AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Agronomy


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.001

PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR SORGHUM WHEN USING HUMIC PREPARATIONS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION
О.P. Kibalnik1, Candidate of Biological Science, chief research worker;
I.G. Efremova1, Candidate of Agricultural Science, senior research worker;
D.S. Semin1, Candidate of Agricultural Science, chief research worker;
V.V. Pronko2, Doctor of Agricultural Science, professor;
A.V. Erokhina1, senior research worker
1 Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Russian Research and Design Technological Institute for Sorghum and Corn", tel. +7 (8452) 79-49-69, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2 Research and Production Association "Sila Zhizni", e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studying the effect of humic preparations on the yield and quality of sugar sorghum biomass. The objects of the research were varieties Capital (St), Sahara, Volunteer, Sevilla, Chaika. The experiment was laid on the experimental field of Federal State Budget-ary Scientific Institution “Russian Research and Design Technological Institute for Sorghum and Corn” (“Rossorgo”) according to a two-factor scheme (factor A – variety, factor B – humates) in different weather conditions. Differentiated responsiveness of varieties to treatment with humic preparations was noted. Both single and double application of K-Humate-Na with micro-elements led to an increase in plant height, flag leaf area, biomass, and dry matter yield. Under the conditions of our experiments, the maximum yield of green mass was observed in the Sahara variety with the double use of K-Humate-Nа on average for two years (34.2 t/ha). Humic preparations also caused an increase in the content of crude protein in the dry biomass harvest of the Sahara variety in 2017-2018. (K-Humate-Nа with micro-elements by 21.8-23.1%), crude fat (Reasil Forte Carb-N-Humic by 45.4-54.5%, respective-ly). The results of the field studies confirm the advisability of using salts of humic acids in the form of presowing and leaf treatments in the cultivation of sugar sorghum.
Keywords: sugar sorghum, varieties, humic preparations, biomass yield, dry matter collection, protein and fat yield

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.002

FORMATION OF DRY MASS BY AGROPHYTOCENOSIS OF PERENNIAL GRASSES BASED ON TETRAPLOID RED CLOVER
Zh.S. Neliubina1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
N.I. Kasatkina1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
I.Sh. Fatykhov2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
1 Federal State-Funded Institution of Science Udmurt Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, Izhevsk, tel.: +7 (3412) 62-96-98;
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2 Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Russia, Izhevsk, tel.: +7 (3412) 59-88-16; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In the field fodder production of the Middle Urals, red clover remains the main fodder crop, which is used both in single-species and polyspecies crops. The tetraploid type red clover is of par-ticular value, as it is more productive, winter-hardy, disease-resistant, providing a feed yield with a high crude protein content. Determination of leaf area, photosynthetic activity, dynamics of accumula-tion of dry matter of red tetraploid clover in agrophytocenoses has been little studied, but of practical interest. In 2013-2017 In the Udmurt Research Institute of Agriculture, on sod-podzolic soils, formation specifics of dry mass of agrophytocenoses of perennial grasses based on Kudesnik red clover were studied. To create polyspecies agrocenoses, we used timothy grass, alfalfa, Lotus corniculatus, and Eastern galega. The leaf area varied depending on the composition of the agrophytocenosis from 34.4 thousand m2/ha in the branch stage to 107.2 thousand m2/ha in the flower bud stage. The main contribution to the formation of the assimilation surface of grass mixtures was made by red clover (66.7-92.4%). The photosynthetic potential was the highest (948-1034 thousand m2 x day/ha) in grass mixtures clover + timothy grass, clover + alfalfa and in single-species sowing of clover. Determina-tion of the dynamics of the accumulation of dry matter showed that in the branch-bud period there was the greatest increase in dry matter. The yield of dry matter in this stage was 525-647 g/m2, while in mixed crops this indicator was significantly higher than in single-species clover crops. By the flower-ing stage, the dry matter decreased to 474-618 g/m2. The yield of dry matter of agrophytocenoses was 67-76% formed due to the first mow. The most productive (4.7 t/ha) in the first mow was a mix-ture of clover with timothy grass.
Key words: tetraploid clover, grass mixtures, leaf area, dynamics of dry matter accumulation, yield.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.003

CHANGES IN SEED PRODUCTIVITY OF ECHINACEA PURPUREA DEPENDING ON THE SOWING TERMS AND THE METHOD OF WEED CONTROL
V.A. Gushchina1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
E.O. Nikolskaya2, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Deputy Head of Department
"Penzenskaya lesosemennaya stantsiya";
N.Yu. Lobanova1, Postgraduate
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2 Branch office of FSI Roslesozashchita – Forest Protection Centre of Penza Oblast, Russia

To produce high-quality pharmaceutical plant raw materials, the plantation cultivation of medici-nal plants is necessary. However, this is finite because of a limited number of seeds. One of the main indicators for evaluating the success of introducing a crop into production is seed productivity. Therefore, the aim of the research is to develop the cultivation technology elements of Echinacea purpurea for seeds that ensure the optimal realization of its productivity potential in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga Region. Experimental work was carried out on the meadow chernozemic soil of the experimental field of the FSBEI of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University" in 2014...2018. During the winter and early spring sowing of Echinacea purpurea, various ways of protecting it from the weed component were studied. As a research result, it was found that the effect of the aftereffect of sowing dates and methods of weed control also remained in the sec-ond year of plant life. On average for three years, in the first year of planting Echinacea 28...38 gen-erative shoots develop per square meter, each of which forms 366...484 achenes with a mass of 1.39...1.68 g and the plumpness rate of 74...84 %. The most optimal conditions for seed setting are formed both in early winter sowing and early spring one with manual removal of weeds, three-time row-to-row processing and application of the herbicide Lazurit SP before Echinacea seedlings' ap-pearance, followed by weeding with Miura in the phase 2-4 leaves of the weed. The yield of seeds, sown in autumn, counted 642.3 kg/ha, 598.7 and 644 kg/ha, respectively. In spring sowing, it was 16...19 % lower. Thus, the studied techniques of cultivation of Echinacea purpurea allow forming a high yield of high-quality seeds.
Keywords: Echinacea purpurea, inflorescences, seed plumpness, productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.004

EFFECTS AND AFTEREFFECTS OF DIATOMITE AND ITS COMBINATIONS WITH MANURE ON THE TOTAL CARBON CONTENT IN THE SOIL AND THE YIELD OF VEGETABLE CROPS
E.E. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The objective of the research was to study the unilateral effect and aftereffect of 2 to 6 t/ha of diatomite and combined effect and aftereffect of diatomite with manure on the total carbon content in the arable layer of leached chernozem and the yield of vegetable crops in the forest-steppe condi-tions of the Middle Volga region. The studies were conducted from 2014 to 2019. The experiment was deployed in time and across the territory. Studies have established that in view of the effect and af-tereffect of manure, the total carbon content exceeded the initial values by 0.075-0.104%. In the vari-ants with diatomite, the total carbon content at the end of the research exceeded the initial values by 0.012-0.029%. The most significant effect on the accumulation of total carbon was exerted by the combined effect and aftereffect of diatomite with manure. The total carbon content, in view of the effect and aftereffect of diatomite and manure, exceeded the initial values by 0.098-0.122%. The highest effect in terms of impact on yield was provided by the combined effect and aftereffect of diatomite and manure. The yield of winter garlic in view of the effect and aftereffect of diatomite and manure increased by 39.6-66.2%, carrots by 29.6-46.9%, beetroots by 21.0-44.9%.
Key words: leached chernozem, diatomite, manure, total carbon, yield, garlic, carrots, beetroot.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.005

THE FERTILITY OF CHERNOZEMIC SOILS ON THE MORAINE DEPOSITS
S.P. Lomov1, Doctor of Geographic Sciences, Professor;
V.S. Lomov2, Student
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State University
of Architecture and Construction", e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Moscow Pedagogical State University", e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Moraine deposits in the Penza oblast were formed as a result of the destruction of the Oka-Don glacier of the lower boundary of the neo-Pleistocene during warming [6, 15, 16]. The thickness of the main moraine can be ≈ 30.0 m [8, 10]. In terms of spacing, glacial deposits of the Don horizon pre-dominate in the western part of the oblast. In current physical-geographical conditions, they are placed as the cover on watersheds and used in the agro-ecosystem. The composition and properties of soils on morainic deposits are special due to their structural state, peculiar distribution of physical clay fractions, low humus content and low fertility.
Keywords: moraine complex, soil properties, soil recovery stage, virgin land.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.006

ASSESSMENT OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS AFTER ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE FEATURES AND PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY
V.I. Gryazeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
Yu.V. Koryagin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
N.V. Koryagina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
N.I. Sigov, student
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, tel. (8412)628373, email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Sunflower in the Russian Federation is the main oilseed crop. To recommend the optimal cultiva-tion regions and the active introduction of sunflower varieties and hybrids into production, it is im-portant to know the adaptive potential, which is assessed by the value of the parameters of pheno-typic plasticity and stability. The selection of a variety should be determined by the limiting factors of the region in which it will be grown. In the conditions of the Penza region, sunflower hybrids of Syn-genta (four hybrids), Euralis (one hybrid), Maysadur (one hybrid) and Pioneer (one hybrid) were stud-ied for a set of economically valuable traits and phenotypic plasticity. It was found that the Bacardi hybrid had the shortest growing season of 114 days. The Mas 80 IR hybrid by Maysadur turned out to be late ripening, the growing season of which was 125 days. The plant height in the studied sunflower hybrids was in the range of 166-174 cm. The low-growing hybrid in the experiment was the Amis hy-brid by Euralis, the height of which was 166 cm, and the tall one was the Fortimi hybrid (174 cm). On average, for two years, the yield of sunflower hybrids in the experiment ranged from 2.05 to 3.25 t/ha. The average yield for all hybrids was 2.7 t/ha. The Fortimy (2.9 t/ha), Tristan (2.85 t/ha), Bacardi (3.25 t/ha) hybrids by Syngenta and the PE 63 LE 10 hybrid by Pioneer (2.95 t/ha) exceeded the average yield. The phenotypic plasticity index varied from 0.76 to 1.2. All hybrids of the Syngenta company (Neoma, Fortimi, Tristan, Bacardi) and the hybrid of the Pioneer company (PE 63 LE 10) are environ-mentally plastic. The phenotypic plasticity index is 1.0-1.2 and 1.09, respectively. The rest of the hy-brids require increased attention during cultivation.
Key words: sunflower, hybrid, yield, oil content, phenotypic plasticity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.007

YIELD AND QUALITY OF WINTER WHEAT GRAIN DEPENDING ON HUMIC FERTILIZER GUMOSTIM AND FORECROPS
S.V. Bogomazov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
А.V. Lyandenburskaya, senior teacher;
А.А. Levin, assistant-lecturer;
О.А. Tkachuk, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
Е.V. Efremova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. +7 (412) 62-85-46, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The research aimed to improve the elements of the technology for the cultivation of winter wheat in the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region, allowing to optimize the conditions for growth and development. The studies have established that the average yield of winter wheat with green manure fallow as a forecrop was at 3.19 t/ha, which was 0.1 t less compared with black fallow. Joint treatment of seeds and vegetative plants with humic fertilizer Gumostim significantly led to an increase in winter wheat yield by 0.46 t/ ha. The highest level of profitability (42.18%) was noted in the variant with the treatment of seeds and vegetative plants with humic fertilizer Gumostim after black fallow as the fore-crop.
Keywords: yield, grain quality, profitability, winter wheat, humic fertilizer.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.008

