION OF MICRO-ELEMENT FERTILIZERS IN THE INDUSTRIAL HEMP (SURSKAYA VARIETY) AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE CONTENT OF CANNABINOIDS
V.A. Gushchina1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.A. Smirnov2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.D. Smirnov1, postgraduate student
1Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel.: 8 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2Limited Liability Company "Konopleks Agro", Nizhny Lomov, Penza region, Russia

Hemp is currently used as a material for the manufacture of a number of strategically important products. In this regard, domestic industrial hemp growing began to revive. In the modern production of hemp sowing fertilizers is the use of environmentally friendly preparations, the low dose applying of which is a low-cost means. Therefore, in order to achieve a high-quality crop of industrial hemp variety Surskaya with a tetrahydrocannabinol content that does not exceed the permissible by law (0.1%). On leached chernozem of the agro-firm LLC "Konolex Penza" in years with different hydrothermal conditions (2019-2020) foliar feeding with microelement preparations of the phase of three pairs with true leaves, budding, and also, with their value, did not affect the significant accumulation of specific compounds in the tops of the inflorescences of hemp plants – the sum of the main cannabinoids and tetrohydrocannabinol. However, it should be noted that under the drought conditions of 2019 during the sowing-flowering period (THC – 0.18), an increase in the total content of the main cannabinoids by 1.1...1.5 times was observed. The concentration of THC, which has a hallucinogenic effect, during foliar treatment of cannabis in the phase of three pairs of true leaves with the phase – in budding with the studied preparations, increased 1.2...1.7 times, but did not exceed 0.057%. With excessive moisture (THC – 1.62) of the sowing-flowering interphase period in 2020, the sum of the main cannabinoids in plants was 1.2...1.3 times less. Of the non-psychoactive components, cannabidiols (CBD) accumulate the most, However, it should be noted that under the drought conditions of 2019 during the sowing-flowering period (THC – 0.18), an increase in the total content of the main cannabinoids by 1.1...1.5 times was observed. The concentration of THC, which has a hallucinogenic effect, during foliar treatment of cannabis in the phase of three pairs of true leaves with the phase – in budding with the studied preparations, increased 1.2...1.7 times, but did not exceed 0.057%. With excessive moisture (THC – 1.62) of the sowing-flowering interphase period in 2020, the sum of the main cannabinoids in plants was 1.2...1.3 times less. Of the non-psychoactive components, cannabidiols (CBD) accumulate the most, However, it should be noted that under the drought conditions of 2019 during the sowing-flowering period (THC – 0.18), an increase in the total content of the main cannabinoids by 1.1...1.5 times was observed. The concentration of THC, which has a hallucinogenic effect, during foliar treatment of cannabis in the phase of three pairs of true leaves with the phase – in budding with the studied preparations, increased 1.2...1.7 times, but did not exceed 0.057%. With excessive moisture (THC – 1.62) of the sowing-flowering interphase period in 2020, the sum of the main cannabinoids in plants was 1.2...1.3 times less. Of the non-psychoactive components, cannabidiols (CBD) accumulate the most, during foliar treatment of hemp in the phase of three pairs of true leaves with the phase – in budding with the studied preparations, it increased by 1.2...1.7 times, but did not exceed 0.057%. With excessive moisture (THC – 1.62) of the sowing-flowering interphase period in 2020, the sum of the main cannabinoids in plants was 1.2...1.3 times less. Of the non-psychoactive components, cannabidiols (CBD) accumulate the most, during foliar treatment of hemp in the phase of three pairs of true leaves with the phase – in budding with the studied preparations, increased by 1.2...1.7 times, but did not exceed 0.057%. With excessive moisture (THC – 1.62) of the sowing-flowering interphase period in 2020, the sum of the main cannabinoids in plants was 1.2...1.3 times less. Of the non-psychoactive components, cannabidiols (CBD) accumulate the most,
Keywords: industrial hemp, micro-elements, foliar treatment, cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.009

