FEATURES OF STORAGE OF JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE TUBERS UNDER CONDITIONS OF VEGETABLE STOREHOUSE
A.S. Kataev, post-graduate student;
E.A. Renyov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
S.L. Eliseev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Perm State Agrarian-Technical University, Perm, Russia,
The article presents the results of three years of research on the impact of traditional storage methods on the safety and quality of Jerusalem artichoke tubers. The beneficial properties of Jerusa-lem artichoke have been known for many years. Due to biological characteristics, the use of tubers throughout the calendar year is a rather problematic task – they undergo fungal diseases and quickly dry out. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the optimal method of storage in a vegetable store. In most years of the research, the storability of Jerusalem artichoke did not depend on the storage method and varied from 31 to 95%. External observations showed that in the second year of the research the best keeping quality was ensured by the method of storing tubers in bags. In the first and third years of the research, rotted tubers were observed under all methods of storage. Regardless of the method used, tubers were dried during storage. In most years of the research, moisture loss was higher when stored in bulk – by 1.7-8.2%. When storing Jerusalem artichoke tubers in boxes, the lowest reduction in fiber content was observed – 0.2-2.5%, while when stored in bags – 1.1-4.3%, when stored in bulk – 0.9-2.4 %. Storage in boxes provided the smallest reduction in the content of water-soluble sugars – 1.4-4.8%. The most optimal of the traditional methods of storage is the storage in boxes.
Key words: Jerusalem artichoke, storage method, storability, biochemical composition of tu-bers.
EFFECT OF SILICON CONTAINING PRODUCTS ON FORMATION OF CORN YIELD
S.A. Semina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
I.V. Gavryushina, Candidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor;
E.V. Nikulina, graduate student
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia,
The article presents the results of studies on the effect of various types of silicon containing products on formation of corn yield, depending on the timing of nonroot treatment. The greatest growth-promoting effect was noted with a double treatment of corn crops with NanoSilicon. The growth compared to the variant with water treatment was 33 cm. When Kelik Potassium-Silicon was used, taller plants formed after foliar treatment in the five-leaf phase, the growth to the variant without the product was 19 cm. In the variant with Microvit-6 Silicon, the height of the plants was more by 14-18 cm compared to plants sprayed with water. The increase in the number of developed cobs during the foliar treatment with silicon products was 8.1-18.7% with a slight advantage of NanoSilicon. More powerful plants were formed in the variants with foliar treatment of corn crops with Nano Silicon in the phase of five leaves and double spraying; the increase in the mass of one plant, compared to the variants without the product, amounted to 110-112 g or 19.7-22.0%. More effective was the treatment with NanoSilicon in the phase of five corn leaves and double application, which ensured an increase in the yield of phytomass of 20.6-21.0% compared with the variants without the product. The Microvit-6 Silicon product is slightly inferior in effectiveness, which ensured a 12.4-19.3% increase in the yield of green mass. The foliar treatment of Kelik Potassium-Silicon contributed to an increase in the yield of green mass by 3.7-5.7 t/ha or 10.5-15.7%. The highest yield of dry matter was ensured by the vari-ant of double spraying of crops with NanoSilicon, an increase of 3.2 t/ha.
Keywords: corn, silicon, biometric indicators, green mass, cobs, yield.
WHEAT PRODUCTION IN RUSSIA
V.M. Zimnyakov, Doctor of economic sciences, professor;
A.A. Kurochkin*, Doctor of engineering sciences, professor;
S.V. Bogomazov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor,
E.N. Varlamova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia,
* Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Technological University, Russia,
Wheat is a main important raw material for the baking industry in Russia. An analysis of crop ar-eas and gross wheat output in the Russian Federation in 2008-2018 has been made. The dynamics of wheat productivity in the regions and in the whole country has been studied. The pattern of grain pro-duction by types of crops in Russia has been considered. The gross yield and wheat productivity in the main producing regions in 2018 are presented. The gross output of wheat according to farm types has been analyzed. The problems of wheat harvesting, as well as its storage are considered. The rea-sons for the low quality of wheat produced in the country are noted. It is proposed to improve the wheat pricing system, as the formation of grain prices does not take into account the optimal ratio to the quality of grain, which does not reflect the objectivity and proportionality of costs. It is noted that the optimization of natural, economic, organizational and technological factors, that affect the pro-duction of high-quality wheat, will increase its competitiveness in the world market and increase ex-port potential.
