ASSESSMENT OF POTATO SELECTION MATERIAL BASED ON THE STUDY OF PRODUCTION PROCESS PARAMETERS AND MORPHO-BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTION SAMPLES
A.A. Kabunin, Candidate of Agricultural sciences;
I.V. Kabunina, Candidate of Economic Sciences
FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, Russia,
The results of the analysis of productivity parameters of more than 100 selecton potato samples in nursery-gardens of various levels at Penza Research Institute of Agriculture for 2001-2017 are presented with the aim of developing methodological approaches for the efficient pointing potato varieties in the selection process, which are highly efficient in the work of photosynthetic apparatus and dominate tuberization in the processes of photosynthesis products distribution during the formation of plant biomass.
The results of the analysis showed that for these purposes it is possible to effectively use the indicator "coefficient of economic usefulness of plant biomass" (Ceupb). It represents the percentage of tubers in the total crude biomass of the plant (the mass of tubers plus the mass of top at the time of its maximum development). Combining the data on this indicator revealed that in the group of selection samples with high productivity, the Ceupb indicator was higher than in groups with medium and low productivity by 61.6, 58.2 and 53.5%, respectively on average for different years. At the same time, the yield of tubers of selection samples with the highest Ceupb, depending on the conditions of the period, was 19-54% higher than in the group with a low Ceupb, and 6-16% higher than the average tuber yield in the entire set of the studied numbers. In the group of samples with a high Ceupb, the leaf-stem mass of plants was developed slightly lower, but the intensity of photosynthesis processes was higher, the tuberization predominated in the process of distribution of photosynthesis products.
The Ceupb indicator can be used with high efficiency for the assessment and pionting out the breeding samples with an increased efficiency of the production process.
Key words: potato selection, productivity parameters, improving assessment methods.
ECOLOGICAL VARIABILITY AND PHENOTYPIC STABILITY OF YIELD OF WINTER AND SPRING SOFT WHEAT VARIETIES IN THE FOREST STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
V.G. Krivibochek, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
S.V. Kosenko, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
I.F. Dyomina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, Russia,
A comparative study of two crops was conducted. Four varieties of winter wheat (Fotinha, Clavdiya 2, Nympha, Alyonushka) and five varieties of spring wheat (Pyramida, Arhat, Mashenka, Atlant, Irishka) of the selection of Penza Agricultural Institute (a branch of FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops) were tested. In the field experiment, the contribution to the general variability of the trait “factor productivity” was established: genotype (variety), environment (year) and their interaction (genotype-environment). The main influence on yield variability was exerted by weather conditions, the year factor for winter varieties was 46.5%, and for spring varieties - 64.8%. Estimates of winter and spring wheat varieties were made according to the parameters of phenotypic variability and ecological plasticity of the yield trait for the period 2014-2018. The greatest range of ecological variation was noted in spring wheat varieties, CV = 11.5...28.8%. Relatively weak ecological variation in the yield was in winter varieties (CV = 11...16.8%). The varieties Fotinha (winter) and Arhat (spring) were characterized by low yield variability. The high rate of reaction to the growing conditions was distinguished in the winter variety Clavdiya 2 (CV = 16.8%) and in the spring variety Mashenka (CV = 28.8%). In terms of phenotypic yield stability, winter wheat varieties showed a high ecological buffering (SF = 1.49), this indicator was slightly lower in spring wheat (SF = 1.75). The most yield flexible grains had Clavdiya 2 (bi = 1.52), Arhat
(bi = 1.54), Mashenka (bi = 1.45).
Key words: winter wheat, spring wheat, variety, productivity, variability, ecological variation, phenotypic stability, ecological plasticity.
EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF TREATING INDUSTRIAL HEMP SEEDS WITH PROTECTORS, AGROCHEMICALS AND GROWTH REGULATORS
I.I. Pluzhnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
N.V. Kriushin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
I.V. Bakulova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
The article contains results of efficiency evaluation of presowing treatment of hemp seeds of the varieties Vera and Nadezhda with seed treater agents Benorad, WP; Thiram, ASC; Bunker, ASC, with agrochemicals such as Lignohumat, Biocomplex-BTU and with growth regulator Albit, LP. The use of the studied chemicals in laboratory conditions contributed to an increase in the weight of seedlings with root in the Vera variety by 17.2-34.5%, in the Nadezhda variety by 5.7-31.4% compared to the control. In the field, in the Nadezhda variety, in the 4-5 leaf phase, the root weight in the varieties with treated seeds increased by 24.4-39.0%, the weight of the plant – by 29.3-46.3%. Treatment with seed treaters provided a decrease in seed contamination with phytopathogens in the Vera variety by 22.2-32.5%, in the Nadezhda variety – by 19.6-27.2%. The use of agrochemicals and a growth regulator led to the destruction of pathogenic mycoflora in the Vera variety by 11.5-14.1%, in the Nadezhda variety – by 4.9-16.2%. In the field, the biological effectiveness of root rot suppression with the use of seed treaters on the Vera variety was 50.4-91.3%, on the Nadezhda variety 71.1-85.6%; with the use of agrochemicals and a growth regulator in the Vera variety – 15.0-70.9%, in the Nadezhda variety – 23.3-63.3%. The highest productivity of hemp plants on the Vera variety was ensured by the use of Benorad, WP, Bunker, ASC, Lignohumat and Albit, LP chemicals. The increase in the yield of stems to the control was 13.6; 17.1; 17.0 and 15.9%, seeds – 22.7; 18.2; 15.2 and 25.8%, respectively. By the Nadezhda variety, the highest yield of plants was established with the use of such chemicals as Bunker, ASC; Lignohumate and Albit, LP. The increase in the yield of stems to the control was 28.1; 32.8 and 28.9%, seeds – 22.7; 22.7 and 18.7%.
Keywords: industrial hemp, non-psychotropic variety, seed treatment, biological effectiveness, weight of root and plant, yield of stems and seeds.
OILSEED CROPS – BIODIVERSITY, VALUE AND PRODUCTIVITY
T.Ya. Prakhova, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
V.N. Brazhnikov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
O.F. Brazhnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
The background information on traditional (white mustard, oil flax) and non-traditional (Camelina sativa, Сrambe abyssinica, oil radish) oilseed crops is provided. Their characteristic of economic importance and uses are presented. The studied crops are good as preceding ones for many crops. They have a phytosanitary and soil cleaning effect, high resistance to abiotic and biotic factors, and a significant productivity potential for oilseed crops. Oil radish and white mustard are used as sidereal crops. They are indispensable for providing livestock with soilage in the green conveyor system. Due to the different ripening periods of oilseed crops, the oilseed inflow during the season becomes even, which makes it possible to optimize the organization of production processes in the form of raw conveyors. An analysis of the production of oil cruciferous crops and flax in Russia showed that over the past five years (2014-2018), their planting acreage tended to increase. Thus, in 2018 oil flax crops increased by 31.3% compared to 2017, the planting acreage of mustard doubled. The largest planting acreage of camelina came in 2014 (268.1 thousand ha), then there was a decrease, and in 2018 it amounted to only 78.9 thousand ha. The productivity of oilseed crops reaches high values (1.21-2.38 t/ha), which indicates the realization of the yield potential, regardless of the conditions of the year. Expanding the range of oilseed crops and their varieties allows you to make fuller use of the existing bioclimatic potential.