THE INFLUENCE OF MICRO- AND MACRO-FERTILIZERS ON THE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY PROCESSES OF SPRING WHEAT
V.A. Isaychev1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
N.N. Andreev1,2, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor, Senior Research Officer;
I.L. Fedorova1, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor
1Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education "Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin", Ulyanovsk, Russia, tel. 8(8422) 55-95-16, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2Institute of Technology – branch of the Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education "Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin", Dimitrovgrad Russia, tel. 89061434511, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studying the effect of MEGAMIX-AZOT and the NPK fertilizer (nitroammophoska) on the germination parameters and photosynthetic activity of spring wheat plants of the Ulyanovskaya 100 variety under the forest-steppe conditions of the Middle Volga region. It showed that pre-sowing seed incrustation with MEGAMIX-AZOT contributed to an increase in seed germination power by 5.1 % compared to the control and laboratory germination rate by 4.3 %. Compared to the control option, the increase in the length of spring wheat seedlings was 0.37 cm, and seminal roots – 0.54 cm. Under the effect of the used preparation, the field germination rate of spring wheat seeds increased and was higher than the control by 5.4 % during the years of research averagely. In the MEGAMIX-AZOT option on a fertilised background, an improved rate of dry matter accumulation by spring wheat plants was in all phases of growth and development. At the tillering stage, the studied parameter was 451.7 kg/ha, at the stem extension stage – 2222.1 kg/ha, at the heading stage – 4451.0 kg/ha, and at the milky ripening stage – 6205.3 kg/ha. Under the effect of the studied preparation, the maximum increase of the phytomass growth rate occurred against the background of the application of complex mineral fertilizer. On average for the three experimental years, the increase in the control option was: 0.28 mg/g – at the stem extension stage, 0.63 mg/g – at the heading stage, and 0.58 mg/g – at the milky ripening stage. Against the background of a complex mineral fertilizer application, the maximum net photosynthetic productivity occurred in the MEGAMIX-AZOT option. At the stem extension stage, this parameter was 9.63 g/m2 per day, at the heading stage – 13.57 g/m2, at the milky ripening stage – 12.17 g/m2.
Keywords: spring wheat, mineral fertilizers, germination parameters, photosynthetic activity, productivity.

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Veterinary and zootechny


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.010

INFLUENCE OF BREED AND COUNTRY OF ORIGIN ON INDICATORS OF SEMEN PRODUCTION OF STUD BULLS
O.V. Rudenko1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
M. Almohammed2, postgraduate student
1Nizhny Novgorod Research Institute of Agriculture – branch of the Federal State-Funded Scientific Institution “Federal Agrarian Research Center of the North-East named after N. V. Rudnitskiy”, Selektsionnaya station, Nizhny Novgorod oblast, Russia, tel./fax (83145) 65-377, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education “Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy”, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents data on the influence of the breed of linear affiliation, country of origin on the quality indicators of sperm production of sire bulls. The research was carried out on bulls of Holstein, Black Pied, Brown Swiss and Hereford bulls at the age of 2-6 years in OOO Nizhegorodskoie for Stock Breeding. In our studies, bulls of different breeds differed from each other in qualitative and quantitative indicators. Holstein bulls had the largest volume of ejaculate, 7.57 ± 0.19 ml, in the context of the lineages the fluctuations were insignificant. The highest concentration of sperm was found in the ejaculate of Hereford beef bulls, 0.789 ± 0.105 billion/ml. The best sperm activity was found in Holstein and Brown Swiss bulls (6.42 and 6.47 points, respectively). The influence of the breed on the volume of ejaculate was 34.4%, on the concentration of sperm in the ejaculate – 18.8%, on the activity of sperm – 25.6%. The average volume of ejaculate is a rather variable sign. The coefficient of variability ranges from 10.7 to 32.1%. The sperm concentration has slightly less variability, the coefficient of variability is 11.8-24.8%. The variability in sperm activity was the lowest of the three studied parameters. The lowest value of the coefficient of variation of sperm activity was found in the Laird lineage of Brown Swiss bulls, 0.1%; the highest in Hereford bulls, 10.6%. The number of sperm doses stored in the storage depends to a greater extent on the activity of sperm cells (r = 0.421), to a lesser extent on their concentration in the ejaculate (r = 0.375). Holstein bulls from Canada are of full age (5-6 years), which is why they exceeded domestic stud bulls in terms of ejaculate volume and sperm activity with statistical significance. The difference in sperm concentration between stud bulls has not been established.
Keywords: stud bulls, sperm concentration, ejaculate volume, sperm activity, breed, lineage, country of origin.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.011

