MICROELEMENT FERTILIZERS, GROWTH REGULATORS, BACTERIAL FERTILIZERS IN THE TECHNOLOGIES OF CULTIVATION OF WINTER TRITICAL IN THE FOREST STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
P.G. Alyonin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
S.A. Kshnikatkin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
G.V. Ilyina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor;
E.A. Zueva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor
The studies were conducted in 2003-2011 on the experimental field of the FSBEI HE Penza State Agrarian University, in the fodder production department of the FSBI Penza Agricultural Research Institute, OOO Agrofirm Biokor-S, OOO Intechsemkor. As a result of many years of research, it was found that under conditions of Penza region the most adapted winter triticale ADS-4 variety, Yield 4.46 t/ha, which is 0.84 t/ha (23.2%) higher than Talva 100 standard. The treatment of winter triticale seeds of ADS-4 variety with microelement fertilizers, growth regulators and biological fertilizers contributed to an increase in grain yield in relation to the control according to the experimental variants by 0.74-1.81 t/ha (16.4-41.0%). At the same time, the highest yield (6.06 t/ha) was obtained by treating seeds with sodium humate together with aquamix. Foliar dressing of plants with complex fertilizers on a fertilized background contributed to an increase in the yield of Doctrina 110 winter triticale in the tillering phase by 0.71-0.80 t/ha, in the heading phase by 0.40-0.47 t/ha, in phase tillering + heading by 1.36-1.43 t/ha. The most effective was the use of complex fertilizer Master Special, the grain yield of Doctrina 110 was 7.57-8.53 t/ha, Talva 100 – 5.62-6.26 t/ha. The highest grain yield of 8.53 t/ha of Doctrina 110 is provided by the application of nitrogen fertilizers 60 kg/ha with root dressing and Poly-Feed 4 kg/ha with foliar dressing during the tillering and heading phase. The yield increase was 20.1%. When cultivating winter triticale for feed purposes, it is most effective to spray plants with Master Special. The yield of feed units is 21.7 t/ha, digestible protein – 15.05 t/ha, exchange energy – 170.45 GJ/ha. During exogenous treatment of seeds of winter triticale of Varvara variety, the highest grain yield of 4.82 t/ha was obtained using Albit together with Baikal EM-1.
Keywords: winter triticale, mineral and microelement fertilizers, growth regulators, bacterial fertilizers, photosynthesis, productivity, grain quality.
CHANGES IN THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF MANURE, GREEN MANURE AND THE STOVER BIODESTRUCTOR
A.V. Safonov, Post-graduate;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.N. Arefiev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor;
E.E. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor
Intensification of agriculture in the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Volga region requires solving the problem of preserving the soil and its potential and effective fertility in order to increase crop productivity and quality of crop production. In this regard, the development and implementation in agricultural practice of agrobiological techniques to prevent anthropogenic degradation in agricultural landscapes is an urgent direction of modern agricultural science. The purpose of the research was to compare the effect of the implementation of manure, green manure and their combinations with the stover biodestructor on the physical and chemical properties of meadow-chernozemic soil. To reach this purpose, research was conducted in the period from 2017 to 2019 in the first agro-soil district of the Penza region. Research has shown that the effect and after-effect of manure, green manure and their compound action and after-action with the stover biodestructor had a positive effect on the physical and chemical properties of meadow-chernozemic soil. Green manure fallows were not inferior to manured fallows in terms of their effect on the cation-exchange capacity, the sum of exchange bases, and the amount of exchange and hydrolytic acidity. A compound action and after-action of manure, the oil radish and green manure of legumes with the stover biodestructor had a more significant influence on the change in the physical and chemical properties of the soil. In their background, the cation-exchange capacity increased by 1.40-1.51 mg equivalent/100 g of soil, the sum of exchange bases by 1.6-1.7 mg equivalent/100 g of soil, the value of рНКСl 0.22-0.24 units, the value of hydrolytic acidity decreased by 0.17-0.19 mg equivalent/100 g of soil.