Key words: oilseed crops, economic importance, productivity, camelina sativa, oil flax, white mustard, Crambe abyssinica, oil radish
LATEST DIRECTIONS OF COMMON HEMP SELECTION FOR SOLVING MODERN PROBLEMS OF DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND IMPORT SUBSTITUTION
V.A. Serkov, Chief Research Worker, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences,
Penza Institute of Agriculture – a branch of FSBSI FSC for Bast Crops, Russia, Penza region,
R.M. Alexandrov, Director General of OOO "UK Konoplex”, t. 8 (800) 230-05-07,
O.K. Davydova, Deputy Director General of OOO "UK Konoplex”, t. 8 (800) 222-73-20,
A retrospective analysis of breeding activity over the past 25-year period of time was performed. The necessity of expanding the lines of selection of hemp sowing at the present stage was substantiated. The importance of culture to ensure the needs of innovative industries with high-quality raw materials in the required volumes was emphasized. A comparative assessment of the development of hemp breeding in the Russian Federation and abroad was given. The role of state support for the dynamic development and improvement of the hemp breeding industry was noted.
The characteristics of varieties that are widely used in the hemp regions of the country are presented. The problems of selection activities are highlighted and the conditions for solving primary problems are specified. It is stated about the need to strengthen the material and technical base of scientific institutions involved in selection and seed-growing activities with the common hemp. The conclusion on the need to diversify selection activities of common hemp in the Russian Federation is made.
Key words: common hemp, drug-free variety, economically valuable trait, cellulose content, cannabidiol content, oil content, hemp breeding development, import substitution.
SEEDING RATE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.) IN THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
T.Ya. Prakhova1, Doctor of Agricultural sciences;
A.N. Kshnikatkina2, Doctor of Agricultural sciences, Professor
A.A. Shchanin2, post-graduate
1Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops”, workers settlement Lunino, Russia
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Penza State Agrarian University”, Penza, Russia
The aim of our research was to study the productivity of safflower depending on the seeding rate in the conditions of the Middle Volga region. The object of the research was the variety Zavolzhsky 1. The study of seeding rates was carried out in 2016-2018. Five sowing norms from 200 to 400 thousand germinating seeds per hectare, with a step of 50 thousand germinating seeds were studied. With an increase in the seeding rate of safflower, the field germination of seeds increased. Its highest rate was noted in the variant with a sowing rate of 400 thousand germinating seeds per 1 ha – 87.1%, which was 1.6% higher than the sowing rate of 200 thousand germinating seeds per 1 ha, where the seedlings were the least – 85.5%. The maximum safety index of safflower plants was observed in the variant with a seeding rate of 300 and 350 thousand germinating seeds per 1 ha – 92.9 and 92.8%, respectively. Safflower productivity varied in the range of 1.09-1.41 t/ha, depending on the seeding rate. The highest seed yield was observed in the variant with a sowing rate of 300 and 350 thousand germinating seeds per hectare and amounted to 1.17-1.39 and 1.19-1.41 t/ha, respectively. The number of baskets on a plant ranged from 9.8 pieces in the variant with a sowing rate of 200 thousand germinating seeds per hectare to 14.7 pieces – with a sowing rate of 350 thousand germinating seeds per hectare. Safflower formed the largest seeds when sown with a sowing rate of 300 and 350 thousand germinating seeds per hectare. The mass of 1000 seeds here was 43.4 g. The optimal norm for sowing safflower in contrasting conditions of the Middle Volga region is 300-350 thousand germinating seeds per hectare.
Key words: safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius L.), seeding rate, yield, field germination, yield structure.
EFFECT AND AFTEREFFECT OF URBAN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND ITS COMBINATIONS WITH ZEOLITE CONTAINING AGRONOMICAL ORE ON THE ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF MEADOW-CHERNOZEM SOIL
A.N. Arefiev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
E.E. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor
Herewith the effect and aftereffect of land reclamation norms of urban sewage sludge (USS) and their combinations with zeolite-containing agricultural ore on acid-base properties of meadow-chernozem soil are shown. It was found that urban sewage sludge in combination with zeolite increased the cation exchange capacity in the arable layer of meadow-chernozem soil by 4.97-5.84 mg-eq/100 g of soil, the amount of exchangeable bases by 6.65-7.83 mg-eq/100 g of soil, the pHsalt by 1.24-1.50 units. The value of hydrolytic acidity in these options decreased by 1.69-2.01 mg-eq/100 g of soil. With the unilateral effect and aftereffect of the reclamation norms of urban sewage sludge, the soil from the slightly acid one turned into a soil with a near-neutral medium reaction. And with the unilateral effect of a zeolite-containing agricultural ore and its combined effect with urban sewage sludge the soil turned into a soil with a neutral medium reaction.