THE NITROGEN CONSUMPTION BY ALFALFA CROPS DEPENDING ON THE NITROGEN NUTRITION PATTERN
M.Yu. Kozyreva, Postgraduate;
L.Zh. Basieva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Gorsky State Agrarian University", Vladikavkaz, Russia, tel. 8-8672-53-52-31, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The results of field studies of nitrogen consumption in alfalfa crops depending on the nitrogen nutrition pattern and symbiotic activity of crops for 2017...2019 are presented. Experiments with the alfalfa purple were carried out in the ecological conditions of the foothill zone of the North Ossetia-Alania, on leached chernozem with a close occurrence of gravel. Mineral and symbiotrophic patterns of nitrogen nutrition of alfalfa plants were compared. It was found that in the year of planting, the ni-trogen consumption of alfalfa crops ranged from 105.0 to 135.4 kg/ha, and by the first mowing, the consumption was 1.1...1.2 times bigger than by the second mowing. In the second and third years of crop use, nitrogen consumption increased by 1.7...1.9 times compared to the year of planting. The parameters of the options with natural conditions (control) and the addition of starting doses of nitro-gen fertilizers (N30) were almost identical. In the second and third years of use of crops, parameters of options with inoculation of seeds with high-altitude inoculum (In-1800) and the addition of starting doses of nitrogen fertilizers within the background of inoculation (N30 + in) were almost identical. In these options, the amount of nitrogen consumption was more than 235 kg/ha, or 25.6...27.1 % higher than in the control variant. In total, over three years of research, in the control option alfalfa crops took 483.3 kg/ha of nitrogen. Starting doses of nitrogen fertilizers (N30) increased this indicator by only 1.4 %. Pre-planting inoculation of seeds contributed to an increase in nitrogen consumption in all options: in the option with the industrial strain of risotorphine (St. 425a) – by 17.8 %, with high-altitude inoculum within the background of adding starting doses of mineral nitrogen fertilizers (N30 + In) – by 24.6 %, with high-altitude inoculum in pure form (In-1800) – by 27.1 %.
Keywords: alfalfa, nutrition pattern, symbiotic activity, mineral nitrogen, biological nitrogen, ni-trogen consumption.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.009

LEAVES AREA AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS OF DOMINANT PLANTS OF RURAL PASTURES IN THE STEPPE BELT OF MOUNT ARAGATS IN ARMENIA
T.A. Sargsyan, postgraduate;
M.A. Navasardyan, PhD in Biology;
B.K. Mezhunts, Doctor of agricultural sciences
Center for Ecological-Noosphere Studies of the National Academy of Sciences RA, Yerevan,
tel. (+37493) 303-609, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article summarizes the scientific results on the assimilation surface and the content of pho-tosynthetic pigments in the leaves of plants in the main meadow groups of the southwestern slope of Mount Aragats (1300-1900 m above sea level). Under the strong influence of environmental and an-thropogenic factors these territories are characterized by low productivity, therefore, they need effi-cient improvement. Within the framework of this scientific article, the task was set to create a data-base of experimental data on biological parameters responsible for the yield farming. The objects of the current research were the following types of cereals – Goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica), Cheat grass (Bromus tectorium), Bluegrass (Poa bulbosa), Wheatgrass (Agropyron repens), Barley (Hordeum bulbosum), legumes – Sainfoins (Onobrychis radiata), Clover (Trifolium pratenium), Cow vetch (Vicia variabilis), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and herbs – Leafy spurge (Euphorbia virgata), Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), Scabiosa (Scabiosa bipinnata), Catnip (Nepeta Mussini), Yarrow (Achillea milleteminium), Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). The leaf area was determined by the gravimetric method, pigment extraction was carried out using dimethyl sulfoxide, and their content was measured on an SF-16 spectrophotometer. A wide range of fluctuations in the leaf area in individual species was revealed (0.9-11.5), while the difference between meadow groups was insignificant (4.0-5.9 dm2/plant). The amount of pigments in the leaves of herbs was 22% less than that in cereals and legumes, and the ratio of chlorophylls A and B varied within 1.8-3.5. Thus, on the studied foraging grounds, the maxi-mum leaf area was found in perennial cereals, the sum of pigments and chlorophyll A – in legumes, and chlorophyll B – in herbs.
Key words: leaves area, photosynthetic pigments, wild plants, natural pastures, steppe belt.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.010

THE EFFECT OF POULTRY MANURE AND LIME AMELIORANT ON ACID-BASIC PROPERTIES OF LEACHED BLACK SOIL (CHERNOZEM) AND THE YIELD OF CROPS
N.P. Chekaev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
Е.G. Kulikova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
А.V. Lesnov, a post-graduate student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia, tel. 8 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article shows the results of three-year field experiments to study the effect of different dos-es of chicken manure and lime ameliorant on the physicochemical properties of leached chernozem and the yield of cultivated crops in the experimental plots. The studies were carried out on the exper-imental field of Penza State Agrarian University (Penza Region, Mokshansky District). As a result of, it was revealed that when different doses of chicken manure were applied, an aftereffect increase in acidity was observed in the second and third years. The use of a lime ameliorant reduces acidification and increases the effectiveness of the applied doses of chicken manure. The use of doses of chick-en manure from 2 to 10 t/ha (dry matter) had a positive effect on the grain yield of both the first crop after application, and the second and third. The highest productivity of the studied crops was ob-served in the variants with the introduction of 6 to 10 t/ha of manure. Against the background of lim-ing, the effectiveness of their application increased.
Keywords: chicken manure, lime ameliorant, acid-base soil properties, yield.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.011

ADVANTAGES OF LIQUID MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON THE BASE OF KAS-32 IN COMPARISON WITH SOLID FERTILIZERS (AMMONIUM NITRATE) ON SUNFLOWER AND CORN
V.А. Milyutkin1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor;
V.N. Sysoev1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
А.N. Makushin1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
N.G. Dluzhevskiy2, technician engineer, deputy director;
S.V. Bogomazov3, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Samara State Agrarian University", Samara, Russia, tel. 8-927-264-41-88, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2 Public Joint Stock Company "KuibyshevAzot", Togliatti, Samara Region, Russia,
tel. 8-927-784-79-11, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
3 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. 8-927-379-67-05, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The scientific article presents the materials of experimental studies of Samara State Agrarian University to study the effectiveness of liquid mineral nitrogen and nitrogen-sulfur-containing fertilizers based on KAS-32 in comparison with solid one (ammonium nitrate) produced by PAO Kuibyshev-Azot (Togliatti, Samara region). The experiment was carried out in the technologies of row crops cultivation: sunflower and corn (for grain), using both agricultural machines of AO Eurotechnika (Samara) and the AMAZONEN-Werke company (Germany).
Keywords: machinery, technology, "MINI-Till", liquid fertilizers, application, yield, quality, sun-flower, corn.

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Veterinary and zootechny


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.012

THE ASSESSMENT OF SERVICING BULLS BY THE OFFSPRING QUALITY
T.V. Shishkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
Т.А. Guseva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia, Penza, tel. (8412) 628380, е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In recent decades, complex economic and estimated breeding values of animals have been widely used. They are determined on the basis of centralized collection and analysis of data on the results of using bulls in various natural and economic conditions. In our country, the breeding quali-ties of servicing bulls are assessed by the productive qualities of their daughters. Studies to assess servicing bulls by the quality of their offspring were carried out in the conditions of OOO (LLC) “UK “Rusmolko” of Penza oblast. For this purpose, servicing bulls of the Holstein breed of Alta Genetics Russia were selected, the breeding value of bulls was assessed by a set of traits, the productivity of the daughters of bulls was analyzed in terms of production qualities, the servicing bulls were as-sessed by comparing their daughters with the peers, the implementation of the genetic potential of cows’ productivity was considered, the milk yield of the daughters was calculated depending on NM$ (lifetime net merit) and PTA (predicted transmitting ability).
As a result of the research, it was found that when selecting servicing bulls for assigning to a herd, it is permissible to be guided by the indicators of the lifetime merit index, it is also advisable to be guided by the calculation of the predicted milk yield according to the predicted transmitting ability index.
Keywords: servicing bulls, Holstein breed, breeding value, production qualities.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.013

MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SKIN OF PREGNANT EWES OF TUSHIN BREED AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FEEDING
O.K. Gogaev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.R. Demurova, Candi-date of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
Yu.V. Nakonechny, applicant
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
tel. (8672) 53-03-01: e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

To establish the optimal amount of nutrients in the diets required for the pregnant sheep, in the conditions of the distant-mountain keeping of the North Caucasus in 2018, after tupping, 120 Tushin ewes were selected for the third lambing, which were divided into four groups 30 heads each. Ewes of the control group received a food ration prepared in accordance with the standards of the All-Russian Research Institute of Animal Husbandry (VIZH) (2003). The ration of the second, third and fourth groups of ewes was increased in total nutritional value by 10%, 15% and 20%, respectively, compared with the diet of the control group. The study of skin structure was carried out using prepa-rations made from pregnant ewe skin samples taken from five heads from each group. It was found that, depending on the season of the year and severity, the skin of the experimental ewes underwent significant changes: the thickness of the skin and its layers decreased, the activity of sweat and se-baceous glands decreased, the hair follicles and the diameter of the collagen fiber bundles de-creased in size. The greatest decrease in these parameters occurred in the skin of ewes that were pregnant and received a diet prepared in accordance with the VIZH standards (17.1%). Similar chang-es occurred in the thickness of the epidermis, pilar and reticular layers. The smallest decrease in the thickness of the skin and its layers occurred in the group of ewes under high feeding conditions. The study of horizontal sections of the skin of the experimental groups of ewes showed that the level of feeding during the lambing period did not affect the number of follicles in the hair group. In the groups of ewes that received an increased level of feeding, the number of follicles per unit of skin area decreased by 8.0-13.9%, which is associated with an increase in body condition and, according-ly, an increase in skin area.
Key words: feeding level, skin, epidermis, pilar layer, reticular layer, sebaceous gland, sweat gland, hair follicles.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.014

GROWTH OF THE CHICKEN EMBRYO AND ITS REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
R.Yu. Khokhlov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor;
S.I. Kuznetsov, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia, Penza, tel. (8412) 628-151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article is devoted to the analysis of the relative increase in the mass and length of the chick-en embryo and its reproductive organs. Based on the data obtained, the asynchrony of changes in the studied indicators is found. It was found that the increase in the mass of the chicken embryo took place with alternating periods of increase and decrease in the growth rate of the studied indicator. The most intensive weight increase was shown by chicken embryos in the embryogenesis interval of 12-13 days. The maximum increase in the ovarian mass of a chicken embryo also occurred in this age range. The minimum weight increase of a chicken embryo was noticed in the age period of 11-12 days and 18-19 days. The increase of the embryo length has more levelled values compared to the in-crease of the embryo mass, since during the observed period (11-20 days) it was in the range of 8-12 %, and only in the range of 19-20 days it was only 3 %. The results of the study showed that the de-velopments of the oviduct and ovary are asynchronous. This is seen in the fact that the rate of ovi-duct mass growth gradually increases, while the rate of ovarian mass growth, on the contrary, de-creases during embryonic development.
Keywords: chicken embryo, oviduct, ovary, morphogenesis

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ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.015

RESULTS OF RESEARCH OF A COIL SEEDING MACHINE WITH A CONTINUOUS COATING OF A VALVE MADE OF RUBBER WITH SPIKES
N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
A.V. Shukov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.S. Rodin, Postgraduate;
T.A. Kiryukhina, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor;
V.V. Shumaev, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Penza, tel. (8412) 628 517, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

To create a uniform and continuous flow of seeds, to ensure stable seeding of the established norm, to reduce crushing – all these are the main tasks of the seeding machine. Seeding machines must have a reliable and convenient adjustment of the seeding rate for various crops, be universal and easy to use. The work, devoted to improving the quality indicators of grain crops by advancing the technological process of the coil seeding machine with a continuous coating of a valve made of rubber with spikes, is relevant and has an important economic and business significance for the Rus-sian agroindustrial complex.
The article presents the results of laboratory studies of the coil seeding device with a continuous coating of a valve made of rubber with spikes, the results of field studies of an experimental seed drill with such seeding devices, and the dependence of the uneven distribution of seeds along the length of the row on the speed of the device unit is obtained.
The use of an experimental seeder with coil seeding devices with the continuous coating of valves of rubber with spikes showed the feasibility of using a seeder with such experimental seeding devices for sowing grain seeds in the range of 7.8...9.7 km/h. The increase in the yield of spring wheat of the "Trizo" variety, when sown with the experimental seeder, counted 12 %.
Keywords: seeder, valve, coil seeding machine, instability of general seeding, crushing, seeds.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.016

MODEL OF THE QUALITY-POWER INDICATOR OF A ROTARY DRUM MIXER
A.V. Chupshev1, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor;
V.V. Konovalov2, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
K.M. Fudin2, engineer
1 FSBEI of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, tel. (8412) 628-542, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2 FSBEI of Higher Education PenzSTU, tel. (8412) 690-320, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Based on experimental studies, the article presents the issues of improving the quality indicators of the drum feed mixer, describes its design and operating principle. The research was conducted in accordance with the current methodology and materials presented in the article. Based on the results of approximation of the initially calculated values of the quality-power indicator, a statistical model of this quality-power indicator (0.01% kW) is obtained. The value of errors in the calculated data is ana-lyzed for correspondence with the initial data. After processing the obtained experimental data, the description of dependence diagrams on the influence of the design parameters of the working body of the drum mixer on the quality and power indicator is shown. An increase in the height of the instal-lation of blades is undesirable over 0.16 m, and an increase in the number of blades over eight leads to a rapid deterioration in the quantity-power indicator. The relevant conclusions on the application of the studied design and operating parameters in the working of the drum mixer are presented.
Keywords: drum, blade wings, blade pitch angle, power capacity, mix, mix preparation, mixing, control component, mixing model.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.017