A forecast has been given, that through increase of the competitiveness of Russian grain in the world market, through reducing total costs, logistics included, and improving grain quality, by 2030 an increase is expected in the share of the Russian Federation in the markets of the ten leading countries consuming Russian wheat up to 43%, which will amount to 32.5 million tons.
Keywords: analysis, dynamics, wheat, volume, production, sown area, gross yield, yield, mar-ket, structure, export.
SEEDING TIMES AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY OF AGROCENOSIS OF VARIEGATED ALFALFA OF THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE
V.А. Gushchina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
О.А. Timoshkin*, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor;
G.V. Ilyina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor;
G.N. Volodkina, post-graduate
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia,
* Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, the workers settlement of Lunino, Penza oblast, Russia,
Due to the wide range of cultivation of alfalfa and increasing the efficiency of its use in modern agriculture, it is necessary to introduce varieties of a new generation with a wide amplitude of re-sistance to abiotic stress factors. The development of methods for cultivating variegated alfalfa of the Dariya variety involves the use of reserves of photosynthetic activity to increase its productivity. Therefore, the aim of the research was to determine the optimal sowing period for variagated alfalfa, at which high yields could be formed due to the better use of the photosynthetic function of plants. The experiment was conducted on the experimental field of Penza Agricultural Institute – a branch of the Federal Center for Bast Crops in 2017-2019. The soil was leached chernozem (black soil). Four sowing periods were studied: the first – early spring (May, 1-10), coinciding with the physical ripeness of the soil; the second – late spring (May, 20-30); the other two were carried out in the summer period: the third – June, 1-10; and the fourth – in 30 days after the previous one. The years of the research were characterized as dry. The most optimal conditions for the development of the assimilation sur-face of plants of the first year of life were formed in early spring crops, where the leaf area was the largest – 30.5 thousand m2/ha. As the growing season decreased, a 1.5 times decrease in the leaf surface index was observed. The most intensive formation of the assimilation surface took place in 2017 and its area was 35.8...19.7 thousand m2/ha, reaching its maximum during early sowing. In the same year, the highest value of photosynthetic potential of 1001...2638 thousand m2 ∙day/ha was not-ed. On average, over three years, the maximum potential of 2129.3 thousand m2·day/ha was formed in plants during sowing in early spring, and the net productivity of photosynthesis was in the range from 0.87 to 0.93 g/m2 day. The highest index was established during early sowing, which contributed to the accumulation of 2.0 t/ha of dry matter.
Key words: variegated alfalfa, sowing dates, net photosynthesis productivity, photosynthetic potential, productivity.
EFFICIENCY OF FOLIAR DRESSING WITH MICRO-ELEMENT FERTILIZERS ON CROP
AND QUALITY OF GRAIN OF SPRING TRITICALE
A.N. Kshnikatkina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.N. Dolzhenko, post-graduate
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
The results of studies on the influence of microelement fertilizers on the formation of productivi-ty and grain quality of spring triticale of the Ukro variety are presented. It was found that microele-ment fertilizers Azosol 36 Extra, Megamix-Azot, Megamix-Profi, Tsitovit and NanoKremny provided an increase in the parameters of photosynthesis of agrocenoses of spring triticale. The maximum value of the leaf surface of 42.5 thousand m2/ha, the photosynthetic potential of 1.03 million m2 d/ ha, the net productivity of photosynthesis of 6.29 g/m2 per day were noted with double foliar dressing during the tillering and heading phases with Azosol 36 Extra. Due to the application of foliar dressing with microelement fertilizers in chelated form, an increase in the yield of spring triticale of the Ukro variety was observed, together with an improvement in the technological properties of grain. According to the experimental variants, on average for three years, the grain yield was 3.84-4.43 t/ha. The increase in relation to the control ranged from 0.42-1.27 t/ha (13.3-40.3%). The highest yield of high-quality grain of 4.43 t/ha was obtained by double top dressing at the tillering and heading phases with the use of Azosol 36 Extra; an increase in grain yield was 1.27 t/ha (40.3%), grain unit – 796 g/l, glassi-ness – 63 %, raw gluten – 26.2%, protein – 15.1%.
Key words: spring triticale, microelement fertilizers, photosynthesis, yield, technological proper-ties of grain.