LIVE WEIGHT AND SURVIVAL OF PIGLETS FROM SOWS WITH DIFFERENT LENGTH OF SERVICE-PERIOD AND LACTATION
А.I. Daryin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
N.N. Kerdyashov, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
А.А. Busov, post-graduate student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. 8-9061567215, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Hybrid pigs used on modern complexes are highly productive, but are more demanding in terms of feeding and housing conditions. The reproductive qualities of sows have a low heredity and are therefore largely determined by technological factors. The development of technological methods of using sows in reproduction is of great importance. Studies on the effect of the duration of the service period (interval from weaning to insemination, or mating period) and lactation of sows on the weaning live weight of piglets and their safety were conducted in the reproductive unit of an industrial pig farm. It was revealed that the duration of the service period and lactation of sows influences their further reproductive qualities. It was noted that inseminating sows during the second heat after weaning has a positive influence on the weaning live weight and safety of the piglets obtained from them. It was revealed that the sows with a service period of 21-28 days had the highest increase in the live weight of the piglets from 0.27 to 0.55 kg in comparison with the analogous data from the groups of sows with a service period of 1-7 days. When using the technique of inseminating sows in the second heat and their lactation period of 21 days, the survival of the piglets improved by 0.7-2.2%.
Keywords: pig breeding, sow, farrowing, multiple farrowing, farrowing number, service period, lactation period, piglet survival, number of weaned piglets.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.012

ASSESSMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE QUALITIES OF COWS DEPENDING ON ORIGIN
T.V. Shishkina, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor;
Т.А. Guseva, Candidate of Agricultural sciences;
E.А. Latypova, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 628380, е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

At present, the assessment of reproductive qualities of cows depending on their origin is of great scientific and practical importance in cattle breeding. This is due to the fact that violation of reproductive functions of animals, firstly, reduces milk productivity of cows, secondly, reduces the period of economic use of animals, and, consequently, the profitability of production of the industry in general. Studies on assessment of reproductive qualities of cows depending on their origin were conducted in the breeding farm ZAO Konstantinovo (CJSC). At this farm an extensive work on mating cows of the Russian Black Pied breed with Holstein bulls is in progress. As a result there are cows of different intermediate genotypes in terms of blood and lineage affiliation in the herd. Therefore, the aim of our research was to investigate the reproductive ability of the cows in the herd depending on their origin. Groups of first-calf cows were formed according to the analogy method, taking into account lineage and bloodlines. As a result of the conducted researches it has been established that the lineage of cows influences reproductive ability, namely, age of the first insemination and the first calving, service-period, inter-calving period, the fertility index and reproductive ability coefficient. The best reproductive performance was found in the Reflection Sovereign 198998 and Montvic Chieftain 95679 lines.
Keywords: line, bloodlines, age of the first insemination, age of the first calving, service-period, inter-calving period, fertility index, reproductive ability coefficient.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.013

THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF SELENIUM COMPOUNDS ON THE VETERINARY AND SANITARY INDICATORS OF PORK
А.А. Kuznetsov, Candidate of Biological Science;
G.I. Boryaev, Doctor of Biological Science, professor;
Е.V. Zdorovieva, Candidate of Biological Science;
D.V. Mironov, student of the Techological Faculty
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. 8(8412)628563, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Studies have shown that the diet of Russians contains considerably less selenium than they need. Insufficient intake of selenium can provoke a number of dangerous diseases. The enrichment of mass consumption foodstuffs with selenium through the introduction of selenium-containing compounds into the feeds of farm animals is one of the ways to provide people with this microelement in a sufficient dose.
Comprehensive evaluation of the influence of selenopyran (an organic compound of selenium) as a part of feed additive to swine diet, on productivity, accumulation and distribution of selenium in organs and tissues of animals, biological value of meat products has not been conducted by other researchers.
Three groups of fattening piglets were formed to study this issue. Animals of the first experimental group received 0.3 mg of selenium in the form of selenopyran per one kilogram of feed, the second group received sodium selenite in the same dose. The third group was a control one.
The research showed that the level of selenium in the muscle tissue of animals fed with selenopyran and sodium selenite exceeded this indicator of the control group, while the accumulation and distribution of the microelement in the body depended on the form of selenium compound.
In addition, in animals of the experimental groups the content of essential fusible fatty acids in the speck and lipids of meat increased. This proves that the use of selenium-containing compounds of organic and inorganic nature at the dose of 0.3 mg of selenium per 1 kg of feed can increase the biological value of pork by accumulating selenium in the muscle tissue and increasing the content of essential fatty acids in the speck and lipids of meat. Organic selenium is the most effective form of selenium. The property of selenium to be accumulated in the tissues and organs of animals allows the production of functional meat products saturated with this microelement.
Keywords: selenium, selenopyran, functional food products, product saturation, selenium content in meat.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.014