RESULTS OF THEORETICAL STUDIES OF A COULTER WITH A SEED DEFLECTOR, A SOIL DISRUPTURER, AND A FURROW PRESS WHEEL
A.G. Zubarev, post-graduate student;
N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Technical Science, professor;
А.V. Shukov, Candidate of Technical Science, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University" Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 628 517, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

High-quality sowing is not only a uniform distribution of seeds along the length of the row, but also their seeding at a given depth, which allows getting a high-quality crop of grains. This is achieved by using an ordinary method of grain crops sowing using double-disc coulters, which place seeds in the furrow allowing direct contact of the seeds with the soil. Seeders with such working bod-ies are used in both traditional and minimal technologies for the cultivation of grain crops.
The article presents the results of theoretical studies of an experimental coulter with a seed de-flector, a closed-type soil cultivator and a furrow press wheel with a rubber mass tire. The depend-ences for finding the impact coefficient of sliding friction, as well as the dependence of the speed of the wheel center and seed after impact are determined.
The article is devoted to the task of improving the quality indicators of sowing seeds of grain crops by a seeder with the experimental coulter and contains the results of a theoretical study of the design and operating parameters of the coulter with a seed deflector, a closed-type soil disrupturer and a furrow press wheel with a rubber mass tire.
Keywords: seeder, coulter, seed deflector, soil disrupturer, furrow press wheel, seeds.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.018

THE RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF A MILKING MACHINE WITH STEPPED TEAT TUBES
A.V. Yashin, Candidate of Technical Science, assistant-professor;
Yu.V. Polyvyanyj, Candidate of Technical Science
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. +79022099691, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The main task of dairy cattle breeding is to further increase the rate of milk production based on an increase in the milk yield of cows. The most important reserve for the growth of milk productivity is the use of milking equipment that best meets the physiology of animals, as well as its correct selec-tion and operation. An analysis of the designs of existing milking machines showed that one of the main disadvantages is their extremely severe effect on the teat receptors and, accordingly, inhibition of the milk flow reflex, which leads to a decrease in one-time milk yield and intensity of milking of a cow, thereby reducing milk yield. One of the points of the State Program of the Russian Federation “Development of agriculture and regulation of markets of agricultural products, raw materials and food for 2013-2020” is the technical and technological modernization of the agro-industrial complex, without which, it is impossible to fully ensure import substitution with competitive products and in-crease the economic security of the country.
Therefore, the development of a milking machine with stepped teat tubes, which contributes to an increase in the intensity of milking, is relevant and has an important national economic signifi-cance.
Keywords: milk, milk flow, milking machine, teat tube.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.019

CONSTRUCTION OF A PLANTING MECHANISM OF A MINI POTATO PLANTER
A.S. Bochkarev, post-graduate student;
N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Technical science, professor;
О.N. Kukharev, Doctor of Technical science, professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University" Penza, Russia, phone (8412) 628 517, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The planting mechanisms of the manufactured potato planters for the most part do not fully meet the agrotechnical requirements. Based on the analysis of designs of modern planting mecha-nisms, a conclusion about the advantages and disadvantages of existing potato planter designs was made. A big drawback, which especially affects the yield of the crop, is the low uniformity of distribu-tion of potato tubers along the length of the row, as well as along the depth of planting. At the same time, the deterioration in the distribution of potato tubers occurs mainly at the moment when the pota-toes are thrown to the bottom of the furrow due to the rolling of the tubers along its bottom.
The article presents the design and principle of operation of the developed planting mechanism for mini potato planters.
Keywords: mini potato planter, planting mechanism, potato, tubers rolling limiter.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.7.3.020

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE PROCESS OF SOIL REMOVAL AND LOADING IN GREENHOUSES
А.О. Vezirov, PhD in Technical Sciences;
P.I. Pavlov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor;
А.V. Levchenko, post-graduate student;
V.V. Korsak, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Saratov State Agrarian University named after N.I. Vavilov", Russia, Saratov, tel. +7 (8452) 74-96-50;
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Growing vegetables in greenhouses allows having frequent harvests and provides the population with fresh produce year-round. Nowadays, especially with the development of organic farming, along with hydroponic farming, soil technology is widely used, plants being grown on specially prepared soil mixtures consisting of natural components. The use of this technology involves the periodic re-placement of the upper (sanitary) soil layer in greenhouses. There are practically no specialized ma-chines for performing the operation to remove the sanitary layer, and unadapted machines and equipment are used to perform this technological operation on farms. To perform this operation, a new design of a trailed machine for removing and loading soil has been proposed. The results of ex-perimental studies of the influence of operating parameters on the energy intensity of the process of removing and loading soil are presented, and the nature of the dependence of the power required to drive the machine on operating parameters has been established. The results obtained made it possi-ble to establish the actual values of the operating parameters at which the values of energy intensity and power take rational values, which makes it possible to establish the effectiveness of the pro-posed machine design, thereby completely mechanizing the process of removing and loading soil in greenhouses.
Keywords: power, energy intensity, soil mixtures, substrate, greenhouse.

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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Agronomy


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.001

MICROELEMENT FERTILIZERS, GROWTH REGULATORS, BACTERIAL FERTILIZERS IN THE TECHNOLOGIES OF CULTIVATION OF WINTER TRITICAL IN THE FOREST STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
P.G. Alyonin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
S.A. Kshnikatkin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
G.V. Ilyina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor;
E.A. Zueva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-81-51; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The studies were conducted in 2003-2011 on the experimental field of the FSBEI HE Penza State Agrarian University, in the fodder production department of the FSBI Penza Agricultural Research Institute, OOO Agrofirm Biokor-S, OOO Intechsemkor. As a result of many years of research, it was found that under conditions of Penza region the most adapted winter triticale ADS-4 variety, Yield 4.46 t/ha, which is 0.84 t/ha (23.2%) higher than Talva 100 standard. The treatment of winter triticale seeds of ADS-4 variety with microelement fertilizers, growth regulators and biological fertilizers contributed to an increase in grain yield in relation to the control according to the experimental variants by 0.74-1.81 t/ha (16.4-41.0%). At the same time, the highest yield (6.06 t/ha) was obtained by treating seeds with sodium humate together with aquamix. Foliar dressing of plants with complex fertilizers on a fertilized background contributed to an increase in the yield of Doctrina 110 winter triticale in the tillering phase by 0.71-0.80 t/ha, in the heading phase by 0.40-0.47 t/ha, in phase tillering + heading by 1.36-1.43 t/ha. The most effective was the use of complex fertilizer Master Special, the grain yield of Doctrina 110 was 7.57-8.53 t/ha, Talva 100 – 5.62-6.26 t/ha. The highest grain yield of 8.53 t/ha of Doctrina 110 is provided by the application of nitrogen fertilizers 60 kg/ha with root dressing and Poly-Feed 4 kg/ha with foliar dressing during the tillering and heading phase. The yield increase was 20.1%. When cultivating winter triticale for feed purposes, it is most effective to spray plants with Master Special. The yield of feed units is 21.7 t/ha, digestible protein – 15.05 t/ha, exchange energy – 170.45 GJ/ha. During exogenous treatment of seeds of winter triticale of Varvara variety, the highest grain yield of 4.82 t/ha was obtained using Albit together with Baikal EM-1.
Keywords: winter triticale, mineral and microelement fertilizers, growth regulators, bacterial fertilizers, photosynthesis, productivity, grain quality.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.002

CHANGES IN THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF MANURE, GREEN MANURE AND THE STOVER BIODESTRUCTOR
A.V. Safonov, Post-graduate;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.N. Arefiev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor;
E.E. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Intensification of agriculture in the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Volga region requires solving the problem of preserving the soil and its potential and effective fertility in order to increase crop productivity and quality of crop production. In this regard, the development and implementation in agricultural practice of agrobiological techniques to prevent anthropogenic degradation in agricultural landscapes is an urgent direction of modern agricultural science. The purpose of the research was to compare the effect of the implementation of manure, green manure and their combinations with the stover biodestructor on the physical and chemical properties of meadow-chernozemic soil. To reach this purpose, research was conducted in the period from 2017 to 2019 in the first agro-soil district of the Penza region. Research has shown that the effect and after-effect of manure, green manure and their compound action and after-action with the stover biodestructor had a positive effect on the physical and chemical properties of meadow-chernozemic soil. Green manure fallows were not inferior to manured fallows in terms of their effect on the cation-exchange capacity, the sum of exchange bases, and the amount of exchange and hydrolytic acidity. A compound action and after-action of manure, the oil radish and green manure of legumes with the stover biodestructor had a more significant influence on the change in the physical and chemical properties of the soil. In their background, the cation-exchange capacity increased by 1.40-1.51 mg equivalent/100 g of soil, the sum of exchange bases by 1.6-1.7 mg equivalent/100 g of soil, the value of рНКСl 0.22-0.24 units, the value of hydrolytic acidity decreased by 0.17-0.19 mg equivalent/100 g of soil.
Keywords: meadow-chernozemic soil, manure, green manure, biodestructor, cation-exchange capacity, sum of exchange bases, acidity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.003

IMPROVEMENT OF THE STRUCTURE OF SOWN AREAS AND AGROTECHNOLOGIES OF CROPS IN THE SYSTEM OF SPECIALIZED CROP ROTATIONS IS A RELIABLE GUARANTEE FOR STABILIZING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND SOIL FERTILITY
N.P. Melikhova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
E.V. Zinchenko, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
A.A. Zibarov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
D.S. Tegesov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Federal State Budget Scientific Institution All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Irrigated Agriculture, Volgograd, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

According to the results of many years of stationary field experiments, the significance of improving the structure of sown areas when developing the technologies of programmed cultivation of agricultural crops in the system of specialized crop rotation, which includes the use of adapted, highly productive crops, the soil cultivation system, irrigation, and nutrition regimes, has been established.
The most productive under irrigation conditions are fodder and grain-fodder crop rotations with alfalfa, corn for silage and grain, and winter wheat as basic crops. The intensification of crop rotation is achieved by the use of programmed doses of organo-mineral fertilizers, the optimal combination of crops in the main and intermediate crops.
The obtained results confirmed the real possibility of increasing the productivity of irrigated arable land at the level of 10.0...12.0 thousand feed units with a rational combination of profitable crops adapted to agro landscape conditions, a differentiated system of tillage and the use of programmed organic and mineral fertilizers; the possibility of stabilizing agricultural production by achieving high productivity of irrigated arable land while meeting the reasonable agricultural requirements of alternating crops, the rational ratio in the structure of sowings of crop groups (feed: grain: technical) were established.
The studies have confirmed the role of perennial leguminous grasses (alfalfa) with a two to three year term of use in increasing the productivity of irrigated arable land and its fertility in comparison with annual fodder crops in primary and intermediate sowings. A positive effect on the productivity of arable land from crops in the studied crop rotations was exerted by grain corn in comparison with winter wheat.
Keywords: crop area structure, arable land productivity, soil fertility.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.004

METHODS FOR EVALUATING THE STABILITY OF WINTER TRITICALE TO DRY CONDITIONS OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS PIEDMONT
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of Biological Sciences;
M.A. Basieva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
E.S. Miroshnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
V.I. Gasiev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
T.S. Abiyev, Candidate of Biological Sciences
North Caucasus Research Institute of Mountain and Piedmont Agriculture of Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, North Ossetia-Alania, Russia, tel. +7 (88672) 23-04-20,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The North Caucasus region produces a fifth of the grain in Russia. Frequent droughts do not allow stable high yields of winter triticale in this region. Their probability is 25-50%. In addition, almost every year in the second half of the growing season, winter grain crops experience a negative effect of moisture deficiency. The main condition for overcoming the negative impact of adverse environmental factors is the creation and introduction of highly productive and adapted to local conditions varieties into production. The article presents the results of laboratory and field studies of the breeding material of winter triticale for drought resistance and productivity. Determination of plant resistance to moisture deficiency was carried out by the ability of seeds to germinate on highly osmotic solutions of sucrose. Assessment of drought resistance in the field was carried out by the productivity of varieties, in different years of moisture availability, using various statistical methods. According to the results of studies, the relative drought resistance and stable productivity were characterized by the varieties: Grenado, Gor, PRAG 506. The most informative and objective methods for assessing breeding material for drought resistance are recommended. These include: the laboratory method of seed germination on osmotic solutions of sucrose and a direct method for calculating drought resistance by the plant productivity index.
Key words: winter triticale, breeding indices, drought resistance, adaptability, stress resistance.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.005

AGROECOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF SEED INOCULATION WITH BACTERIAL FERTILIZERS AND COMPLEX MICRO-ELEMENT FERTILIZERS IN RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGY OF GROWING HUNGARIAN CLOVER
S.A. Kshnikatkin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
N.A. Karpov, a post-graduate student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-75, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The results of studies of the effect of bacterial and complex fertilizers with microelements in chelated form on the formation of the parameters of photosynthesis, symbiotic activity, and productivity of Hungarian clover of the ANIK variety are presented. It was found that inoculation of seeds with biologics of the associative group and complex fertilizers with microelements in chelated form activated growth, morphogenesis, the symbiotic and photosynthetic activity of Pannonian clover plants. The number and weight of active nodules in relation to the control increased by 29.2-167.6 million units/ha and 77.7-564.1 kg/ha, respectively. The maximum parameters of the symbiosis of agrocenosis of Hungarian clover (active nodules – 221.8 million pcs/ha with a mass of 893.7 kg/ha) were formed during the inoculation of clover seeds with the biological fertilizer Gumariz together with the silicon-containing preparation NanoKremny. The leaf area of Hungarian clover agrocoenoses of the first year of use amounted on average to 37.6-53.6 thousand m2/ha for two years according to the experimental variants. In comparison with the control, it increased by 1.3-1.9 times. The highest indices of the clover leaf surface (53.6 thousand m2/ha) were observed during the integrated treatment of seeds with Gumariz together with NanoKremny, in the control – 28.7 thousand m2/ha. On average, over two years, the collection of dry matter of Hungarian clover of the first year of use according to the experimental variants amounted to 7.29-12.48 t/ha, of feed units – 5.25-9.05 t/ha, of digestible protein – 0.8-1.39 t/ha, of exchange energy – 58.69-100.47 GJ. The highest productivity of Hungarian clover was obtained by inoculating seeds with the Gumariz biological product together with the NanoKremny preparation: dry matter – 12.48 t/ha, feed units – 9.05 t/ha, digestible protein – 1.39 t/ha; the yield of clover seeds was 786.8 kg/ha, which was 2.2 times higher than the control indicators; profitability when cultivating for seeds – 187.3%, for fodder purposes – 149.6%, energy efficiency coefficient – 2.24 and 1.89 units.
Keywords: inoculation, Hungarian clover, biologics, complex microelement fertilizers, photosynthesis parameters, symbiotic activity, productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.006

SEED PRODUCTIVITY OF INDUSTRIAL HEMP OF SURSKAYA VARIETY OF CENTRAL RUSSIAN ECOTYPE WHEN GROWING IN YEARS WITH VARIOUS HYDROTHERMAL CONDITIONS
V.A. Gushchina1, doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
A.A. Smirnov2, doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
A.D. Smirnov1, graduate student
1 Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-67, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2 Agrofirm OOO Konoplex Penza

In Soviet times, hemp breeding was a major supplier of raw materials for the textile industry. In addition to fiber, hemp provides seeds from which valuable vegetable oil, presscake, as well as medicines can be obtained. Wood of stems, shives, is successfully used for the production of artificial fibers, paper and building materials. To revive the hemp breeding industry in Penza Oblast on the fields of the agricultural firm OOO Konoplex Penza in 2017-2019 hemp of Surskaya variety was sown on leached chernozem. The reserve for increasing the yield of industrial hemp and obtaining quality products is a more complete use of natural factors and the maximum realization of the biological potential of the variety. On average, over three years, the length of the growing season of industrial hemp was 110...118 days, depending on the weather conditions of the year. The sum of active temperatures varied from 2017.8 to 2203.6°C, with daily average air temperatures of 17.6...19.4°C. All three years of research were characterized by insufficient moisture, however, favorable conditions in 2017 at certain development phases contributed to a high yield of seeds of 0.95 t/ha, which is 0.35 and 0.1 t/ha higher than in 2018 and 2019 years respectively. The oil content in the seeds was 30...2%.
Keywords: industrial hemp, Central Russian ecotype, Surskaya variety, seed productivity, oil content.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.007

COMPLEX FERTILIZERS WITH MICROELEMENTS AND FORMATION OF PRODUCTIVITY OF SPRING SOFT WHEAT
S.A. Semina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
N.I. Ostroborodova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-81-51, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies on the influence of various types of complex fertilizers with microelements in chelate forms on the formation of the yield of spring soft wheat of the Arkhat variety during pre-sowing treatment of seeds. It was established that only when using Gumostim there is a tendency to increase productive tillering. It was revealed that treatment of seeds with Cytovit contributed to an increase in the size of the ear by 16.4%. It was noted that the increase in the number of grains when using Gumostim and Multi-purpose Siliplant was 0.8-1.3 pieces, and the most grained ears were obtained using Cytovit, an increase to the control was 22.3%. The use of complex micronutrient fertilizers contributed to the improvement of the technological properties of grain. The grain bulk density when using EcoFus, Gumostim and Cytovit increased by 9-23 g/l. During the years of research, a highly vitreous grain was formed in all variants of the experiment, but no significant differences for this quality indicator in the variants were revealed. In the years of research, the use of EcoFus, Gumostim, and Multi-purpose Siliplant was equivalent in effect on the accumulation of wet gluten; the increase was 1.2-3.8% of the control in these variants. Seed treatment with Cytovit had advantage in this quality indicator. Mass fraction of wet gluten increased by 5.6% compared with water treatment. In quality, gluten in all test variants in 2018 met the requirements of the second quality group (IDK 90-95 units), and in 2019 it met the requirements of the first quality group (IDK 65-77 units). However, with an increase in the amount of wet gluten, a natural decrease in its elastic properties was noted.
Keywords: wheat, complex fertilizers, ear, grain, productivity, grain bulk density, gluten.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.008

YIELD PROPERTIES AND ADAPTABILITY OF SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS) VARIETIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
T.Ya. Prahova1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
A.N. Kshnikatkina2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
A.A. Shanin2, post-graduate student
1 Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Scientific Center of Bast Crops", workmen's settlement Lunino, Russia;
2 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Penza, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The purpose of the research was to evaluate the yield properties and the main parameters of adaptability of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) varieties in the agricultural climatic conditions of forest-steppe of the Middle Volga Region. The research was conducted in 2017-2019 on the experimental field of the Federal Scientific Center of Bast Crops. The object of research was the six varieties of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). Meteorological conditions of the growing season can be characterized as dry; the hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) ranged from 0.4 to 0.82 units. The index of environmental conditions varied from – 0.61 to 0.13 units. The most optimal conditions for the growth of culture were formed in 2019 (Ii – 0.13), where the highest seed yield for all varieties was formed – 1.34-1.53 t/ha. Zavolzhskij 1 and Alexandrit varieties were registered with the high yield, whose productivity was 1.37 and 1.42 t/ha, respectively. The coefficient of yield variability was 6,58-14,19 %. On an annual basis, the low variation in yield was observed in the varieties Ershovskij 4 and Astrahanskij 747 (6.58-7.71 %). This fact indicates the stability of these varieties. These varieties had the highest variety stability level and amounted to 0.26 and 0.22, respectively. Varieties Zavolzhskij 1, Astrahanskij 747 and Alexandrit formed large seeds. The weight of 1000 seeds reached 41.4-41.6 g on an average. The fat content in the achenes ranged from 23.70-27.45 %. In the conditions of the Penza region, in terms of environmental adaptability, the best varieties were Zavolzhskij 1 and Alexandrit, whose adaptability parameters were bi = 0.99-1.01; σdr2 = 0.09. The varieties Alexandrit and Ershovskij 4 had the highest values of the stability index (0.17 and 0.20). This fact shows their greater adaptability to specific conditions.
Keywords: safflower, varieties, yield, adaptability, stability, oil content, weight of 1000 seeds.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.009

TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS OF CASCADE BIO CONVERSION OF SUNFLOWER HUSK
S.А. Sashenkova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
G.V. Ilyina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor;
D.Yu. Ilyin, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
A.R. Dashkina, student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-81-51, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper discusses the possibilities of using sunflower husk as a substrate for the cultivation of mycelial stock cultures of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and garden mushroom. A comparative assessment of the utilization of a straw substrate by fungal mycelium was carried out. The features of the development of oyster mushroom mycelium and fruit bodies on substrates from sunflower husks derivatized by acid methanolysis were studied. The possibilities of increasing the yield of oyster mushrooms on substrates subjected to derivatization were determined. The possibilities of using the used substrates after the cultivation of oyster mushroom as a biocompost introduced into cucumbers of the Kuznechik F1 variety in open ground are shown.
Keywords: powder spawn, mycelial cultures, crop production, mushroom growing, sunflower husk, biomelioration.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.010

FORMATION OF MIXED AGRO-PHYTOCENOSES OF ALFERA AND CONCEPT IN THE FIRST YEAR OF VEGETATION
O.A. Timoshkin1, Doctor of Agricultural sciences;
S.A. Semina2, Doctor of Agricultural sciences, professor;
O.Yu. Timoshkina1, Candidate of Agricultural sciences;
S.A. Alekseev2, graduate student
1 Federal State-Funded Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Center of Fibre Crops, Lunino, Penza oblast, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
2 Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza

The studies were carried out on the experimental field of the Penza Agricultural Institute, a branch of the Federal State-Funded Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Center of Fibre Crops in 2017-2019. The purpose of the research is to theoretically substantiate and develop technological methods for cultivating the variegated lucerne of Daria variety and smooth brome of Udalets variety for fodder purposes in mixed crops, based on the selection of seeding rates and the mineral nutrient status, ensuring maximum productivity of agrophytocenoses in the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region. Seeding was in Summer (June), coverless. Pure seeding rate: lucerne and brome 6 mln viable seeds per 1 ha, in mixed crops – according to the experimental design. The method of seeding is ordinary (placement of crops is inter-row). It was shown that an increase in the seeding rate from 40 to 100% of both lucerne and brome promotes better seed germination. So, the germination rate of lucerne seeds when seeding 40% of the total seeding rate was 45.3%, when seeding 70% – 50.9%, when seeding 100% of the seeding rate – 53.9%. Germination rates of smooth brome, on average over three years ranged from 30.0 to 36.6%. An analysis of the influence of the mineral nutrient status showed that the application of mineral fertilizers in years with a lack of precipitation had a negative impact on the seed germination rate of the studied crops. A study of the survival of plants depending on the seeding rate of the components showed that with an increase in the seeding rate from 40 to 100%, the lucerne survival decreases from 62.8% to 50.1%, and the smooth brome survival decreases from 37.5% to 22.3%. Improving the mineral nutrient status also led to a decrease in plant survival: that of lucerne from 62.7% in the control to 59.4-56.9% when phosphorus-potassium and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers were applied, survival of smooth brome – from 36.6 to 32.9-28.9%. The height of lucerne varied from 35 to 48 cm, the higher the seed seeding rate, the higher herbage is formed by lucerne. The height of brome also depended on the seeding rate and the application of mineral fertilizers in a dose of N45P60K90. The yield of green mass of lucerne varied from 3.3-3.9 t/ha at 40% seeding rate, to 4.2-5.1 t/ha at 55% seeding rate, 5.2-6.3 t/ha at 70% seeding rate and 6.2-7.8 t/ha at 100% seeding rate. Addition of P60K90 resulted in significant increases in lucerne yields compared with the control variant, while the differences between the variants with addition of P60K90 and N45P60K90 were not significant.
Keywords: lucerne, smooth brome, mixed seeding, cultivation, formation of agrocenosis.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.011