Keywords: meadow-chernozemic soil, manure, green manure, biodestructor, cation-exchange capacity, sum of exchange bases, acidity.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE STRUCTURE OF SOWN AREAS AND AGROTECHNOLOGIES OF CROPS IN THE SYSTEM OF SPECIALIZED CROP ROTATIONS IS A RELIABLE GUARANTEE FOR STABILIZING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND SOIL FERTILITY
N.P. Melikhova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
E.V. Zinchenko, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
A.A. Zibarov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
D.S. Tegesov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
According to the results of many years of stationary field experiments, the significance of improving the structure of sown areas when developing the technologies of programmed cultivation of agricultural crops in the system of specialized crop rotation, which includes the use of adapted, highly productive crops, the soil cultivation system, irrigation, and nutrition regimes, has been established.
The most productive under irrigation conditions are fodder and grain-fodder crop rotations with alfalfa, corn for silage and grain, and winter wheat as basic crops. The intensification of crop rotation is achieved by the use of programmed doses of organo-mineral fertilizers, the optimal combination of crops in the main and intermediate crops.
The obtained results confirmed the real possibility of increasing the productivity of irrigated arable land at the level of 10.0...12.0 thousand feed units with a rational combination of profitable crops adapted to agro landscape conditions, a differentiated system of tillage and the use of programmed organic and mineral fertilizers; the possibility of stabilizing agricultural production by achieving high productivity of irrigated arable land while meeting the reasonable agricultural requirements of alternating crops, the rational ratio in the structure of sowings of crop groups (feed: grain: technical) were established.
The studies have confirmed the role of perennial leguminous grasses (alfalfa) with a two to three year term of use in increasing the productivity of irrigated arable land and its fertility in comparison with annual fodder crops in primary and intermediate sowings. A positive effect on the productivity of arable land from crops in the studied crop rotations was exerted by grain corn in comparison with winter wheat.
Keywords: crop area structure, arable land productivity, soil fertility.
METHODS FOR EVALUATING THE STABILITY OF WINTER TRITICALE TO DRY CONDITIONS OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS PIEDMONT
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of Biological Sciences;
M.A. Basieva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
E.S. Miroshnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
V.I. Gasiev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
T.S. Abiyev, Candidate of Biological Sciences
North Caucasus Research Institute of Mountain and Piedmont Agriculture of Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, North Ossetia-Alania, Russia, tel. +7 (88672) 23-04-20,
The North Caucasus region produces a fifth of the grain in Russia. Frequent droughts do not allow stable high yields of winter triticale in this region. Their probability is 25-50%. In addition, almost every year in the second half of the growing season, winter grain crops experience a negative effect of moisture deficiency. The main condition for overcoming the negative impact of adverse environmental factors is the creation and introduction of highly productive and adapted to local conditions varieties into production. The article presents the results of laboratory and field studies of the breeding material of winter triticale for drought resistance and productivity. Determination of plant resistance to moisture deficiency was carried out by the ability of seeds to germinate on highly osmotic solutions of sucrose. Assessment of drought resistance in the field was carried out by the productivity of varieties, in different years of moisture availability, using various statistical methods. According to the results of studies, the relative drought resistance and stable productivity were characterized by the varieties: Grenado, Gor, PRAG 506. The most informative and objective methods for assessing breeding material for drought resistance are recommended. These include: the laboratory method of seed germination on osmotic solutions of sucrose and a direct method for calculating drought resistance by the plant productivity index.
Key words: winter triticale, breeding indices, drought resistance, adaptability, stress resistance.
AGROECOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF SEED INOCULATION WITH BACTERIAL FERTILIZERS AND COMPLEX MICRO-ELEMENT FERTILIZERS IN RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGY OF GROWING HUNGARIAN CLOVER
S.A. Kshnikatkin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
N.A. Karpov, a post-graduate student
The results of studies of the effect of bacterial and complex fertilizers with microelements in chelated form on the formation of the parameters of photosynthesis, symbiotic activity, and productivity of Hungarian clover of the ANIK variety are presented. It was found that inoculation of seeds with biologics of the associative group and complex fertilizers with microelements in chelated form activated growth, morphogenesis, the symbiotic and photosynthetic activity of Pannonian clover plants. The number and weight of active nodules in relation to the control increased by 29.2-167.6 million units/ha and 77.7-564.1 kg/ha, respectively. The maximum parameters of the symbiosis of agrocenosis of Hungarian clover (active nodules – 221.8 million pcs/ha with a mass of 893.7 kg/ha) were formed during the inoculation of clover seeds with the biological fertilizer Gumariz together with the silicon-containing preparation NanoKremny. The leaf area of Hungarian clover agrocoenoses of the first year of use amounted on average to 37.6-53.6 thousand m2/ha for two years according to the experimental variants. In comparison with the control, it increased by 1.3-1.9 times. The highest indices of the clover leaf surface (53.6 thousand m2/ha) were observed during the integrated treatment of seeds with Gumariz together with NanoKremny, in the control – 28.7 thousand m2/ha. On average, over two years, the collection of dry matter of Hungarian clover of the first year of use according to the experimental variants amounted to 7.29-12.48 t/ha, of feed units – 5.25-9.05 t/ha, of digestible protein – 0.8-1.39 t/ha, of exchange energy – 58.69-100.47 GJ. The highest productivity of Hungarian clover was obtained by inoculating seeds with the Gumariz biological product together with the NanoKremny preparation: dry matter – 12.48 t/ha, feed units – 9.05 t/ha, digestible protein – 1.39 t/ha; the yield of clover seeds was 786.8 kg/ha, which was 2.2 times higher than the control indicators; profitability when cultivating for seeds – 187.3%, for fodder purposes – 149.6%, energy efficiency coefficient – 2.24 and 1.89 units.