Key words: meadow-chernozem soil, urban sewage sludge, clinoptilolite, zeolite-containing agricultural ore, cathodic exchange capacity, total exchange bases, metabolic acidity, hydrolytic acidity.
YIELD AND QUALITY OF GRAIN OF SPRING SOFT WHEAT, DEPENDING ON THE APPLICATION OF HUMIC AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS
S.V. Bogomazov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant Professor;
A.A. Levin, post-graduate student;
O.A. Tkachuk, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant Professor;
A.V. Lyandenburskaya, senior lecturer
The article presents the results of studies of the effect of humic fertilizer Humostim and mineral fertilizers on the yield and grain quality of spring soft wheat of the Tulaykovskaya 108 variety. The work performed allows us to expand our understanding of the effect of humic acid salts in the composition of humic fertilizers on the development of spring wheat and to give recommendations on how to use them for increasing the yield and quality of household products, maintaining the ecological cleanliness of the environment. The aim of the research was to improve the elements of spring wheat cultivation technology in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region, which allow optimizing the conditions of growth and development through the composite application of humic and mineral fertilizers. The studies have established that the greatest increase in spring wheat productivity was observed in the variants with the introduction of mineral fertilizers and the treatment of seeds and crops with the drug Humostim (1.55 t/ha). Mineral fertilizers significantly increased the mass fraction of protein in spring wheat grain by 2.3%, the mass fraction of crude gluten by 4.14%. Humic fertilizer Humostim slightly increased the quality indicators of grain. The highest level of profitability (81%) was noted in the variant with the treatment of seeds and vegetative plants with humic fertilizer Humostim. The use of mineral fertilizers for a projected yield of 4.0 t/ha led to a decrease in profitability by 16.2%.
Key words: humic fertilizers, mineral fertilizers, spring wheat, biological productivity, protein weight content, crude gluten content, profitability.
INFLUENCE OF ALBIT ON THE STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF THE SEED PLANT OF TABLE BEET
V.I. Gryazeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor
Seed quality is one of the most important factors for obtaining a good harvest. Difficulty is in the reproduction of seeds of cross-pollinated biennial plants, which is beetroot. The main goal in its seed production is the maintenance of economically valuable traits of populations. The effect of Albit on the structure and productivity of the seed plant of table beet was studied in Penza region. It was established that the seed ripening period in all variants of treatment with albite was shorter than in the control by 4–9 days. In most variants, on average over two years, the highest seed productivity was observed in the seed-bearing plants of the III-IV branching types. Type I seed plants are less productive, but their seeds are larger and have better sowing qualities. The greatest number of seeds from a plant was formed in all variants of the seed-bearing plants of the III-IV branching types. The same trend is observed in the variants of the experiment with Albit. More branched seed-bearing plants are more productive than less branched ones. So, during treatment in the budding phase, type III-IV type seed-bearing plants formed 127.5 grams, while 118.0 grams of type I seed-bearing plants. After treatment during the flowering phase, multiramouse seed-bearing plants are 11.5 grams more productive than the subramous. The treatment of seed plants of table beet with Albit contributed to an increase in the mass of 1000 seedballs in an average of 1.5-2.1 grams. Studies have shown that there is a matricular heterogeneity, which is a consequence of differences in the location of seeds on the mother plant. The best quality seeds are formed on the central axis, and the worst – on second order rosette shoots.
Keywords: table beet, seeds, Albit, seed plant, productivity.