INFLUENCE OF RISOTORPHIN ON THE PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF MEADOW CLOVER
A.T. Farniev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
A.A. Sabanova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
D.T. Kalitseva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education “Highland State Agrarian University”, Vladikavkaz, Russia, tel. +7 (8672) 53-11-33, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In the ecological conditions of the mountainous zone of North Ossetia-Alania, studies were carried out to determine the effect of pre-sowing seed inoculation on the growth, development and productivity of meadow clover, as well as on the quality of green mass. It has been established that under the influence of different rhizotorphin strains, the growth of plants of the Daryal variety according to the experimental variants is improved by 14.4-27.5 cm, of the Farn variety by 13.2-20.6 cm. The leaf blade area of clover plants increases by 3.7-5.6 cm2 for Daryal variety, and 4.1-6.0 cm2 for Farn variety. The leaf coverage of Daryal plants increased by 1.3-7.0% before the first mowing and of the Farn plants by 0.6-6.4%. At the same time, plants of variant 6 (strain 340b) and 7 (strain 348) had the highest leaf coverage, 61.0-59.4% for the Daryal variety and 59.4-57.3% for the Farn variety. On average, over two years, the yield of green mass increased from 20.1 to 23.3 t/ha for the Daryal variety and from 18.8 to 22.2 t/ha for the Farn variety. The best efficiency was shown by strains 340b and 348. The increase in yield for these variants was 3.2-2.7 t/ha (Daryal variety) and 3.5-2.6 t/ha (Farn variety). Seed inoculation promoted an increase in dry matter collection. Its increase ranged from 0.22 to 1.05 and from 0.18 to 1.08 t/ha, respectively, by varieties. The green mass of clover plants of the sixth and seventh variants with a protein content of 18.0-17.8% (Daryal variety) and 17.8-17.6% (Farn variety) were of higher quality. Therefore, for stable production of high quality forage, clover seeds must be inoculated with rhizotorphin, strain 340b, before sowing.
Keywords: clover, varieties, rhizotorphin, strains, growth, development, productivity, quality.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.012

SOWING QUALITIES OF SEEDS AND PRODUCTIVITY OF NON-NARCOTIC VARIETY OF HEMP DEPENDING ON PRE-PLANTING CULTIVATION
I.V. Bakulova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
I.I. Pluzhnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
N.V. Kriushin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Federal Scientific Center of Bast Crops», Russia,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This work presents the results of studying the influence of pre-planting seed cultivation on hemp plants in order to improve the cultivation technology. The implementation of the studied drugs had a positive effect on the germinating power, germination and yield of plants. In laboratory conditions there was a significant increase in seed germination when using drugs Albit, TPS (liquid paste) and BTU Biocomplex 5.0 and 7.2 % for the variety Vera in the use of drugs TMTD, VSK and BTU Biocomplex – 5.2 and 5.0 %, respectively in the variety Nadezhda. In the field conditions, the germination rate increased by 4.2-5.6% in the Vera variety and 1.8-8.5% in the Nadezhda variety compared to the control. Over the years of research, the yield of hemp seeds, as a result of the use of disinfectants for all options of the experiment, changed on the Vera variety in the range of 0.78-0.96 t/ha and 0.66-0.84 t/ha on the Nadezhda variety. The greatest increase in yield on the Vera variety was noted in the options with pre-planting cultivation of seeds with Bunker, VSK, Lignohumate and Albit, TPS. On the Nadezhda variety, the maximum yield of seeds was set on options with cultivation with Benorad, SP, Bunker, VSK and Albit, TPS, the yield increase was 0.16-0.18 t/ha or 24.2-27.3 % to control.
Keywords: hemp seed, non-narcotic variety, seed disinfectant, agrochemical, growth regulator, yield of stems and seeds.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.013

PONDS OF VOLGOGRAD OBLAST AND THEIR CONDITION
А.Yu. Ovcharova, Candidate of Geography Science;
V.F. Loboyko, Doctor of Technical Sciences;
А.V. Loboyko, post-graduate student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Volgograd State Agrarian University", Volgograd, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article contains an inventory of ponds, pits for collecting water, and mini-water storages located in Volgograd Oblast. In Volgograd Oblast, there are about 5,000 artificial reservoirs for various purposes. Despite such a number of water bodies, the study area belongs to territories with an insufficient amount of water resources, which is due to the natural zone of dry steppes and semi-deserts and a sharply continental climate. Most of the ponds and pits for collecting water are not monitored, and there are almost no scientific and methodological works devoted to this topic. In order to clarify the current state of artificial water bodies in the region, field trips were carried out for their visual inspection and monitoring, as well as morphometric, physical and statistical data provided by the administrations of districts and settlements were studied. In climatic conditions, these water bodies play an important role: irrigation of agricultural land, watering of adjacent territories, fish and waterfowl farming, storage of water for various household needs, shipping, fire-fighting and anti-erosion purposes, etc. Many hydraulic structures located on artificial reservoirs are in a state of crisis: dams on some of them are destroyed or are inoperative, and there is no water in them. The condition of some ponds in the region is assessed as pre-crisis and crisis. On many of them, there are signs prohibiting some forms of mobile and stationary recreation: fishing, beach recreation, water tourism, etc.
Keywords: ponds, pits for collecting water, artificial reservoirs, water resources of Volgograd Oblast.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.014

PRODUCTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN CROP ROTATION LINKS ON LEACHED BLACK SOIL
S.V. Bogomazov, Candidate of Agricultural sciences;
А.V. Lyandenburskaya, senior lecturer;
А.А. Levin, assistant;
О.А. Tkachuk, Candidate of Agricultural sciences;
Е.V. Efremova, Candidate of Agricultural sciences
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-85-46, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The aim of the research was to improve the elements of winter wheat cultivation technology in the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Volga region, which allow to optimize the conditions for growth and development. The studies found that the type of fallow did not significantly affect the density of the soil. After green-manured fallow, the reserves of productive moisture in the meter layer decreased before sowing, on average, by 6.4 mm. Winter wheat placing after green manure fallow led to an insignificant decrease in leaf area by 0.14 thousand m2/ha, compared to black fallow. The greatest contribution to the formation of the productivity of winter wheat was made by the fertilizer Gumostim, which contributed to an increase in the leaf area by 5.1 thousand m2/ha, in yield – by 0.46 t/ha in relation to the control.
Keywords: soil density, productive moisture reserve, photosynthesis, yield, winter wheat.

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Veterinary and zootechny


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.015

PRODUCTIVITY OF THE HOLSTEIN FIRST-CALF HEIFERS OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT HOUSING AND FEEDING CONDITIONS
V.V. Lyashenko, Doctor of Agricultural Scienses, professor;
I.V. Kaeshova, Candidate of Agricultural Scienses, assistant-professor;
A.V. Gubina, Candidate of Agricultural Scienses, assistant-professor;
N.V. Sichkar, post-graduate student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., +79379147127

Dairy cattle breeding in Russia should be competitive in foreign and domestic markets. The development of the industry is ensured by the formation in various regions of a wide network of large specialized dairy complexes equipped with modern high-tech equipment, staffed with highly productive cattle, and implementing innovative milk production technologies. The formation of the broodstock of dairy complexes is carried out, as a rule, due to the import of livestock of highly productive Holstein cattle. Studies by a number of scientists have found that animals imported from abroad have problems adapting to other specific conditions of housing. Therefore, the study of the adaptive abilities of imported livestock is of scientific interest. As the number of Holstein cattle raised in Russian farms and complexes is increasing in each region, a comparative assessment of the productive and breeding qualities of imported and domestic cows is relevant, taking into account the origin, breeding zone and age. In addition to improving livestock conditions and breeding methods in dairy complexes, modern methods of improving animal feeding diets are used, inter alia the inclusion of probiotic additives in the diet.
The article presents the results of the evaluation of the milk productivity of imported (Hungarian and Danish) and domestic first-calf heifers from different regions in modern dairy complexes with intensive milk production technology. It was established that Holstein cattle of different origin is characterized by high milk productivity and good adaptation to conditions of housing and feeding, and the existing differences in the level of productivity are obviously related to the specific local conditions of the region and technology. In OOO RAO Narovchatskoye (LLC), milk yield for 305 days of lactation in Hungarian first-calf heifers was 13.7% more than in Russian cows (p ≤ 0.001), the mass fraction of fat in milk was 0.15% (p ≤ 0.05), and the mass fraction of protein in milk was 0.18% (p ≤ 0.001). At OOO Green Agro-Sakhalin (LLC), the milk yield of first-calf heifers of domestic origin was 3.1% higher than that of the herdmates from Denmark. However, no significant difference between the groups was revealed. According to the mass fraction of fat and protein in milk, no significant difference between the groups was noted. The productive potential of the studied livestock has not yet been realized by any group of animals.
The use of the probiotic preparation Vetosporin-Active showed that in the cows of the experimental group, the milk yield for lactation increased by 6.7% (p <0.05) in comparison with the control group. No significant differences were found in the content of the mass fraction of fat and protein in the milk of cows of the experimental group.
Keywords: dairy cattle breeding, technology, Holstein breed, first-calf heifer, milk yield, productive potential, feed additive, probiotic.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.016

CORRELATION OF MORPHOMETRIC AND PRODUCTIVE INDICATORS OF BEE FAMILIES
M.N. Nevitov, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
А.V. Ostapchuk, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
L.L. Oshkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-81-51, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article analyzes the relationship between the morphometric parameters of the wings of honey bees and their productive parameters. Using the methods of variation statistics, it was shown that the cubital index mainly determines the belonging of bees to a certain breed group and does not correlate with productivity indicators. The discoidal displacement index has a high degree of correlation with honey productivity in bee colonies with a purebred queen (r = 0.83; p <0.05). As the cross-breeding progresses, this dependence decreases and is completely absent in bees that have queen bees of the second or unknown generation against the background of a decrease in honey productivity.
Keywords: beekeeping, morphometry, cubital index, discoidal displacement, honey productivity, correlation.

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ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.017

RESEARCH RESULTS OF THE DEVICE FOR DRYING AGRICULTURAL CROPS
O.N. Kukharev, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor;
I.N. Semov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant-professor;
N.K. Timergazin, a post-graduate student;
V.S. Oskin, an engineer
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-59, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Farms and retailers are not always able to preserve the harvest due to the need to build vegetable stores and the difficulty in observing storage technology.
Under these conditions, the way out of this situation is the drying of vegetables. The use of drying allows saving all the taste and almost all the vitamins. Under these conditions, Penza State Agrarian University has developed a prototype device for drying crops, allowing for fluidized-bed drying. However, it is necessary to conduct research to improve the drying process of vegetables with a pneumatic-mechanical dryer with justification for its design and technological parameters. The experimental methods were used in the work: modeling, observation, experiment. Experimental studies were carried out in laboratory conditions on the basis of generally accepted methods in accordance with current industry standards, as well as developed private research methods. Processing of the research results was carried out on a PC using standard computer programs Microsoft Excel, Statistica, KOMPAS-3D. As a result, a model of the drying process was obtained and the optimal parameters of the proposed device were determined.
Keywords: drying, vegetables, fluidized-bed, dryer, research.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.018

LABORATORY AND FIELD RESEARCH OF A CROP LIFTER OF A COMBING HEADER
K.Z. Kukhmazov, Doctor of Technical Sciences;
B.M. Meloyan, post-graduate student;
A.V. Malyshev, post-graduate student;
S.E. Gubskiy, post-graduate student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza, Russia, tel. 89273624824, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article is devoted to an urgent problem – reducing grain losses during harvesting of lodged grains by the combing method. It provides a description of the design and the principle of operation of the developed copying crop lifter of the combing header, as well as the methodology and the results of laboratory and field studies to substantiate its rational structural and operational parameters. Laboratory and field studies were carried out on the fields of the OOO Russkoye Polye (LLC) of the Penza Region in accordance with GOST 28301 – 2007 «Combine harvesters. Test Methods» in the harvesting of winter wheat. The area of the plot was 12 hectares, the yield was 47 kg/ha, the lodging reached 64%, the ratio of grain mass to straw mass was 1:1.3. The harvesting unit was the Akros – 595 combine harvester with the ZhO – 7 «OZON» combing header equipped with copying crop lifters. Losses after the combing header were determined by the method of the frame superposition. As the results of laboratory and field studies show, the minimum grain losses (no more than 2.5%) when harvesting lodged grains is ensured when the length of the crop lifter L = 470...540 mm, the gas stop pressure P = 50...60 N and the unit operating speed Up = 1,2…2,0 m/s.
Keywords: cereals, lodged grain, combine harvester, combing header, copying crop lifter, grain loss, field contour following.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.019