Keywords: inoculation, Hungarian clover, biologics, complex microelement fertilizers, photosynthesis parameters, symbiotic activity, productivity.
SEED PRODUCTIVITY OF INDUSTRIAL HEMP OF SURSKAYA VARIETY OF CENTRAL RUSSIAN ECOTYPE WHEN GROWING IN YEARS WITH VARIOUS HYDROTHERMAL CONDITIONS
V.A. Gushchina1, doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
A.A. Smirnov2, doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
A.D. Smirnov1, graduate student
2 Agrofirm OOO Konoplex Penza
In Soviet times, hemp breeding was a major supplier of raw materials for the textile industry. In addition to fiber, hemp provides seeds from which valuable vegetable oil, presscake, as well as medicines can be obtained. Wood of stems, shives, is successfully used for the production of artificial fibers, paper and building materials. To revive the hemp breeding industry in Penza Oblast on the fields of the agricultural firm OOO Konoplex Penza in 2017-2019 hemp of Surskaya variety was sown on leached chernozem. The reserve for increasing the yield of industrial hemp and obtaining quality products is a more complete use of natural factors and the maximum realization of the biological potential of the variety. On average, over three years, the length of the growing season of industrial hemp was 110...118 days, depending on the weather conditions of the year. The sum of active temperatures varied from 2017.8 to 2203.6°C, with daily average air temperatures of 17.6...19.4°C. All three years of research were characterized by insufficient moisture, however, favorable conditions in 2017 at certain development phases contributed to a high yield of seeds of 0.95 t/ha, which is 0.35 and 0.1 t/ha higher than in 2018 and 2019 years respectively. The oil content in the seeds was 30...2%.
Keywords: industrial hemp, Central Russian ecotype, Surskaya variety, seed productivity, oil content.
COMPLEX FERTILIZERS WITH MICROELEMENTS AND FORMATION OF PRODUCTIVITY OF SPRING SOFT WHEAT
S.A. Semina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
N.I. Ostroborodova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
The article presents the results of studies on the influence of various types of complex fertilizers with microelements in chelate forms on the formation of the yield of spring soft wheat of the Arkhat variety during pre-sowing treatment of seeds. It was established that only when using Gumostim there is a tendency to increase productive tillering. It was revealed that treatment of seeds with Cytovit contributed to an increase in the size of the ear by 16.4%. It was noted that the increase in the number of grains when using Gumostim and Multi-purpose Siliplant was 0.8-1.3 pieces, and the most grained ears were obtained using Cytovit, an increase to the control was 22.3%. The use of complex micronutrient fertilizers contributed to the improvement of the technological properties of grain. The grain bulk density when using EcoFus, Gumostim and Cytovit increased by 9-23 g/l. During the years of research, a highly vitreous grain was formed in all variants of the experiment, but no significant differences for this quality indicator in the variants were revealed. In the years of research, the use of EcoFus, Gumostim, and Multi-purpose Siliplant was equivalent in effect on the accumulation of wet gluten; the increase was 1.2-3.8% of the control in these variants. Seed treatment with Cytovit had advantage in this quality indicator. Mass fraction of wet gluten increased by 5.6% compared with water treatment. In quality, gluten in all test variants in 2018 met the requirements of the second quality group (IDK 90-95 units), and in 2019 it met the requirements of the first quality group (IDK 65-77 units). However, with an increase in the amount of wet gluten, a natural decrease in its elastic properties was noted.