EVALUATION OF CRAMBE VARIETY SAMPLES DEPENDING ON HYDROTHERMAL CONDITIONS
T.Ya. Prakhova, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Chief Researcher,
E.L. Turina*, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Head of the Plant Crop Laboratory
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops», the workers settlement of Lunino, Russia,
* Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science «Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea», Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, Russia,
The aim of the research was to evaluate the productivity and adaptability of varieties of crambe abyssinica depending on hydrothermal conditions. The object of the research was varieties of various ecological and geographical origin. The study was conducted in contrasting climatic conditions of the Middle Volga and steppe Crimea in 2017-2019. The productivity of varieties of crambe abyssinica varied between 1.54-2.04 t/ha, on average in two regions. On average, for three years a higher yield was observed for samples k-39 (USA) and k-35 (Germany), which productivity was 2.01-2.04 t/ha, which exceeded the standard variety Demetra by 0.22 and 0.25 t/ha. These samples were distin-guished by high values of adaptability coefficient, which amounted to 1.04-1.13 and showed their great adaptability to various cultivation conditions. Varieties from Canada (k-25) and Czechoslovakia (k-34) formed yields of 1.82 and 1.87 t/ha, which was slightly higher than the standard for yields. The increase there was 0.03 and 0.08 t/ha. The fat content in fruitlets ranged from 29.68-32.20%. Accord-ing to the results of this feature, the number k-35 from Germany was distinguished, the oil content was 32.20%. The most stable yields had the samples k-35, k-34 and k-10, which stability parameters were 22.8; 26.1 and 29.0%. The varieties k-39 and k-10 were distinguished by a high value of the indi-cator of the variety stability level (IVSL), the values of this trait were 0.47 and 0.52, respectively. Moreover, these varieties had a high environmental sustainability (0.49 and 0.53), which showed a wider range of their adaptability to different growing conditions.
Key words: crambe abyssinica, varieties, yield, adaptability, oil content
AGROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LEACHED CHERNOZEM AND YIELD OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS DEPENDING ON THE USAGE OF BIRD DUNG AND LIMING
N.P. Chekaev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor;
A.V. Lesnov, post-graduate
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia,
The article shows the effect of introducing different doses of chicken dung and liming on the ag-rophysical properties of leached chernozem, the yield of spring wheat and peas. As a result of stud-ies in the experimental field of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Educa-tion Penza State Agrarian University (Penza region, Mokshan district), it was revealed that when vari-ous doses of chicken dung and liming are applied in leached chernozem, the lost water-resistant structure is restored, the equilibrium density is reduced, accumulation and moisture spending are ef-fective during vegetation. Adding doses of the bird dung from 2.0 to 10.0 T/ha increased the yield of grain of the first crop (spring wheat) by 22.6-61.1 %, and the use of limestone flour as a chemical ameliorant together with the use of different doses of chicken dung and in pure form by 10.5-77.7 %. The total productivity of cultivated crops for three years of research, depending on the doses of the bird dung, increased by 15.4-42.7% on a background without liming and by 23.8-52.2% on a lime background, which gave an additional 1.49 to 3.30 t/ha of grain units.
Keywords: chicken dung, water stability of soil aggregates, the density of soil consistency, yield.
OPTIMIZATION OF THE SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT LEVEL WHEN GROWING SUGAR CORN
I.M. Khanieva, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
S.A. Bekuzarova*, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Z.G.S. Shibzukhov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor;
T.S. Vindugov, post-graduate
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University", Nalchik,
*Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Gorsky State Agrarian University", Vladikavkaz,
The work was performed in the conditions of the submontane zone of the Kabardino-Balkarian region with insufficient and unstable moisture. Modern drip irrigation systems were used for the exper-iments. The results of the experiments show how irrigation has an effect on the development and productivity of sweet corn plants. The studies used five variants of the irrigation level. After analyzing the data obtained, the most optimal irrigation rate was identified and recommended to be used in the future for the production of sugar corn. Observations showed that at the beginning of the growing season, the growth phases of sugar corn plants were the same for all variants, the emergence of seedlings was noted on 8-11 days during the years of research. Later, with changes in moisture condi-tions, there was a difference in the dates of onset of the main phases of vegetation. In the second variant, the growth phases almost coincided with the control variant, but the phases of corn cobs flowering and technical ripeness enlarged by one day. In the third and fourth variants, the main phas-es of vegetation were reduced by 1-2 days in comparison with the control. In the non-irrigated version, the most accelerated development of this crop took place, and technical ripeness occurred 4-7 days earlier than in other versions of the experiment. The increase in yield depending on the level of irriga-tion followed the same pattern – with a decrease in the level of correspondence of the amount of re-ceived moisture to the needs of plants, the value of the resulting crop increase decreased. In the con-trol version, the increase in the yield of commercial corn cobs from irrigation was 9.6 t/ha or 89 %, including grain – 4.18 t/ha or 94 %, and in the second version, it increased to 12.3 and 5.55 t/ha re-spectively, which in percentage terms amounted to 114 and 125 %.