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE USE OF NATURAL ZEOLITES IN THE FEEDING OF STORE PIGS
L.R. Mikhailova1, Postgraduate;
L.V. Zhestyanova1, Postgraduate,
A.Yu. Lavrentiev1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
V.S. Sherne2, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
1Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Chuvash State Agrarian University»;
2OOO "Naturalnyie produkty Povolzhiya" (a limited liability company under the laws of the Russian Federation)

The purpose-oriented use of a silicon-containing zeolite as a preventive and therapeutic food additive when feeding animals and birds makes it possible to increase their productivity. Four mixed fodder formulas were developed to carry out the experiment: one without zeolite tripoli and three with 3, 4, 5 % of this additive. Based on scientific and economic studies, the experiment has shown that the optimum additive dose of this preparation is 3% of the feed weight. In addition, it was found that the absolute growth increased by 13.5 % in the second group, and by 7.2 % in the third group. In the fourth group, it decreased by 4.41 % compared to the control group. Studies have shown that the addition of silicon-containing zeolite in the second and third experimental groups did not affect the food intake of the experimental animals. In contrast, in the fourth experimental group, an appetite decrease was observed. Feed consumption per unit live weight in the second, third and fourth experimental groups decreased by 12.1%, 6.7% and 0.3%.
Keywords: combined feed, silicon-containing zeolite, young pigs, growth, feed consumption, digestibility, availability.

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ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.015

THE PECULIARITIES OF MONITORING THE TECHNICAL CONDITION OF A VARIABLE SPEED GEARBOX 
V.V. Lyandenburskiy2, Candidate of Technical sciences, Assistant-professor;
А.S. Ivanov1, Candidate of Technical sciences, Assistant-professor;
I.I. Fahrutdinov2;
V.А. Ivanov1, Candidate of Technical sciences
1Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 65-82-42 Е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State University", Penza, Russia

Nowadays, road transport is used to move various loads in agriculture, in which automatic gearboxes are used. When the vehicles are moving, elements wear out, which leads to changes in parameters of technical condition of vehicles, reduction of efficiency of gear shifting or inability to move the vehicle.
The key element in a variable speed gearbox which has a dispatching function is the V-belt variator gear. Existing algorithms do not make it possible to identify the fault in the vehicle at the lowest cost. It is proposed to change the algorithm for diagnosing vehicle gearboxes based on the analysis. As a result of the road tests, measurements of accelerator pedal depressions, changes of vehicle speed and engine crankshaft speed depending on time, changes of throttle opening degree and pressure in the high pressure fuel line were made with a Consult III+ device to identify the malfunctioning condition of the hydraulic unit of the gearbox. The measurement time for each of the indicators did not exceed 30 seconds. The available monitoring system cannot detect a gearbox failure. Detecting a failure when the vehicle is not shifting gears requires the development of an algorithm using a questionnaire part.
Keywords: vehicle, diagnosis, automatic gearbox, algorithm.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.016

ADAPTATION OF TRACTOR DIESEL ENGINE TO OPERATION ON HILL MUSTARD MINERAL FUEL
A.P. Ukhanov1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, professor;
D.A. Ukhanov2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, professor;
S.V. Gorbacheva1, post-graduate student
1Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2Federal Autonomous Institution The 25th State Scientific Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

The purpose of the research is the adaptation of the tractor engine to operation on diesel blended fuel (DBF), the biological component of which is vegetable oil of Bunias orientalis or hill mustard. The information on the fatty acid and hydrocarbon composition is given, as well as the lower heat of the combustion and the cetane number of the hill mustard oil and DBF with a different percentage ratio of commercial mineral diesel fuel (DF) and hill mustard oil. The results of tribological studies of the hill mustard oil and DBF on a universal tribometer with a three-sized friction node are presented. Analysis of the results indicates that in terms of flammability, calorific and lubricity indicators, it is rational to use blended hill mustard-mineral fuel with a 10-50% content of the hill mustard oil in it. For the tractor to operate on mineral DF and DBF, a two-fuel diesel power system has been developed and patented, which, along with the nodes and units of the standard power supply system, contains a switch of a motor fuel type, an ultrasonic device for processing DBF components by high-frequency oscillations, a temperature sensor and a load sensor. In start-up, warm-up and stop modes, the operation of the diesel engine is carried out on mineral DF, in other modes – on DBF. DBF processing with high-frequency oscillations is carried out only when the diesel engine is operating in the nominal load mode or in overload mode. When using a diesel engine in idling modes, small and medium loads modes, the processing of blended fuel by high-frequency oscillations is not produced.
Keywords: diesel, mineral diesel fuel, hill mustard oil, diesel blended fuel, calorific and lubricating properties, flammability, power system.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.017