Keywords: wheat, complex fertilizers, ear, grain, productivity, grain bulk density, gluten.
YIELD PROPERTIES AND ADAPTABILITY OF SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS) VARIETIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
T.Ya. Prahova1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
A.N. Kshnikatkina2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
A.A. Shanin2, post-graduate student
1 Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Scientific Center of Bast Crops", workmen's settlement Lunino, Russia;
The purpose of the research was to evaluate the yield properties and the main parameters of adaptability of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) varieties in the agricultural climatic conditions of forest-steppe of the Middle Volga Region. The research was conducted in 2017-2019 on the experimental field of the Federal Scientific Center of Bast Crops. The object of research was the six varieties of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). Meteorological conditions of the growing season can be characterized as dry; the hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) ranged from 0.4 to 0.82 units. The index of environmental conditions varied from – 0.61 to 0.13 units. The most optimal conditions for the growth of culture were formed in 2019 (Ii – 0.13), where the highest seed yield for all varieties was formed – 1.34-1.53 t/ha. Zavolzhskij 1 and Alexandrit varieties were registered with the high yield, whose productivity was 1.37 and 1.42 t/ha, respectively. The coefficient of yield variability was 6,58-14,19 %. On an annual basis, the low variation in yield was observed in the varieties Ershovskij 4 and Astrahanskij 747 (6.58-7.71 %). This fact indicates the stability of these varieties. These varieties had the highest variety stability level and amounted to 0.26 and 0.22, respectively. Varieties Zavolzhskij 1, Astrahanskij 747 and Alexandrit formed large seeds. The weight of 1000 seeds reached 41.4-41.6 g on an average. The fat content in the achenes ranged from 23.70-27.45 %. In the conditions of the Penza region, in terms of environmental adaptability, the best varieties were Zavolzhskij 1 and Alexandrit, whose adaptability parameters were bi = 0.99-1.01; σdr2 = 0.09. The varieties Alexandrit and Ershovskij 4 had the highest values of the stability index (0.17 and 0.20). This fact shows their greater adaptability to specific conditions.
Keywords: safflower, varieties, yield, adaptability, stability, oil content, weight of 1000 seeds.
TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS OF CASCADE BIO CONVERSION OF SUNFLOWER HUSK
S.А. Sashenkova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
G.V. Ilyina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor;
D.Yu. Ilyin, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
A.R. Dashkina, student
The paper discusses the possibilities of using sunflower husk as a substrate for the cultivation of mycelial stock cultures of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and garden mushroom. A comparative assessment of the utilization of a straw substrate by fungal mycelium was carried out. The features of the development of oyster mushroom mycelium and fruit bodies on substrates from sunflower husks derivatized by acid methanolysis were studied. The possibilities of increasing the yield of oyster mushrooms on substrates subjected to derivatization were determined. The possibilities of using the used substrates after the cultivation of oyster mushroom as a biocompost introduced into cucumbers of the Kuznechik F1 variety in open ground are shown.
Keywords: powder spawn, mycelial cultures, crop production, mushroom growing, sunflower husk, biomelioration.