Keywords: moisture content, plant development, sugar corn, yield, plant survival, interphase pe-riods.
HERITAGE AND GENETIC CONTROL OF BARLEY PLANT HEIGHT
D.O. Dolzhenko, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Penza University of Agriculture – branch of the Federal State-Funded Scientific Institution Federal
Scientific Center of Fibre Crops, w.s. Lunino, Penza oblast, Russia,
The inheritance of the height of barley plants was studied in the system of diallel crossing (6×6) in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga in contrasting hydrothermal conditions. An analysis of combinational ability according to B. Griffing and genetic analysis according to B. Hay-man showed the predominance of additive effects in the control of the trait (inheritance by type of complete and incomplete dominance). The trait should be responsive to selection, which is confirmed by the heritability coefficients: in the broad sense (H2), 0.85-0.90; in the narrow sense (h2) – 0.52-0.62. Dominant genes increased the height of plants. The presence of complementary epistasis increases the likelihood of negative transgressions, increasing the success of breeding to reduce plant height. None of the varieties of the diallel complex possessed all recessive alleles that reduced the trait. Va-rieties Anna and Omsky Golozyorny 1, with dominant alleles, will increase the height of plants in the offspring. These varieties should be used in combination with shorter parents. Varieties Condor and Margret have a higher number of recessive alleles and can be considered as donors of height reduc-tion. Promising for selection hybrid populations have been identified.
Keywords: barley, diallel analysis, plant height, genetic systems, combinational ability, heritabil-ity coefficient
CONSEQUENCE OF SEDIMENTS OF SEWAGE WATER OF THE CITY OF PENZA AND NATURAL ZEOLITES ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF PLANT PRODUCTS
A.N. Arefyev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-professor,
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor,
G.V. Ilyina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia,
In conditions of a low level of use of mineral fertilizers in agriculture due to their high cost and the almost complete absence of organic fertilizers, the development and implementation of techno-logical methods for using alternative sources of organic matter and nutrients in agricultural practice is an important area of modern farming. The objective of the research was to study the aftereffect of reclamation norms of sewage sludge in the city of Penza and their combinations with zeolite-containing rocks on the yield and quality of crop products. The studies were conducted in the first agricultural-soil region of the Penza region in grain-crop rotation in the period from 2014 to 2019. It was established that the most significant effect on the grain yield of oats and peas was exerted by increased sediments rates of urban wastewater with zeolite-containing rock. The yield of oats against their background increased by 43.5-44.2%, the productivity of peas – by 48.9-49.8%. The collection of digestible protein in oat crops against their background was 487.9-490.3 kg/ha, the protein content in pea grain increased by 2.3-2.7%. Sediments of urban wastewater in its pure form and in combina-tion with zeolite-containing rock increased the concentration of heavy metals in the grain of oats and peas. However, the concentration of heavy metals was significantly lower than the maximum permis-sible concentration. The zeolite-containing rock reduced the influx of heavy metals into the marketable part of crop production.
Key words: urban sewage water, zeolite-containing rock, oats, peas, digestible protein, protein.
PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DRAINED LANDSCAPE
F.A. Musaev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
O.A. Zakharova, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Ryazan State Agrotechnological University by P.A. Kostychev, Ryazan,
The fodder value of meadows used as hayfields and pastures decreases because of the growth of poisonous plants on them. Poisonous plants are those that cause serious poisoning in animals that consume them, and in some cases it leads to death of the animals. The toxicity is due to the con-tent of special reactive compounds in them. The research objective is to conduct a geobotanical sur-vey of the meadow on the territory of the Tinky-II reclamation site on the lands of the Ryazan Mesh-chera to determine the botanical composition of meadow grasses, to identify and determine the abundance of poisonous plants on it. The location of the meadow is near the village of Polkovo, Ryazan district, Ryazan region. The survey covered the area of 10,000 m2 in July 2019 during a prelim-inary reconnaissance survey of the territory along the working routes. The research methodology is generally acknowledged. As a result of the territory survey, it was established that the dominant plants are Elytrígia repens and Alopecurus pratensis, that occur frequently and have a high degree of abundance. As a result of studying the vegetation cover, the association Elytrígetum urtícetosum was distinguished in the examined area of the meadow. The plants grew with a continuous carpet and the soil cover was up to 100%. The total number of poisonous plants was 102 from 6 families. The most common poisonous plants are represented by the Apiaceae and Ranunculaceae families. The share of each poisonous component: Conium maculatum – 36%, Chaerophyllum temulum, Cicuta virosa – 29%, Oenanthe aquatica, Thalictrum aquilegiifolium – 15%, Caltha palustris, Anemone ranunculoides – 8%, Calla palustris, Pedicularis palustris pa riceprica, hydrachlecha – 12% each. Thus, the species composition of meadow grasses is depleted and there is little chance of poisoning of farm animals, since the presence of poisonous plants is insignificant, taking into account their negative impact on the animal’s body only at a certain dose and duration of exposure.
Key words: meadow, drainage system, degraded peat soil, poisonous plants, poisoning.
YIELD AND QUALITY OF AMARANTH, BEAN GRASSES IN ONE SPECIES AND BINARY SEEDS
A.T. Farniev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
A.A. Sabanova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
D.T. Kalitseva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education "Highland State Agrarian University", Vladikavkaz,
Amaranth belongs to non-traditional crops with a high content of protein, essential amino acids, biologically active substances and antioxidants with high adaptive properties. Currently, a significant number of researchers of innovative technologies in crop production prove the advantage of binary crops over monocrop. Studies were conducted In order to study the most productive legumes fodder crops for the formation of binary crops with amaranth, to increase the yield of the green matter and to determine the feed value in the experimental field of the Kirov State Seed-Trial Ground. According to the research results, the biological and physiological properties of the best bean component of ama-ranth are yellow melilot, Lucerne or clover. The binary crops amaranth+clover, amaranth+clover and amaranth+Lucerne formed a green matter yield that exceeded the yield of pure amaranth by 12.1; 7.7 and 6.4 t/ha and pure crops of clover, clover and Lucerne by 7.9; 13.0 and 6.7 t/ha, respectively. In the binary crop, the content of crude protein in dry substance significantly increased by 3.6; 5.0 and 2.4% when compared with the crop of sweet clover, clover, Lucerne and by 1.1; 1.1 and 3.2% com-pared with amaranth monocrops. The fat content increased by 1.2; 0.7; 1.2% and by 1.8; 2.1 and 2.0%, respectively.
Keywords: legumes, amaranth, single species crops, binary crops, yield, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash.
CREATION OF STARTING MATERIAL FOR SPRING BARLEY SELECTION USING LASER RADIATION AND POTASSIUM CARBONATE
G.P. Dudin, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Doctor of Biological Science, Professor;
I.V. Isupova, candidate for a degree
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Vyatka State Agricultural Academy, Kirov,
The work is devoted to the study of the mutagenic effect of potassium carbonate and laser red light on spring barley of the Bios-1 variety. The article reveals the data for three years of observation. In the first generation (М1) during the growing season, observations of the germination, survival of plants and the onset of developmental phases were made. The second generation (М2) was sown by individual families (the family of the offspring of one М1 spike). Throughout the growing season the plants that differed from the original variety were selected, the families with chlorophyll mutations, with visible morphological and physiological changes were distinguished. In the third generation, the inheritance of altered traits in plants was tested. After harvesting the М1, М2, and М3 plants, they were analyzed by the elements of the productivity structure, comparing them with the initial form. It was found that the treatment of seeds with laser red light (LRL) and potassium carbonate (K2CO3) pro-motes the formation in М1 of a tall plant with a long loose spike and a grain weight from an ear that exceeds the control indices. The frequency of chlorophyll changes in М2 ranged from 0.78% (K2CO3 0.1 + LRL) to 5.61% (K2CO3 0.1 n). The maximum frequency of families (12.15%) with morphophysio-logical changes was noted during seed treatment with potassium carbonate. The minimum value of this indicator was noted in the LRL + K2CO3 variant – 2.71%. In М2, 20 neoplasms of spring barley were noted: a short stem, an increased number of spikelets in an ear, and an increased weight of grain from the main ear and the whole plant, early ripening, an upright spike, and middle sphenoid formations. In the third generation, the frequency of mutant families decreased compared with the frequency of morphophysiological changes in М2. The mutation frequency ranged from 1.81% (LRL + K2CO3) to 9.35% (K2CO3). In М3, hereditary changes in quantitative traits and the vegetation period of plants prevailed.