DESIGN OF A COULTER WITH A FURROW COVERING DEVICE FOR A GRAIN SEEDER
N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
S.V. Brichkov, Postgraduate;
A.V. Shukov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
T.A. Kiryukhina, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 628 517, e-mail: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A coulter is one of the most important working elements of a grain seeder. Its operation affects not only the uniform distribution of the seeds but also the depth of their sowing.
The manufacture of coulters without a seed covering device can be considered a disadvantage of the present coulters. This results in partial and uneven coverage of the seed furrow only caused by sloughing soil from the furrow walls, following the coulter disks. In this case, the partially and unevenly placed seeds can be distributed in the soil with different depths, etc. In turn, this can lead to the seeding quality and crop yields decrease. The research presented in this article is oriented towards improving the quality of sowing of grain crops by upgrading the coulter working process with furrow covering devices. These studies are relevant and of high economic importance to the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation.
This article presents the design and operating principle of the developed coulter with furrow covering device. When using it, the seeding-down only by falling soil from the furrow walls is avoided; complete and uniform furrow covering without seed displacement together with the soil is provided; the most uniform seed distribution over the length of the furrow and the sowing depth is ensured.
Keywords: disks, coulter, device for covering seeds, seeds, spring fingers.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.018

THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF THE COPYING CROP LIFTER OF A COMBINE HARVESTER HEADER
K.Z. Kukhmazov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor;
А.V. Shukov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant-professor;
Е.V. Petrova, post-graduate student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel.8(8412) 626-579, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article deals with an important topic – reduction of grain losses during harvesting of lodged crops. It analyzes the designs of existing crop lifting devices for harvesting lodged crops and reveals their main drawback. The design and operating principles of the proposed copying crop lifter for combine harvester are described. The results of theoretical studies on justification of design parameters of copying crop lifter are given, in particular, theoretical dependencies determining the length of the slide and the base and the force required to match plated spring of the copying crop lifter are presented.
Keywords: combine harvester, combine header, lodged crops, grain crops, grain losses, copying crop lifter.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.019

DESIGN OF THE SEEDING UNIT OF A GRAIN SEEDER WITH INCLINED RIBS AND GROOVES AND SECTIONAL ROLLER GROOVE DIVIDERS
N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Technical Science, professor;
А.Yu. Vershigorov, post-graduate student;
А.V. Shukov, Candidate of Technical Science, assistant-professor;
Т.А. Kiryukhina, Candidate of Technical Science, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University" Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 628 517, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The seeding unit is one of the most important parts of a grain seeder, as it not only affects the distribution of seed per unit area, but also the deviation from the specified seeding rate, as well as the crushing of the seed.
When examining various types of seed wheel designs, it can be concluded that they mostly have sectional rollers, the grooves of which are straight and staggered on the surfaces of the sectional rollers. The disadvantages of such seeding machines include deviation from the specified seeding rate, unsatisfactory distribution of seeds per unit area, as the location of grooves on the surface of the sectional roller is staggered, resulting in seed rolls from the edges of the sectional roller and falls on the adjacent sections of the sectional roller.
The article presents the design and principle of operation of the developed seeding unit of a grain seeder with inclined ribs and grooves and sectional roller groove dividers. When using it, deviation from the set seeding rate, unsatisfactory spreading of seeds per unit area, crushing of seeds are reduced. All this improves the quality of seed sowing.
Keywords: sectional roller, dividers, seeding unit, seed grain.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2021.9.1.020

INVESTIGATION OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A VEHICLE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM
S.V. Timokhin, Doctor of Technical science, professor;
Yu.V. Sergeevichev, post-graduate student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 628 517, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Based on the patent-information analysis, the paper substantiates the relevance of researching technical and economic indicators of typical automobile power supply systems based on generator sets (GS) and starter batteries (STB). In order to carry out experimental researches of automobile GSs the authors developed a laboratory setup on the basis of high-speed electric motor powered by frequency converter with direct measurement of torque and equipped with necessary equipment and electro-measuring instruments. The methods of experimental and computational determination of the investigated indicators are presented. The results of the investigations made it possible to determine the components of power consumption for the drive of a vehicle generator set and its coefficient of performance. The consumption and cost of fuel consumed for the drive of a vehicle GS is calculated, the necessity and directions of further research on their reduction are substantiated.
Keywords: internal combustion engine, generator set, efficiency, power, drive, fuel consumption.

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