FORMATION OF MIXED AGRO-PHYTOCENOSES OF ALFERA AND CONCEPT IN THE FIRST YEAR OF VEGETATION
O.A. Timoshkin1, Doctor of Agricultural sciences;
S.A. Semina2, Doctor of Agricultural sciences, professor;
O.Yu. Timoshkina1, Candidate of Agricultural sciences;
S.A. Alekseev2, graduate student
2 Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza
The studies were carried out on the experimental field of the Penza Agricultural Institute, a branch of the Federal State-Funded Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Center of Fibre Crops in 2017-2019. The purpose of the research is to theoretically substantiate and develop technological methods for cultivating the variegated lucerne of Daria variety and smooth brome of Udalets variety for fodder purposes in mixed crops, based on the selection of seeding rates and the mineral nutrient status, ensuring maximum productivity of agrophytocenoses in the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region. Seeding was in Summer (June), coverless. Pure seeding rate: lucerne and brome 6 mln viable seeds per 1 ha, in mixed crops – according to the experimental design. The method of seeding is ordinary (placement of crops is inter-row). It was shown that an increase in the seeding rate from 40 to 100% of both lucerne and brome promotes better seed germination. So, the germination rate of lucerne seeds when seeding 40% of the total seeding rate was 45.3%, when seeding 70% – 50.9%, when seeding 100% of the seeding rate – 53.9%. Germination rates of smooth brome, on average over three years ranged from 30.0 to 36.6%. An analysis of the influence of the mineral nutrient status showed that the application of mineral fertilizers in years with a lack of precipitation had a negative impact on the seed germination rate of the studied crops. A study of the survival of plants depending on the seeding rate of the components showed that with an increase in the seeding rate from 40 to 100%, the lucerne survival decreases from 62.8% to 50.1%, and the smooth brome survival decreases from 37.5% to 22.3%. Improving the mineral nutrient status also led to a decrease in plant survival: that of lucerne from 62.7% in the control to 59.4-56.9% when phosphorus-potassium and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers were applied, survival of smooth brome – from 36.6 to 32.9-28.9%. The height of lucerne varied from 35 to 48 cm, the higher the seed seeding rate, the higher herbage is formed by lucerne. The height of brome also depended on the seeding rate and the application of mineral fertilizers in a dose of N45P60K90. The yield of green mass of lucerne varied from 3.3-3.9 t/ha at 40% seeding rate, to 4.2-5.1 t/ha at 55% seeding rate, 5.2-6.3 t/ha at 70% seeding rate and 6.2-7.8 t/ha at 100% seeding rate. Addition of P60K90 resulted in significant increases in lucerne yields compared with the control variant, while the differences between the variants with addition of P60K90 and N45P60K90 were not significant.
Keywords: lucerne, smooth brome, mixed seeding, cultivation, formation of agrocenosis.
INFLUENCE OF RISOTORPHIN ON THE PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF MEADOW CLOVER
A.T. Farniev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
A.A. Sabanova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
D.T. Kalitseva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
In the ecological conditions of the mountainous zone of North Ossetia-Alania, studies were carried out to determine the effect of pre-sowing seed inoculation on the growth, development and productivity of meadow clover, as well as on the quality of green mass. It has been established that under the influence of different rhizotorphin strains, the growth of plants of the Daryal variety according to the experimental variants is improved by 14.4-27.5 cm, of the Farn variety by 13.2-20.6 cm. The leaf blade area of clover plants increases by 3.7-5.6 cm2 for Daryal variety, and 4.1-6.0 cm2 for Farn variety. The leaf coverage of Daryal plants increased by 1.3-7.0% before the first mowing and of the Farn plants by 0.6-6.4%. At the same time, plants of variant 6 (strain 340b) and 7 (strain 348) had the highest leaf coverage, 61.0-59.4% for the Daryal variety and 59.4-57.3% for the Farn variety. On average, over two years, the yield of green mass increased from 20.1 to 23.3 t/ha for the Daryal variety and from 18.8 to 22.2 t/ha for the Farn variety. The best efficiency was shown by strains 340b and 348. The increase in yield for these variants was 3.2-2.7 t/ha (Daryal variety) and 3.5-2.6 t/ha (Farn variety). Seed inoculation promoted an increase in dry matter collection. Its increase ranged from 0.22 to 1.05 and from 0.18 to 1.08 t/ha, respectively, by varieties. The green mass of clover plants of the sixth and seventh variants with a protein content of 18.0-17.8% (Daryal variety) and 17.8-17.6% (Farn variety) were of higher quality. Therefore, for stable production of high quality forage, clover seeds must be inoculated with rhizotorphin, strain 340b, before sowing.
Keywords: clover, varieties, rhizotorphin, strains, growth, development, productivity, quality.