As a result of the research there were identified the lines that can serve as a valuable source ma-terial for barley selection.
Key words: barley, mutagenesis, potassium carbonate, laser.
EFFICIENCY AND ADAPTIVITY OF ALFALFA VARIETIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
I.V. Epifanova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
О.А. Timoshkin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences
Federal State Budget Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Center of Bast Crops, Penza Region, the workers' settlement of Lunino,
The studies were carried out on the experimental field of the Penza Institute of Agriculture – a branch of Federal State Budget Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Center of Bast Crops in 2013-2016. The aim of the research was to evaluate the productivity of new alfalfa varieties and the parame-ters of their adaptability to limiting environmental factors when grown in a single-species cultivation. On average, over the years of research, the dry matter productivity of alfalfa varieties varied from 6.72 to 12.21 t/ha depending on the index of environmental conditions (Ii-3.55-1.85). The best in productivity was the Populyatsiya 11/15 variety with a yield of 11.42 t/ha (+ 7.6% to st.). The variabil-ity of dry matter productivity varied from 23.0 to 27.2%, which characterizes the average stability of the trait. The studied alfalfa samples showed high environmental adaptability and plasticity, the bi val-ues varied in the range of 0.86-1.26. The most stable and flexible in terms of dry matter productivity were the following varieties: Stabilnaya – bi = 0.90; σdr2 = 1.11; Populyatsiya 10/14 – bi = 0.98; σdr2 = 0.68. The seed productivity of alfalfa samples on average over the years of research ranged from 0.36 to 0.67 t/ha depending on the index of environmental conditions (Ii = - 0.15...0.15). The best vari-ety in terms of seed yield was the Mechta + Biotype 4 variety – 0.67 t/ha (+ 21.8% to st.). The variabil-ity of seed yields of the Kamellia standard was weak – 9.4%; the average yield variability (24.1-27.4%) was in the Populyatsiya 8, Korneotpryskovaya 1 and Korneotpryskovaya 2 varieties. The Kamellia standard and Mechta + Biotype 4, which stability index (SI) was 0.18 and 0.32, respectively, were characterized by a higher level of stability of the variety. The most stable and flexible varieties in terms of seed yield were the varieties: Populyatsiya 11/15 – bi = -1.05; σdr2 = 0.16; Stabilnaya – bi = -0.90; σdr2 = 0.16; PP urozhaj 07 – bi = -1.04; σdr2 = 0.08.
Key words: alfalfa, variety, competitive variety testing, collection of dry matter, seed yield, adaptability.
INFLUENCE OF ELEMENTS OF CROP TECHNOLOGY ON PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF SEEDS GUIZOTIA
T.Ya. Prakhova, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
A.N. Kshnikatkina*, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
A.P. Medvedev*, graduate student
Federal State-Funded Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Center of Fibre Crops, Lunino, a work settlement, Penza oblast, Russia,
* Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia,
The research objective was to study the productivity of Guizotia abyssinica, depending on the seeding rate and methods of sowing. The study of technology elements was made in 2017-2019. Three seeding rates from 1.0 to 3.0 million germinating seeds per hectare were studied against the background of a wide-row and row sowing. Field germination of crop ranged from 84.9-86.6%. There is also a tendency to increase it by 0.7-1.0% by the row sowing. By the wide-row sowing, field germi-nation varies between 86.3-86.6% and does not vary significantly depending on the seeding rate. The survival capacity of plants ranged from 92.5 to 94.2% according to variants. The highest values of this indicator (94.2%) were obtained in the variant with a seeding rate of 3.0 million by the row sowing. The optimal conditions for the formation of productivity were established in 2017. The highest seed yield (1.69-1.83 t/ha) was obtained regardless of technology elements. High seed yields were ob-served in the variant with a seeding rate of 2.0 million germinating seeds per hectare by the row sow-ing and amounted to 1.74-1.83 t/ha. In this variant, the seeds were characterized by high oil content of 41.8 and 41.9%. The largest seeds formed at a seed rate of 1.0 million (3.67 g). With an increase in the seeding rate, the weight of 1000 seeds decreased. The linoleic acid content ranged from 71.5 to 78.0% according to the experimental variants. The amount of oleic acid is 5.4-7.7%, depending on the element of agricultural technology.