TWO-PHASE MIXING IN A TRACTOR DIESEL: THE CONCEPT OF TECHNICAL SOLUTION
A.P. Ukhanov, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
M.D. Dubin, post-graduate;
M.V. Ryblov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-85-17, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article is devoted to the problem of improving the effective and environmental indicators of automotive equipment by two-phase mixing in diesels equipped with a power system with direct fuel injection into the combustion chamber. In this method of mixing, the first phase is carried out by injecting a certain dose (10-20 %) of a liquid activator (gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, etc.) in the suction stroke into the diesel intake tract to form an activator-air mixture in the diesel cylinder. In the second phase of mixing, the injection of the main fuel dose into the diesel cylinder is carried out by standard fuel equipment at the end of the compression stroke into a compressed activator-air mixture with the formation of a working mixture prepared for active ignition throughout the entire volume of the combustion chamber. For the practical implementation of the first phase of two-phase mixing, the diesel engine must be additionally equipped with a multi-point activator injection system with electromagnetic nozzles controlled by an electronic unit. This system should ensure high accuracy of activator dosing, its timely delivery in the suction stroke and equable distribution across the diesel cylinders. The performed research and development works included the development of a functional model of the system, as well as methods to justify the duration and algorithm of control pulses applied to electromagnetic nozzles. The system contains an activator tank, filter, electric pump, improved intake pipeline, electromagnetic nozzles, sensors and an electronic control unit based on a programmable microcontroller.
Keywords: tractor, diesel, two-phase mixing, liquid activator, injection system, electromagnetic nozzles, electronic unit, sensors.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.6.2.020

SUBSTANTIATION OF THE BASIC PARAMETERS OF THE SCREW EXPANDER FOR PROCESSING HIGH PROTEIN CROPS
M.G. Zagoruiko, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor;
A.S. Dorohov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Scienc-es;
A.M. Maradudin, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM», Moscow, Russia, tel. +79270548000, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article provides a way to increase the productivity of a screw press variety – the expander. The use of an expander makes it possible to produce compound feed in the form of non-solid whole meals, which has a beneficial effect on the process of digestibility by animals. To correct the existing drawback of the expander – the reverse extrusion of the working mass through the gap between the screw and the body, the authors proposed a combined profile of the screw spiral groove: the left lateral (pushing) surface of the groove has the shape of a semicircle, and the right lateral surface has a semicircular shape in the lower part, and in the middle and upper – the shape of a sloping straight line. Theoretical studies have shown that this profile contributes to the appearance of a difference in lateral pressure forces from the side of boundary particles on the bulk of the material, in contrast to screws with a standard spiral groove made in the form of a triangle, trapezium, or semicircle. In turn, the uneven distribution of lateral pressure will prevent backward extrusion of the processed material through the gap between the auger and the body, thereby increasing the performance of the expander. Theoretical dependencies have been obtained that allow, on the basis of the basic geometric parameters of the screw, to describe geometrically the configuration of the screw of the proposed design for its subsequent manufacture.
Keywords: expander, pressing, extrusion, screw, feed preparation, processing, extruder.

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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Agronomy


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.001

FEATURES OF STORAGE OF JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE TUBERS UNDER CONDITIONS OF VEGETABLE STOREHOUSE
A.S. Kataev, post-graduate student;
E.A. Renyov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
S.L. Eliseev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Perm State Agrarian-Technical University, Perm, Russia,
tel.: +79028076776, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of three years of research on the impact of traditional storage methods on the safety and quality of Jerusalem artichoke tubers. The beneficial properties of Jerusa-lem artichoke have been known for many years. Due to biological characteristics, the use of tubers throughout the calendar year is a rather problematic task – they undergo fungal diseases and quickly dry out. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the optimal method of storage in a vegetable store. In most years of the research, the storability of Jerusalem artichoke did not depend on the storage method and varied from 31 to 95%. External observations showed that in the second year of the research the best keeping quality was ensured by the method of storing tubers in bags. In the first and third years of the research, rotted tubers were observed under all methods of storage. Regardless of the method used, tubers were dried during storage. In most years of the research, moisture loss was higher when stored in bulk – by 1.7-8.2%. When storing Jerusalem artichoke tubers in boxes, the lowest reduction in fiber content was observed – 0.2-2.5%, while when stored in bags – 1.1-4.3%, when stored in bulk – 0.9-2.4 %. Storage in boxes provided the smallest reduction in the content of water-soluble sugars – 1.4-4.8%. The most optimal of the traditional methods of storage is the storage in boxes.
Key words: Jerusalem artichoke, storage method, storability, biochemical composition of tu-bers.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.002

EFFECT OF SILICON CONTAINING PRODUCTS ON FORMATION OF CORN YIELD
S.A. Semina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
I.V. Gavryushina, Candidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor;
E.V. Nikulina, graduate student
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia,
tel. +7 (8412) 628-151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies on the effect of various types of silicon containing products on formation of corn yield, depending on the timing of nonroot treatment. The greatest growth-promoting effect was noted with a double treatment of corn crops with NanoSilicon. The growth compared to the variant with water treatment was 33 cm. When Kelik Potassium-Silicon was used, taller plants formed after foliar treatment in the five-leaf phase, the growth to the variant without the product was 19 cm. In the variant with Microvit-6 Silicon, the height of the plants was more by 14-18 cm compared to plants sprayed with water. The increase in the number of developed cobs during the foliar treatment with silicon products was 8.1-18.7% with a slight advantage of NanoSilicon. More powerful plants were formed in the variants with foliar treatment of corn crops with Nano Silicon in the phase of five leaves and double spraying; the increase in the mass of one plant, compared to the variants without the product, amounted to 110-112 g or 19.7-22.0%. More effective was the treatment with NanoSilicon in the phase of five corn leaves and double application, which ensured an increase in the yield of phytomass of 20.6-21.0% compared with the variants without the product. The Microvit-6 Silicon product is slightly inferior in effectiveness, which ensured a 12.4-19.3% increase in the yield of green mass. The foliar treatment of Kelik Potassium-Silicon contributed to an increase in the yield of green mass by 3.7-5.7 t/ha or 10.5-15.7%. The highest yield of dry matter was ensured by the vari-ant of double spraying of crops with NanoSilicon, an increase of 3.2 t/ha.
Keywords: corn, silicon, biometric indicators, green mass, cobs, yield.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.003

WHEAT PRODUCTION IN RUSSIA
V.M. Zimnyakov, Doctor of economic sciences, professor;
A.A. Kurochkin*, Doctor of engineering sciences, professor;
S.V. Bogomazov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor,
E.N. Varlamova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia,
tel. +7 (8412) 628-359, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
* Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Technological University, Russia,
tel. +7 (8412) 49-56-99, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Wheat is a main important raw material for the baking industry in Russia. An analysis of crop ar-eas and gross wheat output in the Russian Federation in 2008-2018 has been made. The dynamics of wheat productivity in the regions and in the whole country has been studied. The pattern of grain pro-duction by types of crops in Russia has been considered. The gross yield and wheat productivity in the main producing regions in 2018 are presented. The gross output of wheat according to farm types has been analyzed. The problems of wheat harvesting, as well as its storage are considered. The rea-sons for the low quality of wheat produced in the country are noted. It is proposed to improve the wheat pricing system, as the formation of grain prices does not take into account the optimal ratio to the quality of grain, which does not reflect the objectivity and proportionality of costs. It is noted that the optimization of natural, economic, organizational and technological factors, that affect the pro-duction of high-quality wheat, will increase its competitiveness in the world market and increase ex-port potential.
A forecast has been given, that through increase of the competitiveness of Russian grain in the world market, through reducing total costs, logistics included, and improving grain quality, by 2030 an increase is expected in the share of the Russian Federation in the markets of the ten leading countries consuming Russian wheat up to 43%, which will amount to 32.5 million tons.
Keywords: analysis, dynamics, wheat, volume, production, sown area, gross yield, yield, mar-ket, structure, export.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.004

SEEDING TIMES AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY OF AGROCENOSIS OF VARIEGATED ALFALFA OF THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE
V.А. Gushchina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
О.А. Timoshkin*, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor;
G.V. Ilyina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor;
G.N. Volodkina, post-graduate
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia,
tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-67, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
* Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, the workers settlement of Lunino, Penza oblast, Russia,
tel. +7 (84161) 3-18-14, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Due to the wide range of cultivation of alfalfa and increasing the efficiency of its use in modern agriculture, it is necessary to introduce varieties of a new generation with a wide amplitude of re-sistance to abiotic stress factors. The development of methods for cultivating variegated alfalfa of the Dariya variety involves the use of reserves of photosynthetic activity to increase its productivity. Therefore, the aim of the research was to determine the optimal sowing period for variagated alfalfa, at which high yields could be formed due to the better use of the photosynthetic function of plants. The experiment was conducted on the experimental field of Penza Agricultural Institute – a branch of the Federal Center for Bast Crops in 2017-2019. The soil was leached chernozem (black soil). Four sowing periods were studied: the first – early spring (May, 1-10), coinciding with the physical ripeness of the soil; the second – late spring (May, 20-30); the other two were carried out in the summer period: the third – June, 1-10; and the fourth – in 30 days after the previous one. The years of the research were characterized as dry. The most optimal conditions for the development of the assimilation sur-face of plants of the first year of life were formed in early spring crops, where the leaf area was the largest – 30.5 thousand m2/ha. As the growing season decreased, a 1.5 times decrease in the leaf surface index was observed. The most intensive formation of the assimilation surface took place in 2017 and its area was 35.8...19.7 thousand m2/ha, reaching its maximum during early sowing. In the same year, the highest value of photosynthetic potential of 1001...2638 thousand m2 ∙day/ha was not-ed. On average, over three years, the maximum potential of 2129.3 thousand m2·day/ha was formed in plants during sowing in early spring, and the net productivity of photosynthesis was in the range from 0.87 to 0.93 g/m2 day. The highest index was established during early sowing, which contributed to the accumulation of 2.0 t/ha of dry matter.
Key words: variegated alfalfa, sowing dates, net photosynthesis productivity, photosynthetic potential, productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.005

EFFICIENCY OF FOLIAR DRESSING WITH MICRO-ELEMENT FERTILIZERS ON CROP
AND QUALITY OF GRAIN OF SPRING TRITICALE
A.N. Kshnikatkina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.N. Dolzhenko, post-graduate
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
tel. +7 (8412) 62-81-51; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The results of studies on the influence of microelement fertilizers on the formation of productivi-ty and grain quality of spring triticale of the Ukro variety are presented. It was found that microele-ment fertilizers Azosol 36 Extra, Megamix-Azot, Megamix-Profi, Tsitovit and NanoKremny provided an increase in the parameters of photosynthesis of agrocenoses of spring triticale. The maximum value of the leaf surface of 42.5 thousand m2/ha, the photosynthetic potential of 1.03 million m2 d/ ha, the net productivity of photosynthesis of 6.29 g/m2 per day were noted with double foliar dressing during the tillering and heading phases with Azosol 36 Extra. Due to the application of foliar dressing with microelement fertilizers in chelated form, an increase in the yield of spring triticale of the Ukro variety was observed, together with an improvement in the technological properties of grain. According to the experimental variants, on average for three years, the grain yield was 3.84-4.43 t/ha. The increase in relation to the control ranged from 0.42-1.27 t/ha (13.3-40.3%). The highest yield of high-quality grain of 4.43 t/ha was obtained by double top dressing at the tillering and heading phases with the use of Azosol 36 Extra; an increase in grain yield was 1.27 t/ha (40.3%), grain unit – 796 g/l, glassi-ness – 63 %, raw gluten – 26.2%, protein – 15.1%.
Key words: spring triticale, microelement fertilizers, photosynthesis, yield, technological proper-ties of grain.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.006

EVALUATION OF CRAMBE VARIETY SAMPLES DEPENDING ON HYDROTHERMAL CONDITIONS
T.Ya. Prakhova, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Chief Researcher,
E.L. Turina*, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Head of the Plant Crop Laboratory
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops», the workers settlement of Lunino, Russia,
tel. +79534479608, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
* Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science «Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea», Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, Russia,
tel. +79788741692, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The aim of the research was to evaluate the productivity and adaptability of varieties of crambe abyssinica depending on hydrothermal conditions. The object of the research was varieties of various ecological and geographical origin. The study was conducted in contrasting climatic conditions of the Middle Volga and steppe Crimea in 2017-2019. The productivity of varieties of crambe abyssinica varied between 1.54-2.04 t/ha, on average in two regions. On average, for three years a higher yield was observed for samples k-39 (USA) and k-35 (Germany), which productivity was 2.01-2.04 t/ha, which exceeded the standard variety Demetra by 0.22 and 0.25 t/ha. These samples were distin-guished by high values of adaptability coefficient, which amounted to 1.04-1.13 and showed their great adaptability to various cultivation conditions. Varieties from Canada (k-25) and Czechoslovakia (k-34) formed yields of 1.82 and 1.87 t/ha, which was slightly higher than the standard for yields. The increase there was 0.03 and 0.08 t/ha. The fat content in fruitlets ranged from 29.68-32.20%. Accord-ing to the results of this feature, the number k-35 from Germany was distinguished, the oil content was 32.20%. The most stable yields had the samples k-35, k-34 and k-10, which stability parameters were 22.8; 26.1 and 29.0%. The varieties k-39 and k-10 were distinguished by a high value of the indi-cator of the variety stability level (IVSL), the values of this trait were 0.47 and 0.52, respectively. Moreover, these varieties had a high environmental sustainability (0.49 and 0.53), which showed a wider range of their adaptability to different growing conditions.
Key words: crambe abyssinica, varieties, yield, adaptability, oil content