FORMATION OF GIANT MISCANTHUS BIOMASS IN THE FOREST STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
V.A. Gushchina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
N.I. Ostroborodova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Penza State Agrarian University”,
The introduction of giant miscanthus into production requires the study of the possibility of cultivating it in the zone of unstable moisture on low-fertile soils. The purpose of the work is to determine the best way to control weeds in the agrocenosis of giant miscanthus when growing it in the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga. Univariate field experiment included mechanical and chemical methods of weed control before planting, as well as in plantings of the first year of life. It was established that the formation of productivity elements of giant miscanthus was affected by weather conditions during the growing season and methods of weed control. The optimal thermal regime and precipitation in 2016 ensured the height of the plants of 163.0...210.0 cm with the number of stems 10.0...16.0 pcs per plant unit at the end of the vegetation. On average, over the three years, in the variants with the herbicides Magnum and Ballerina, tall stems (166.9...175.2 cm) with the largest number of shoots of 10.0...11.7 pcs. were formed on the background of the Tornado 500. Compared with the absolute control, the growth of plants in height was 36.0...44.3 cm, the number of stems increased by 4.3...6.0 pcs/plant. Having a minimal phytotoxic effect on the growth and development of the crop, there was no strict relationship between the formed aboveground mass and the root system over the years. An increase in plant power was not always accompanied by an increase in the mass of rootstalks.
Key words: giant miscanthus, weediness, unstable moisture, rhizomes, herbicides, biomass, hydrothermal coefficient.
INFLUENCE OF CROP TENDING METHODS ON SUGAR BEET PRODUCTIVITY
E.V. Zheryakov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, docent
In the field experiments conducted in the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Volga region, we studied the features of the formation of sugar beet productivity depending on the methods of crop tending. According to the results of the research and analysis, it was found that the highest yield of root crops was obtained during three herbicidal treatments, which amounted to 43.60 t/ha. By the beginning of harvesting, the assimilative surface of sugar beet leaves decreased, but was almost the same in all the variants of the experiment and varied from 44.35 to 45.41 thousand m2/ha. The greatest value of the photosynthetic potential during the growing season was noted during three intertillage, and the net productivity of photosynthesis was in the following variants: one row space + two herbicidal and two row space + one herbicidal treatments. Evaluation of weed amount showed that the use of three herbicidal treatments contributed to an increase in weed infestation of soil at the time of harvesting. If in the period of one or three pairs of true leaves the number of weeds in the variant with three intertillage was 93.6 pcs/m2, and with herbicidal treatment 63.8 pcs/m2, then the reverse trend was observed before harvesting.
Key words: sugar beet, weed infestation, herbicides, intertillage, productivity.
INFLUENCE OF URBAN SEWAGE SLUDGE ON THE SPRING PRODUCT OF SPRING TRITICALE
O.M. Kasynkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor
Fertilizer plays an active role, providing one or another degree of plant variability. It is an element of natural selection in an indirect form, since it provides the advantage of genotypes that are specifically adapted to competitive environmental conditions. The article presents the results of a study of the effect of the use of urban sewage sludge (USS) as fertilizer for the yield of spring triticale of the Ukro variety on dark gray forest soil. The studies were carried out in 2014-2016 at the site of FSBEIHE Penza SAU. It was established that the use of urban sewage sludge contributed to an increase in the yield of spring triticale of the Ukro variety. The maximum yield of 3.79 t/ha was obtained in the option with USS at a dose of 10 t/ha and a sowing rate of 4.0 mln. grains per 1 ha. The increase in relation to control was 0.27 t/ha.
Key words: spring triticale productivity, urban sewage sludge, plant height, lodging resistance, weight of 1000 grains.