Keywords: Guizotia abyssinica, seeding rates, methods of sowing, yield, oil content, fatty acids
Veterinary and zootechny
HISTOLOGICAL AND CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE COLONIC WALL IMMUNE SYSTEM OF FETUSES AND NEWBORN CALVES
V.A. Zdorovinin, Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, Professor;
N.P. Pugacheva, Assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University",
The article is devoted to the research of the large intestine tissues in the aspect of its immune system formation. The first open cluster of lymphocytes appear in the intestinal mucosa of the blind gut and middle gut of fetuses of 3-4, 5 months age. There is a predominance of middle and small lymphocytes, large lymphocytes and stromal cells in the lymph nodes of newborn calves (45.2, 16.1, and 15.6%). During the entire fetal and newborn stages of development, "migrant" cells of connective tissue are detected between epithelial cells. Their number gradually increases, and the number of spe-cific "migrants" is greater in the villi than in the crypts. Histochemical study determined the accumula-tion of acidic proteins in "migrants" lymphocytes, SH-groups of proteins and ribonucleoproteins; identified the pattern of development of the intercellular substance in the connective tissue of the in-testinal wall and considered the stages of development of connective tissue.
Keywords: lymphocytes, lymph nodes, epithelial cells, "migrant" cells, globular white blood cells, the connective tissue of the walls of the colon.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING A FEED ADDITIVE BASED ON SUGAR PRODUCTION LIME IN FEEDING CALVES IN THE WINTER GROWING PERIOD
N.N. Kerdyashov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor;
A.I. Dariin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.V. Ovchinnikov*, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Penza,
* Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy", Moscow
The Volga region belongs to the biogeochemical provinces that are deficient in phosphorus, sul-fur, sodium, zinc, iodine, cuprum, and cobalt. Sugar production lime contains calcium, phosphorus, and a number of other valuable nutrients. The use of sugar lime and feed additives based on it in-stead of fodder chalk helps to preserve the environment from contamination by waste from sugar production. One kilogram of the new feed additive made of the sugar production lime, vanillin and vitamin D preparation contained: calcium – 285 g, phosphorus – 12.5 g, crude protein – 61.5 g, sugar – 25 g, ferrum – 3.9 g, cuprum – 4.2 mg, manganese – 86.3 mg, zinc – 7.9 mg, cobalt – 0.11 mg, vit-amin D – 55000 IU. The calves' eatability of the new feed additive is 31.6-61.1% higher compared to the fodder chalk. The inclusion of this feed additive in the calves' diets ad libitum (without premixes) in the winter growing period significantly improves the basic zootechnical indicators of young animals in comparison with the use of fodder chalk: live weight ‒ by 3.1-3.8 %, the average daily increase in live weight ‒ by 10.3-15.4 %, the absolute increase in live weight ‒ by 10.3-15.2 %; the amount of feed item per 1 kg of the increase in live weight of calves lower than control by 9.4-13.2 %. The use of the studied feed additive is cost-effective, since the cost of 1 kg of live weight increase of calves is lower by 18.81-19.33 rubles.
Keywords: sugar production lime, vanillin, vitamin D preparation, fodder chalk, calves, zootech-nical indicators.
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems
THEORETICAL STUDIES OF GEOMETRIC AND KINEMATIC PARAMETERS OF A ROLLER TRANSPORTING DEVICE
V.A. Ovtov, Candidate of Technical Science, Assistant-professor;
A.V. Polikanov, Candidate of Technical Science, Assistant-professor;
А.А. Orekhov, Candidate of Technical Science, Assistant-professor;
V.V. Shumaev, Candidate of Technical Science, Assistant-professor;
V.M. Gudin, student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Penza,
The effectiveness of growing sugar beet depends on many factors, such as weather conditions, technology compliance, the availability of modern machinery, timely fertilization and the quality of the seeds used. Currently, up to 95% of sugar beet seeds are imported from abroad. The modernization of production, the development of the necessary seed-growing agricultural machinery is becoming of current importance. The task of providing a fully automated technological chain from the selection of sugar beet mother root crops from the hopper to their planting in modern planting machines has not yet been completely solved. The article considers theoretical studies of the geometric and kinematic parameters of rollers having screw winding with variable pitch during transportation of sugar beet mother root crops to the planting unit. The obtained results allow to justify the geometric and kinemat-ic parameters of the roller transporting device for a given planting rate of sugar beet mother root crops and, thereby, fully mechanize the process of their planting.