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.007

AGROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LEACHED CHERNOZEM AND YIELD OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS DEPENDING ON THE USAGE OF BIRD DUNG AND LIMING
N.P. Chekaev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor;
A.V. Lesnov, post-graduate
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia,
tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-67, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article shows the effect of introducing different doses of chicken dung and liming on the ag-rophysical properties of leached chernozem, the yield of spring wheat and peas. As a result of stud-ies in the experimental field of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Educa-tion Penza State Agrarian University (Penza region, Mokshan district), it was revealed that when vari-ous doses of chicken dung and liming are applied in leached chernozem, the lost water-resistant structure is restored, the equilibrium density is reduced, accumulation and moisture spending are ef-fective during vegetation. Adding doses of the bird dung from 2.0 to 10.0 T/ha increased the yield of grain of the first crop (spring wheat) by 22.6-61.1 %, and the use of limestone flour as a chemical ameliorant together with the use of different doses of chicken dung and in pure form by 10.5-77.7 %. The total productivity of cultivated crops for three years of research, depending on the doses of the bird dung, increased by 15.4-42.7% on a background without liming and by 23.8-52.2% on a lime background, which gave an additional 1.49 to 3.30 t/ha of grain units.
Keywords: chicken dung, water stability of soil aggregates, the density of soil consistency, yield.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.008

OPTIMIZATION OF THE SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT LEVEL WHEN GROWING SUGAR CORN
I.M. Khanieva, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
S.A. Bekuzarova*, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Z.G.S. Shibzukhov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor;
T.S. Vindugov, post-graduate
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University", Nalchik,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
*Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Gorsky State Agrarian University", Vladikavkaz,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The work was performed in the conditions of the submontane zone of the Kabardino-Balkarian region with insufficient and unstable moisture. Modern drip irrigation systems were used for the exper-iments. The results of the experiments show how irrigation has an effect on the development and productivity of sweet corn plants. The studies used five variants of the irrigation level. After analyzing the data obtained, the most optimal irrigation rate was identified and recommended to be used in the future for the production of sugar corn. Observations showed that at the beginning of the growing season, the growth phases of sugar corn plants were the same for all variants, the emergence of seedlings was noted on 8-11 days during the years of research. Later, with changes in moisture condi-tions, there was a difference in the dates of onset of the main phases of vegetation. In the second variant, the growth phases almost coincided with the control variant, but the phases of corn cobs flowering and technical ripeness enlarged by one day. In the third and fourth variants, the main phas-es of vegetation were reduced by 1-2 days in comparison with the control. In the non-irrigated version, the most accelerated development of this crop took place, and technical ripeness occurred 4-7 days earlier than in other versions of the experiment. The increase in yield depending on the level of irriga-tion followed the same pattern – with a decrease in the level of correspondence of the amount of re-ceived moisture to the needs of plants, the value of the resulting crop increase decreased. In the con-trol version, the increase in the yield of commercial corn cobs from irrigation was 9.6 t/ha or 89 %, including grain – 4.18 t/ha or 94 %, and in the second version, it increased to 12.3 and 5.55 t/ha re-spectively, which in percentage terms amounted to 114 and 125 %.
Keywords: moisture content, plant development, sugar corn, yield, plant survival, interphase pe-riods.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.009

HERITAGE AND GENETIC CONTROL OF BARLEY PLANT HEIGHT
D.O. Dolzhenko, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Penza University of Agriculture – branch of the Federal State-Funded Scientific Institution Federal
Scientific Center of Fibre Crops, w.s. Lunino, Penza oblast, Russia,
tel. +7 (84161) 3-18-07, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The inheritance of the height of barley plants was studied in the system of diallel crossing (6×6) in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga in contrasting hydrothermal conditions. An analysis of combinational ability according to B. Griffing and genetic analysis according to B. Hay-man showed the predominance of additive effects in the control of the trait (inheritance by type of complete and incomplete dominance). The trait should be responsive to selection, which is confirmed by the heritability coefficients: in the broad sense (H2), 0.85-0.90; in the narrow sense (h2) – 0.52-0.62. Dominant genes increased the height of plants. The presence of complementary epistasis increases the likelihood of negative transgressions, increasing the success of breeding to reduce plant height. None of the varieties of the diallel complex possessed all recessive alleles that reduced the trait. Va-rieties Anna and Omsky Golozyorny 1, with dominant alleles, will increase the height of plants in the offspring. These varieties should be used in combination with shorter parents. Varieties Condor and Margret have a higher number of recessive alleles and can be considered as donors of height reduc-tion. Promising for selection hybrid populations have been identified.
Keywords: barley, diallel analysis, plant height, genetic systems, combinational ability, heritabil-ity coefficient

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.010

CONSEQUENCE OF SEDIMENTS OF SEWAGE WATER OF THE CITY OF PENZA AND NATURAL ZEOLITES ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF PLANT PRODUCTS
A.N. Arefyev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor,
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor,
G.V. Ilyina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia,
tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In conditions of a low level of use of mineral fertilizers in agriculture due to their high cost and the almost complete absence of organic fertilizers, the development and implementation of techno-logical methods for using alternative sources of organic matter and nutrients in agricultural practice is an important area of modern farming. The objective of the research was to study the aftereffect of reclamation norms of sewage sludge in the city of Penza and their combinations with zeolite-containing rocks on the yield and quality of crop products. The studies were conducted in the first agricultural-soil region of the Penza region in grain-crop rotation in the period from 2014 to 2019. It was established that the most significant effect on the grain yield of oats and peas was exerted by increased sediments rates of urban wastewater with zeolite-containing rock. The yield of oats against their background increased by 43.5-44.2%, the productivity of peas – by 48.9-49.8%. The collection of digestible protein in oat crops against their background was 487.9-490.3 kg/ha, the protein content in pea grain increased by 2.3-2.7%. Sediments of urban wastewater in its pure form and in combina-tion with zeolite-containing rock increased the concentration of heavy metals in the grain of oats and peas. However, the concentration of heavy metals was significantly lower than the maximum permis-sible concentration. The zeolite-containing rock reduced the influx of heavy metals into the marketable part of crop production.
Key words: urban sewage water, zeolite-containing rock, oats, peas, digestible protein, protein.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.011

PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DRAINED LANDSCAPE
F.A. Musaev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
O.A. Zakharova, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Ryazan State Agrotechnological University by P.A. Kostychev, Ryazan,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The fodder value of meadows used as hayfields and pastures decreases because of the growth of poisonous plants on them. Poisonous plants are those that cause serious poisoning in animals that consume them, and in some cases it leads to death of the animals. The toxicity is due to the con-tent of special reactive compounds in them. The research objective is to conduct a geobotanical sur-vey of the meadow on the territory of the Tinky-II reclamation site on the lands of the Ryazan Mesh-chera to determine the botanical composition of meadow grasses, to identify and determine the abundance of poisonous plants on it. The location of the meadow is near the village of Polkovo, Ryazan district, Ryazan region. The survey covered the area of 10,000 m2 in July 2019 during a prelim-inary reconnaissance survey of the territory along the working routes. The research methodology is generally acknowledged. As a result of the territory survey, it was established that the dominant plants are Elytrígia repens and Alopecurus pratensis, that occur frequently and have a high degree of abundance. As a result of studying the vegetation cover, the association Elytrígetum urtícetosum was distinguished in the examined area of the meadow. The plants grew with a continuous carpet and the soil cover was up to 100%. The total number of poisonous plants was 102 from 6 families. The most common poisonous plants are represented by the Apiaceae and Ranunculaceae families. The share of each poisonous component: Conium maculatum – 36%, Chaerophyllum temulum, Cicuta virosa – 29%, Oenanthe aquatica, Thalictrum aquilegiifolium – 15%, Caltha palustris, Anemone ranunculoides – 8%, Calla palustris, Pedicularis palustris pa riceprica, hydrachlecha – 12% each. Thus, the species composition of meadow grasses is depleted and there is little chance of poisoning of farm animals, since the presence of poisonous plants is insignificant, taking into account their negative impact on the animal’s body only at a certain dose and duration of exposure.
Key words: meadow, drainage system, degraded peat soil, poisonous plants, poisoning.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.012

YIELD AND QUALITY OF AMARANTH, BEAN GRASSES IN ONE SPECIES AND BINARY SEEDS
A.T. Farniev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
A.A. Sabanova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
D.T. Kalitseva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education "Highland State Agrarian University", Vladikavkaz,
tel. +7 (8672) 53-11-33. e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Amaranth belongs to non-traditional crops with a high content of protein, essential amino acids, biologically active substances and antioxidants with high adaptive properties. Currently, a significant number of researchers of innovative technologies in crop production prove the advantage of binary crops over monocrop. Studies were conducted In order to study the most productive legumes fodder crops for the formation of binary crops with amaranth, to increase the yield of the green matter and to determine the feed value in the experimental field of the Kirov State Seed-Trial Ground. According to the research results, the biological and physiological properties of the best bean component of ama-ranth are yellow melilot, Lucerne or clover. The binary crops amaranth+clover, amaranth+clover and amaranth+Lucerne formed a green matter yield that exceeded the yield of pure amaranth by 12.1; 7.7 and 6.4 t/ha and pure crops of clover, clover and Lucerne by 7.9; 13.0 and 6.7 t/ha, respectively. In the binary crop, the content of crude protein in dry substance significantly increased by 3.6; 5.0 and 2.4% when compared with the crop of sweet clover, clover, Lucerne and by 1.1; 1.1 and 3.2% com-pared with amaranth monocrops. The fat content increased by 1.2; 0.7; 1.2% and by 1.8; 2.1 and 2.0%, respectively.
Keywords: legumes, amaranth, single species crops, binary crops, yield, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.013

CREATION OF STARTING MATERIAL FOR SPRING BARLEY SELECTION USING LASER RADIATION AND POTASSIUM CARBONATE
G.P. Dudin, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Doctor of Biological Science, Professor;
I.V. Isupova, candidate for a degree
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Vyatka State Agricultural Academy, Kirov,
tel. +79091382057, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The work is devoted to the study of the mutagenic effect of potassium carbonate and laser red light on spring barley of the Bios-1 variety. The article reveals the data for three years of observation. In the first generation (М1) during the growing season, observations of the germination, survival of plants and the onset of developmental phases were made. The second generation (М2) was sown by individual families (the family of the offspring of one М1 spike). Throughout the growing season the plants that differed from the original variety were selected, the families with chlorophyll mutations, with visible morphological and physiological changes were distinguished. In the third generation, the inheritance of altered traits in plants was tested. After harvesting the М1, М2, and М3 plants, they were analyzed by the elements of the productivity structure, comparing them with the initial form. It was found that the treatment of seeds with laser red light (LRL) and potassium carbonate (K2CO3) pro-motes the formation in М1 of a tall plant with a long loose spike and a grain weight from an ear that exceeds the control indices. The frequency of chlorophyll changes in М2 ranged from 0.78% (K2CO3 0.1 + LRL) to 5.61% (K2CO3 0.1 n). The maximum frequency of families (12.15%) with morphophysio-logical changes was noted during seed treatment with potassium carbonate. The minimum value of this indicator was noted in the LRL + K2CO3 variant – 2.71%. In М2, 20 neoplasms of spring barley were noted: a short stem, an increased number of spikelets in an ear, and an increased weight of grain from the main ear and the whole plant, early ripening, an upright spike, and middle sphenoid formations. In the third generation, the frequency of mutant families decreased compared with the frequency of morphophysiological changes in М2. The mutation frequency ranged from 1.81% (LRL + K2CO3) to 9.35% (K2CO3). In М3, hereditary changes in quantitative traits and the vegetation period of plants prevailed.
As a result of the research there were identified the lines that can serve as a valuable source ma-terial for barley selection.
Key words: barley, mutagenesis, potassium carbonate, laser.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.014