SOWING QUALITIES OF SEEDS AND PRODUCTIVITY OF NON-NARCOTIC VARIETY OF HEMP DEPENDING ON PRE-PLANTING CULTIVATION
I.V. Bakulova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
I.I. Pluzhnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
N.V. Kriushin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Federal Scientific Center of Bast Crops», Russia,
This work presents the results of studying the influence of pre-planting seed cultivation on hemp plants in order to improve the cultivation technology. The implementation of the studied drugs had a positive effect on the germinating power, germination and yield of plants. In laboratory conditions there was a significant increase in seed germination when using drugs Albit, TPS (liquid paste) and BTU Biocomplex 5.0 and 7.2 % for the variety Vera in the use of drugs TMTD, VSK and BTU Biocomplex – 5.2 and 5.0 %, respectively in the variety Nadezhda. In the field conditions, the germination rate increased by 4.2-5.6% in the Vera variety and 1.8-8.5% in the Nadezhda variety compared to the control. Over the years of research, the yield of hemp seeds, as a result of the use of disinfectants for all options of the experiment, changed on the Vera variety in the range of 0.78-0.96 t/ha and 0.66-0.84 t/ha on the Nadezhda variety. The greatest increase in yield on the Vera variety was noted in the options with pre-planting cultivation of seeds with Bunker, VSK, Lignohumate and Albit, TPS. On the Nadezhda variety, the maximum yield of seeds was set on options with cultivation with Benorad, SP, Bunker, VSK and Albit, TPS, the yield increase was 0.16-0.18 t/ha or 24.2-27.3 % to control.
Keywords: hemp seed, non-narcotic variety, seed disinfectant, agrochemical, growth regulator, yield of stems and seeds.
PONDS OF VOLGOGRAD OBLAST AND THEIR CONDITION
А.Yu. Ovcharova, Candidate of Geography Science;
V.F. Loboyko, Doctor of Technical Sciences;
А.V. Loboyko, post-graduate student
The article contains an inventory of ponds, pits for collecting water, and mini-water storages located in Volgograd Oblast. In Volgograd Oblast, there are about 5,000 artificial reservoirs for various purposes. Despite such a number of water bodies, the study area belongs to territories with an insufficient amount of water resources, which is due to the natural zone of dry steppes and semi-deserts and a sharply continental climate. Most of the ponds and pits for collecting water are not monitored, and there are almost no scientific and methodological works devoted to this topic. In order to clarify the current state of artificial water bodies in the region, field trips were carried out for their visual inspection and monitoring, as well as morphometric, physical and statistical data provided by the administrations of districts and settlements were studied. In climatic conditions, these water bodies play an important role: irrigation of agricultural land, watering of adjacent territories, fish and waterfowl farming, storage of water for various household needs, shipping, fire-fighting and anti-erosion purposes, etc. Many hydraulic structures located on artificial reservoirs are in a state of crisis: dams on some of them are destroyed or are inoperative, and there is no water in them. The condition of some ponds in the region is assessed as pre-crisis and crisis. On many of them, there are signs prohibiting some forms of mobile and stationary recreation: fishing, beach recreation, water tourism, etc.
Keywords: ponds, pits for collecting water, artificial reservoirs, water resources of Volgograd Oblast.
PRODUCTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN CROP ROTATION LINKS ON LEACHED BLACK SOIL
S.V. Bogomazov, Candidate of Agricultural sciences;
А.V. Lyandenburskaya, senior lecturer;
А.А. Levin, assistant;
О.А. Tkachuk, Candidate of Agricultural sciences;
Е.V. Efremova, Candidate of Agricultural sciences
The aim of the research was to improve the elements of winter wheat cultivation technology in the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Volga region, which allow to optimize the conditions for growth and development. The studies found that the type of fallow did not significantly affect the density of the soil. After green-manured fallow, the reserves of productive moisture in the meter layer decreased before sowing, on average, by 6.4 mm. Winter wheat placing after green manure fallow led to an insignificant decrease in leaf area by 0.14 thousand m2/ha, compared to black fallow. The greatest contribution to the formation of the productivity of winter wheat was made by the fertilizer Gumostim, which contributed to an increase in the leaf area by 5.1 thousand m2/ha, in yield – by 0.46 t/ha in relation to the control.
Keywords: soil density, productive moisture reserve, photosynthesis, yield, winter wheat.