Key words: rollers, screw winding, sugar beet, speed, pitch.
RESULTS OF A FIELD RESEARCH OF A ROOT CROP AND ONION HARVESTER WITH AN ADJUSTABLE ANGLE OF THE BLADE
A.S. Dorokhov, Doctor of Technical Science, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy
A.V. Sibiryov, Candidate of Technical Science, senior scientific worker;
A.G. Aksenov, Candidate of Technical Science, leading scientific worker
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, Moscow,
In the machine technology for the cultivation and harvesting of root crops and onions, one of the most important quality indicators that determines the duration of storage of root crops is the presence or absence of soil and plant impurities in the pile to be stored.
The impossibility of separating soil lumps from a heap of root crops and onions is due to the fact that on most harvesting machines, slotted separating units are used. The inter-bar distance of the separating conveyor is less than the minimum size of the separated root crop to exclude losses of root crops, which makes it impossible to clean them on the separating working organs of harvesting machines, and, consequently, leads to damage of a significant part of commercial products and losses during storage of a significant part of the harvested yield.
Modern technologies and technical means for harvesting root crops and onions are not able to provide high-quality commercial products with minimal labour, due to the lag or lack of development of technological foundations, technologies and working units for harvesting root crops and onions, which can reduce or eliminate the content of soil lumps in commercial products in various soil and climatic conditions.
Therefore, the development of mechanization tools for harvesting root crops and onions, allow-ing to reduce or eliminate the content of mechanical impurities in commercial products in various soil and climatic conditions, is a scientific problem, the solution of which will contribute to the innovative development of the domestic agricultural market, Russia's stable position on the foreign market.
Key words: separation, onion, harvesting, machine, rod elevator, blade angle.
MODELLING THE KINEMATICS OF A HINGED-ROD HYDRAULIC MANIPULATOR
N.V. Babochenko, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor;
Antvi-Wilson Papa*, student
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Volgograd State Agricultural University", Volgograd,
*Ghana Civil Aviation Administration, Accra, Republic of Ghana
The article considers the possibility of determining the kinematic parameters of hydraulic ma-nipulators that have a hinged-rod boom as a supporting structure. The design of the hinged-rod boom has its own features that must be taken into account when performing calculations. Especially there was a difficulty in determining the kinematic parameters during the operation of hydraulic manipula-tors with such a boom design. The kinematic characteristics were determined by a program devel-oped in the C++ programming language. It was created for practical use in order to simplify the calcu-lation and identification of optimal values of the boom hydraulic manipulators operation. The originali-ty of the program described in the article is confirmed by the certificate of state registration of the computer program. Using the program allows to select the optimal values of kinematic characteristics and build the necessary graphs based on the data obtained, thereby simplifying the research work of determining the optimal values of the hydraulic manipulator with a hinged-rod boom. Calculations, with the use of a computer program in the C++ programming language, were made for engineering development, the originality of which is confirmed by a patent for a utility model. Using a computer program, the optimal kinematic parameters of the hinge-rod boom of the hydraulic manipulator were determined. According to the computer program, with the given values of the lengths of the rods constituting a hinge-rod connecting arm of the crane, the coordinates and angles of rotation of the supporting structure of the hinged-rod boom of the crane and also its velocity and acceleration of movement are determined. Based on the obtained data, it is possible to plot graphs, such as chang-es in the position of the hinges in the spatial coordinate system that make up the hinge-rod connec-tion of the hydraulic manipulator boom, angles' rotation and velocity, etc. As the results confirm, the program works to determine the kinematic characteristics of a particular engineering development. It means that its use is possible for calculating the kinematic parameters of the other similar design de-velopments, both the hinged-rod boom and boom hydraulic manipulators.
Keywords: hydraulic manipulator, hinge-rod boom, computer program, C++ programming lan-guage, coordinates of the boom movement, kinematic characteristics of the hydraulic manipulator operation.