AFTEREFFECT OF DIATOMITE AND ITS COMBINATIONS WITH MANURE ON THE FERTILITY OF LEACHED BLACK CHEROZEM AND CARROT YIELD
E.E. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor,
A.N. Arefiev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor
The unilateral aftereffect of diatomite and its combinations with manure on the fertility elements of leached chernozem and carrot yield is shown. The most significant effect on the content of humus, nutrients, water-stable aggregates and density was exerted by the integrated use of diatomite and manure. Over three years of research, an increase in the humus content in the plough-layer of leached chernozem was 0.19-0.24% on average, in the content of alkaline-hydrolyzable nitrogen 36.2-38.0 mg/kg of soil, in mobile phosphorus content 23.2-28.5 mg/kg of soil, in mobile potassium content 45.6-49.9 mg/kg of soil, water-stable aggregates 15.3-18.3%. The equilibrium density decreased by 0.11-0.14 g/cm3. The complex aftereffect of diatomite and manure had the most significant effect on carrot yield. Its productivity against the background of their aftereffect increased by 39.4-45.1%.
Key words: leached chernozem, diatomite, manure, humus, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, structure, density, carrots, productivity.
METHODS OF CULTIVATION OF ANDROGYNOUS BURNET (POTERIUM POLYGAMUM) IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
A.N. Kshnikatkina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.A. Orlov, post-graduate student
The article presents the results of studying the influence of exogenous seed treatment and foliar dressing with complex micronutrient fertilizers on the productivity of the androgynous burnet of the variety Sultan. Exogenous seed treatment with chelated fertilizers had a positive effect on the formation of burnet agrocenosis. The most effective prepraration was Megamix-Seeds. Field germination increased by 5%, the safety of plants at the end of the growing season – by 9.5%, the percentage of overwintering – by 3.1%, the mass of air-dried roots increased 1.7 times. The best indicators of photosynthetic activity were also noted when the seeds were treated with the MegaMix-Seeds microelement fertilizer, the leaf surface area of the first-year burnet during the budding phase was 40.3 thousand m2/ha, the photosynthetic potential was 2.78 million m²/ha×day, the net photosynthesis productivity – 3.63 g/m²×day. The highest productivity of the burnet of the 1st year of use was generated when using Megamix-Seeds for seed treatment: 4.44 t/ha of feed units, 0.57 t/ha of digestible protein, 90.2 GJ/ha of exchange energy. The highest productivity of burnet was obtained with double foliar top dressing during the growth and budding phase with Azosol 36 Extra: the collection of dry matter was 9.65 t/ha, of feed units – 5.9 t/ha, of digestible protein – 0.74 t/ha, of exchange energy – 119.9 GJ. It was economically effective to use Megamix-Seeds, NanoKremny and Tsitovit preparations for seed treatment, the profitability was 147.7-148.2%. With double top dressing with the drug Azosol 36 – Extra in the phase of regrowth and budding, the profitability was 207.6%.
Key words: androgynous burnet, complex microelement chelated fertilizers, parameters of photosynthesis, productivity.
PRODUCTIVITY OF POTERIUM POLYGAMUM DEPENDING ON A COVER CROP
А.N. Kshnikatkina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
I.Yu. Yudin, graduate student
The article presents the results of the study of the influence of cover crops on the productivity of Poterium polygamum. Studies have established that cover crops and the timing of their harvest have had a significant impact on the formation of agrocenosis of the Poterium polygamum. When harvesting grain crops for grain, the safety indicators of burnet plants were 9.2-11.0% lower than when harvesting for silage. The highest indicators of field germination 87.5%, plant safety 89.5% and winter hardiness 94.5% of photosynthesis parameters were noted when sowing burnet under cover of oil flax. Among grain cover crops, the highest yield of seeds of the Poterium polygamum 248.9 kg/ha was obtained by sowing under the cover of barley and harvesting for silage. On average, over three years, the yield of Poterium seeds, when harvesting barley for silage, was higher in comparison with oats by 102.2 kg (69.7%). The smallest yields of burnet seeds (124.5 kg/ha) were obtained by sowing under the cover of oats and harvesting for grain. The highest seed yields of Poterium polygamum of the first year of use (845.2 kg/ha) and feed productivity were obtained by sowing under a cover of oil flax: 3.84 tons of feed units per hectare, 0.48 tons of digestible protein, 78.4 GJ available energy. It is most cost-effective to cultivate a polygonaceous polygon for seeds and fodder purposes under the cover of oil flax, profitability – 252.2%.