Veterinary and zootechny
PRODUCTIVITY OF THE HOLSTEIN FIRST-CALF HEIFERS OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT HOUSING AND FEEDING CONDITIONS
V.V. Lyashenko, Doctor of Agricultural Scienses, professor;
I.V. Kaeshova, Candidate of Agricultural Scienses, assistant-professor;
A.V. Gubina, Candidate of Agricultural Scienses, assistant-professor;
N.V. Sichkar, post-graduate student
Dairy cattle breeding in Russia should be competitive in foreign and domestic markets. The development of the industry is ensured by the formation in various regions of a wide network of large specialized dairy complexes equipped with modern high-tech equipment, staffed with highly productive cattle, and implementing innovative milk production technologies. The formation of the broodstock of dairy complexes is carried out, as a rule, due to the import of livestock of highly productive Holstein cattle. Studies by a number of scientists have found that animals imported from abroad have problems adapting to other specific conditions of housing. Therefore, the study of the adaptive abilities of imported livestock is of scientific interest. As the number of Holstein cattle raised in Russian farms and complexes is increasing in each region, a comparative assessment of the productive and breeding qualities of imported and domestic cows is relevant, taking into account the origin, breeding zone and age. In addition to improving livestock conditions and breeding methods in dairy complexes, modern methods of improving animal feeding diets are used, inter alia the inclusion of probiotic additives in the diet.
The article presents the results of the evaluation of the milk productivity of imported (Hungarian and Danish) and domestic first-calf heifers from different regions in modern dairy complexes with intensive milk production technology. It was established that Holstein cattle of different origin is characterized by high milk productivity and good adaptation to conditions of housing and feeding, and the existing differences in the level of productivity are obviously related to the specific local conditions of the region and technology. In OOO RAO Narovchatskoye (LLC), milk yield for 305 days of lactation in Hungarian first-calf heifers was 13.7% more than in Russian cows (p ≤ 0.001), the mass fraction of fat in milk was 0.15% (p ≤ 0.05), and the mass fraction of protein in milk was 0.18% (p ≤ 0.001). At OOO Green Agro-Sakhalin (LLC), the milk yield of first-calf heifers of domestic origin was 3.1% higher than that of the herdmates from Denmark. However, no significant difference between the groups was revealed. According to the mass fraction of fat and protein in milk, no significant difference between the groups was noted. The productive potential of the studied livestock has not yet been realized by any group of animals.
The use of the probiotic preparation Vetosporin-Active showed that in the cows of the experimental group, the milk yield for lactation increased by 6.7% (p <0.05) in comparison with the control group. No significant differences were found in the content of the mass fraction of fat and protein in the milk of cows of the experimental group.
Keywords: dairy cattle breeding, technology, Holstein breed, first-calf heifer, milk yield, productive potential, feed additive, probiotic.
CORRELATION OF MORPHOMETRIC AND PRODUCTIVE INDICATORS OF BEE FAMILIES
M.N. Nevitov, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
А.V. Ostapchuk, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
L.L. Oshkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
The article analyzes the relationship between the morphometric parameters of the wings of honey bees and their productive parameters. Using the methods of variation statistics, it was shown that the cubital index mainly determines the belonging of bees to a certain breed group and does not correlate with productivity indicators. The discoidal displacement index has a high degree of correlation with honey productivity in bee colonies with a purebred queen (r = 0.83; p <0.05). As the cross-breeding progresses, this dependence decreases and is completely absent in bees that have queen bees of the second or unknown generation against the background of a decrease in honey productivity.
Keywords: beekeeping, morphometry, cubital index, discoidal displacement, honey productivity, correlation.
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems
RESEARCH RESULTS OF THE DEVICE FOR DRYING AGRICULTURAL CROPS
O.N. Kukharev, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor;
I.N. Semov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant-professor;
N.K. Timergazin, a post-graduate student;
V.S. Oskin, an engineer
Farms and retailers are not always able to preserve the harvest due to the need to build vegetable stores and the difficulty in observing storage technology.
Under these conditions, the way out of this situation is the drying of vegetables. The use of drying allows saving all the taste and almost all the vitamins. Under these conditions, Penza State Agrarian University has developed a prototype device for drying crops, allowing for fluidized-bed drying. However, it is necessary to conduct research to improve the drying process of vegetables with a pneumatic-mechanical dryer with justification for its design and technological parameters. The experimental methods were used in the work: modeling, observation, experiment. Experimental studies were carried out in laboratory conditions on the basis of generally accepted methods in accordance with current industry standards, as well as developed private research methods. Processing of the research results was carried out on a PC using standard computer programs Microsoft Excel, Statistica, KOMPAS-3D. As a result, a model of the drying process was obtained and the optimal parameters of the proposed device were determined.
Keywords: drying, vegetables, fluidized-bed, dryer, research.