EFFICIENCY AND ADAPTIVITY OF ALFALFA VARIETIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
I.V. Epifanova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
О.А. Timoshkin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences
Federal State Budget Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Center of Bast Crops, Penza Region, the workers' settlement of Lunino,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The studies were carried out on the experimental field of the Penza Institute of Agriculture – a branch of Federal State Budget Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Center of Bast Crops in 2013-2016. The aim of the research was to evaluate the productivity of new alfalfa varieties and the parame-ters of their adaptability to limiting environmental factors when grown in a single-species cultivation. On average, over the years of research, the dry matter productivity of alfalfa varieties varied from 6.72 to 12.21 t/ha depending on the index of environmental conditions (Ii-3.55-1.85). The best in productivity was the Populyatsiya 11/15 variety with a yield of 11.42 t/ha (+ 7.6% to st.). The variabil-ity of dry matter productivity varied from 23.0 to 27.2%, which characterizes the average stability of the trait. The studied alfalfa samples showed high environmental adaptability and plasticity, the bi val-ues varied in the range of 0.86-1.26. The most stable and flexible in terms of dry matter productivity were the following varieties: Stabilnaya – bi = 0.90; σdr2 = 1.11; Populyatsiya 10/14 – bi = 0.98; σdr2 = 0.68. The seed productivity of alfalfa samples on average over the years of research ranged from 0.36 to 0.67 t/ha depending on the index of environmental conditions (Ii = - 0.15...0.15). The best vari-ety in terms of seed yield was the Mechta + Biotype 4 variety – 0.67 t/ha (+ 21.8% to st.). The variabil-ity of seed yields of the Kamellia standard was weak – 9.4%; the average yield variability (24.1-27.4%) was in the Populyatsiya 8, Korneotpryskovaya 1 and Korneotpryskovaya 2 varieties. The Kamellia standard and Mechta + Biotype 4, which stability index (SI) was 0.18 and 0.32, respectively, were characterized by a higher level of stability of the variety. The most stable and flexible varieties in terms of seed yield were the varieties: Populyatsiya 11/15 – bi = -1.05; σdr2 = 0.16; Stabilnaya – bi = -0.90; σdr2 = 0.16; PP urozhaj 07 – bi = -1.04; σdr2 = 0.08.
Key words: alfalfa, variety, competitive variety testing, collection of dry matter, seed yield, adaptability.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.015

INFLUENCE OF ELEMENTS OF CROP TECHNOLOGY ON PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF SEEDS GUIZOTIA
T.Ya. Prakhova, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
A.N. Kshnikatkina*, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
A.P. Medvedev*, graduate student
Federal State-Funded Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Center of Fibre Crops, Lunino, a work settlement, Penza oblast, Russia,
tel. +79534479608, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
* Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia,
tel. +7 (8412) 62-81-51, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The research objective was to study the productivity of Guizotia abyssinica, depending on the seeding rate and methods of sowing. The study of technology elements was made in 2017-2019. Three seeding rates from 1.0 to 3.0 million germinating seeds per hectare were studied against the background of a wide-row and row sowing. Field germination of crop ranged from 84.9-86.6%. There is also a tendency to increase it by 0.7-1.0% by the row sowing. By the wide-row sowing, field germi-nation varies between 86.3-86.6% and does not vary significantly depending on the seeding rate. The survival capacity of plants ranged from 92.5 to 94.2% according to variants. The highest values of this indicator (94.2%) were obtained in the variant with a seeding rate of 3.0 million by the row sowing. The optimal conditions for the formation of productivity were established in 2017. The highest seed yield (1.69-1.83 t/ha) was obtained regardless of technology elements. High seed yields were ob-served in the variant with a seeding rate of 2.0 million germinating seeds per hectare by the row sow-ing and amounted to 1.74-1.83 t/ha. In this variant, the seeds were characterized by high oil content of 41.8 and 41.9%. The largest seeds formed at a seed rate of 1.0 million (3.67 g). With an increase in the seeding rate, the weight of 1000 seeds decreased. The linoleic acid content ranged from 71.5 to 78.0% according to the experimental variants. The amount of oleic acid is 5.4-7.7%, depending on the element of agricultural technology.
Keywords: Guizotia abyssinica, seeding rates, methods of sowing, yield, oil content, fatty acids

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Veterinary and zootechny


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.016

HISTOLOGICAL AND CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE COLONIC WALL IMMUNE SYSTEM OF FETUSES AND NEWBORN CALVES
V.A. Zdorovinin, Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, Professor;
N.P. Pugacheva, Assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University",
tel. +79534451620, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article is devoted to the research of the large intestine tissues in the aspect of its immune system formation. The first open cluster of lymphocytes appear in the intestinal mucosa of the blind gut and middle gut of fetuses of 3-4, 5 months age. There is a predominance of middle and small lymphocytes, large lymphocytes and stromal cells in the lymph nodes of newborn calves (45.2, 16.1, and 15.6%). During the entire fetal and newborn stages of development, "migrant" cells of connective tissue are detected between epithelial cells. Their number gradually increases, and the number of spe-cific "migrants" is greater in the villi than in the crypts. Histochemical study determined the accumula-tion of acidic proteins in "migrants" lymphocytes, SH-groups of proteins and ribonucleoproteins; identified the pattern of development of the intercellular substance in the connective tissue of the in-testinal wall and considered the stages of development of connective tissue.
Keywords: lymphocytes, lymph nodes, epithelial cells, "migrant" cells, globular white blood cells, the connective tissue of the walls of the colon.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.017

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING A FEED ADDITIVE BASED ON SUGAR PRODUCTION LIME IN FEEDING CALVES IN THE WINTER GROWING PERIOD
N.N. Kerdyashov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor;
A.I. Dariin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.V. Ovchinnikov*, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza,
tel. +79061589996, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
* Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy", Moscow

The Volga region belongs to the biogeochemical provinces that are deficient in phosphorus, sul-fur, sodium, zinc, iodine, cuprum, and cobalt. Sugar production lime contains calcium, phosphorus, and a number of other valuable nutrients. The use of sugar lime and feed additives based on it in-stead of fodder chalk helps to preserve the environment from contamination by waste from sugar production. One kilogram of the new feed additive made of the sugar production lime, vanillin and vitamin D preparation contained: calcium – 285 g, phosphorus – 12.5 g, crude protein – 61.5 g, sugar – 25 g, ferrum – 3.9 g, cuprum – 4.2 mg, manganese – 86.3 mg, zinc – 7.9 mg, cobalt – 0.11 mg, vit-amin D – 55000 IU. The calves' eatability of the new feed additive is 31.6-61.1% higher compared to the fodder chalk. The inclusion of this feed additive in the calves' diets ad libitum (without premixes) in the winter growing period significantly improves the basic zootechnical indicators of young animals in comparison with the use of fodder chalk: live weight ‒ by 3.1-3.8 %, the average daily increase in live weight ‒ by 10.3-15.4 %, the absolute increase in live weight ‒ by 10.3-15.2 %; the amount of feed item per 1 kg of the increase in live weight of calves lower than control by 9.4-13.2 %. The use of the studied feed additive is cost-effective, since the cost of 1 kg of live weight increase of calves is lower by 18.81-19.33 rubles.
Keywords: sugar production lime, vanillin, vitamin D preparation, fodder chalk, calves, zootech-nical indicators.

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ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.018

THEORETICAL STUDIES OF GEOMETRIC AND KINEMATIC PARAMETERS OF A ROLLER TRANSPORTING DEVICE
V.A. Ovtov, Candidate of Technical Science, Assistant-professor;
A.V. Polikanov, Candidate of Technical Science, Assistant-professor;
А.А. Orekhov, Candidate of Technical Science, Assistant-professor;
V.V. Shumaev, Candidate of Technical Science, Assistant-professor;
V.M. Gudin, student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The effectiveness of growing sugar beet depends on many factors, such as weather conditions, technology compliance, the availability of modern machinery, timely fertilization and the quality of the seeds used. Currently, up to 95% of sugar beet seeds are imported from abroad. The modernization of production, the development of the necessary seed-growing agricultural machinery is becoming of current importance. The task of providing a fully automated technological chain from the selection of sugar beet mother root crops from the hopper to their planting in modern planting machines has not yet been completely solved. The article considers theoretical studies of the geometric and kinematic parameters of rollers having screw winding with variable pitch during transportation of sugar beet mother root crops to the planting unit. The obtained results allow to justify the geometric and kinemat-ic parameters of the roller transporting device for a given planting rate of sugar beet mother root crops and, thereby, fully mechanize the process of their planting.
Key words: rollers, screw winding, sugar beet, speed, pitch.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.019

RESULTS OF A FIELD RESEARCH OF A ROOT CROP AND ONION HARVESTER WITH AN ADJUSTABLE ANGLE OF THE BLADE
A.S. Dorokhov, Doctor of Technical Science, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy
of Sciences;
A.V. Sibiryov, Candidate of Technical Science, senior scientific worker;
A.G. Aksenov, Candidate of Technical Science, leading scientific worker
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, Moscow,
tel. +7 (499)174-89-11, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In the machine technology for the cultivation and harvesting of root crops and onions, one of the most important quality indicators that determines the duration of storage of root crops is the presence or absence of soil and plant impurities in the pile to be stored.
The impossibility of separating soil lumps from a heap of root crops and onions is due to the fact that on most harvesting machines, slotted separating units are used. The inter-bar distance of the separating conveyor is less than the minimum size of the separated root crop to exclude losses of root crops, which makes it impossible to clean them on the separating working organs of harvesting machines, and, consequently, leads to damage of a significant part of commercial products and losses during storage of a significant part of the harvested yield.
Modern technologies and technical means for harvesting root crops and onions are not able to provide high-quality commercial products with minimal labour, due to the lag or lack of development of technological foundations, technologies and working units for harvesting root crops and onions, which can reduce or eliminate the content of soil lumps in commercial products in various soil and climatic conditions.
Therefore, the development of mechanization tools for harvesting root crops and onions, allow-ing to reduce or eliminate the content of mechanical impurities in commercial products in various soil and climatic conditions, is a scientific problem, the solution of which will contribute to the innovative development of the domestic agricultural market, Russia's stable position on the foreign market.
Key words: separation, onion, harvesting, machine, rod elevator, blade angle.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.1.5.020

MODELLING THE KINEMATICS OF A HINGED-ROD HYDRAULIC MANIPULATOR
N.V. Babochenko, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor;
Antvi-Wilson Papa*, student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Volgograd State Agricultural University", Volgograd,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
*Ghana Civil Aviation Administration, Accra, Republic of Ghana

The article considers the possibility of determining the kinematic parameters of hydraulic ma-nipulators that have a hinged-rod boom as a supporting structure. The design of the hinged-rod boom has its own features that must be taken into account when performing calculations. Especially there was a difficulty in determining the kinematic parameters during the operation of hydraulic manipula-tors with such a boom design. The kinematic characteristics were determined by a program devel-oped in the C++ programming language. It was created for practical use in order to simplify the calcu-lation and identification of optimal values of the boom hydraulic manipulators operation. The originali-ty of the program described in the article is confirmed by the certificate of state registration of the computer program. Using the program allows to select the optimal values of kinematic characteristics and build the necessary graphs based on the data obtained, thereby simplifying the research work of determining the optimal values of the hydraulic manipulator with a hinged-rod boom. Calculations, with the use of a computer program in the C++ programming language, were made for engineering development, the originality of which is confirmed by a patent for a utility model. Using a computer program, the optimal kinematic parameters of the hinge-rod boom of the hydraulic manipulator were determined. According to the computer program, with the given values of the lengths of the rods constituting a hinge-rod connecting arm of the crane, the coordinates and angles of rotation of the supporting structure of the hinged-rod boom of the crane and also its velocity and acceleration of movement are determined. Based on the obtained data, it is possible to plot graphs, such as chang-es in the position of the hinges in the spatial coordinate system that make up the hinge-rod connec-tion of the hydraulic manipulator boom, angles' rotation and velocity, etc. As the results confirm, the program works to determine the kinematic characteristics of a particular engineering development. It means that its use is possible for calculating the kinematic parameters of the other similar design de-velopments, both the hinged-rod boom and boom hydraulic manipulators.
Keywords: hydraulic manipulator, hinge-rod boom, computer program, C++ programming lan-guage, coordinates of the boom movement, kinematic characteristics of the hydraulic manipulator operation.

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