LABORATORY AND FIELD RESEARCH OF A CROP LIFTER OF A COMBING HEADER
K.Z. Kukhmazov, Doctor of Technical Sciences;
B.M. Meloyan, post-graduate student;
A.V. Malyshev, post-graduate student;
S.E. Gubskiy, post-graduate student
The article is devoted to an urgent problem – reducing grain losses during harvesting of lodged grains by the combing method. It provides a description of the design and the principle of operation of the developed copying crop lifter of the combing header, as well as the methodology and the results of laboratory and field studies to substantiate its rational structural and operational parameters. Laboratory and field studies were carried out on the fields of the OOO Russkoye Polye (LLC) of the Penza Region in accordance with GOST 28301 – 2007 «Combine harvesters. Test Methods» in the harvesting of winter wheat. The area of the plot was 12 hectares, the yield was 47 kg/ha, the lodging reached 64%, the ratio of grain mass to straw mass was 1:1.3. The harvesting unit was the Akros – 595 combine harvester with the ZhO – 7 «OZON» combing header equipped with copying crop lifters. Losses after the combing header were determined by the method of the frame superposition. As the results of laboratory and field studies show, the minimum grain losses (no more than 2.5%) when harvesting lodged grains is ensured when the length of the crop lifter L = 470...540 mm, the gas stop pressure P = 50...60 N and the unit operating speed Up = 1,2…2,0 m/s.
Keywords: cereals, lodged grain, combine harvester, combing header, copying crop lifter, grain loss, field contour following.
TWO-PHASE MIXING IN A TRACTOR DIESEL: THE CONCEPT OF TECHNICAL SOLUTION
A.P. Ukhanov, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
M.D. Dubin, post-graduate;
M.V. Ryblov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Assistant-professor
The article is devoted to the problem of improving the effective and environmental indicators of automotive equipment by two-phase mixing in diesels equipped with a power system with direct fuel injection into the combustion chamber. In this method of mixing, the first phase is carried out by injecting a certain dose (10-20 %) of a liquid activator (gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, etc.) in the suction stroke into the diesel intake tract to form an activator-air mixture in the diesel cylinder. In the second phase of mixing, the injection of the main fuel dose into the diesel cylinder is carried out by standard fuel equipment at the end of the compression stroke into a compressed activator-air mixture with the formation of a working mixture prepared for active ignition throughout the entire volume of the combustion chamber. For the practical implementation of the first phase of two-phase mixing, the diesel engine must be additionally equipped with a multi-point activator injection system with electromagnetic nozzles controlled by an electronic unit. This system should ensure high accuracy of activator dosing, its timely delivery in the suction stroke and equable distribution across the diesel cylinders. The performed research and development works included the development of a functional model of the system, as well as methods to justify the duration and algorithm of control pulses applied to electromagnetic nozzles. The system contains an activator tank, filter, electric pump, improved intake pipeline, electromagnetic nozzles, sensors and an electronic control unit based on a programmable microcontroller.
Keywords: tractor, diesel, two-phase mixing, liquid activator, injection system, electromagnetic nozzles, electronic unit, sensors.
SUBSTANTIATION OF THE BASIC PARAMETERS OF THE SCREW EXPANDER FOR PROCESSING HIGH PROTEIN CROPS
M.G. Zagoruiko, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor;
A.S. Dorohov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Scienc-es;
A.M. Maradudin, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor
The article provides a way to increase the productivity of a screw press variety – the expander. The use of an expander makes it possible to produce compound feed in the form of non-solid whole meals, which has a beneficial effect on the process of digestibility by animals. To correct the existing drawback of the expander – the reverse extrusion of the working mass through the gap between the screw and the body, the authors proposed a combined profile of the screw spiral groove: the left lateral (pushing) surface of the groove has the shape of a semicircle, and the right lateral surface has a semicircular shape in the lower part, and in the middle and upper – the shape of a sloping straight line. Theoretical studies have shown that this profile contributes to the appearance of a difference in lateral pressure forces from the side of boundary particles on the bulk of the material, in contrast to screws with a standard spiral groove made in the form of a triangle, trapezium, or semicircle. In turn, the uneven distribution of lateral pressure will prevent backward extrusion of the processed material through the gap between the auger and the body, thereby increasing the performance of the expander. Theoretical dependencies have been obtained that allow, on the basis of the basic geometric parameters of the screw, to describe geometrically the configuration of the screw of the proposed design for its subsequent manufacture.
Keywords: expander, pressing, extrusion, screw, feed preparation, processing, extruder.