Key words: Poterium polygamum, cover crops, agrocenosis, photosynthesis, productivity, weed infestation.
ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTIVITY AND STABILITY OF WINTER TRITICALE VARIETIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FOOTHILL ZONE OF THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
M.A. Basiyeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
E.S. Miroshnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
North Caucasian Research Institute of Mountain and Foothill Agriculture – a branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science of the Federal Scientific Center "Vladikavkaz Scientific Center
of the Russian Academy of Sciences", village Mikhailovskoye, North Ossetia-Alania, Russia,
The adaptive properties of winter triticale varieties under the agroecological conditions of the foothill zone of the Central Caucasus were estimated. The studies were conducted in 2016-2018 on the fields of North Caucasian Research Institute of Mountain and Foothill Agriculture Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The research material was seven varieties of winter triticale from the world collection of All-Union Research Institute of Plant Breeding. For a comprehensive estimation and selection of valuable source material for selection for adaptability, a set of techniques was used to establish the reliability of the observed differences and obtain the necessary information about potential productivity and environmental plasticity. The most popular indices in breeding practice were used in the work: Mexican, Canadian, linear spike density, as well as a new modification of the index – the plant productivity index (PPI). High resistance to environmental stress factors was established in the varieties Legion, Sotnik and Almaz, and the maximum compliance with environmental conditions in the region was found in varieties Zavet, Gorka, Ramzay, and Gor. Varieties of high-intensity type Zavet and Gor were responsive to improving conditions and were characterized by stable productivity.
Key words: winter triticale, productivity, adaptability, resistance to stress, indices of environmental conditions, ecological plasticity, stability.
Veterinary and zootechny
REPRODUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF HEIFERS AND DAIRY PRODUCTIVITY OF COWS OF HOLSTEIN BREED OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN
V.V. Lyashenko, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
I.V. Kaeshova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
A.V. Gubina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
The modernization of the dairy cattle breeding industry in the Penza Region, as in the other regions of Russia, is carried out through the construction of new modern dairy complexes, the active introduction of innovative milk production technologies, and the purchase of highly productive imported cattle.
The purpose of the work was to evaluate the reproductive abilities and milk productivity of highly productive cows of different origin under the conditions of intensive milk production technology. The object of the study was Holstein animals of different origin (Hungary, Germany, Russia). The studies were carried out in OOO “UK “Rusmolco” of the Penza region in the conditions of a specialized enterprise for the breeding replacement young animals of the cattle and two high-tech dairy complexes.
It was established that in the studied groups of animals, the efficiency of insemination of heifers with the sexed semen differed. Russian heifers showed the highest rate – 59.7%, and German heifers the lowest – 49.2%. Insemination of heifers with sexed semen contributed to a higher yield of calves. The yield of calves was: in Hungarian animals – 92%; Russian – 84.4%; and German – 65.4%. The largest number of heifers was received from German first-calf cows – 89%, from Hungarian 83.2%, and from Russian –77.4%.
In the conditions of intensive milk production technology in the OSP “MTK Pachelmskoe khozyajstvo s. Arshinovka” the milk yield of German first-calf cows for 305 days of lactation was 8% more (p ≤ 0.05) than of Russian herdmates; in OOO “RAO Narovchatskoye”, the yield of milk of Hungarian first-calf cows for 305 days of lactation was 13.7% more (p ≤ 0.001) than of Russian herdmates.
Consequently, in conditions of intensive technology for the production of milk at large high-tech complexes, it is economically reasonable to use domestic cattle of the Holstein breed. In order to increase the breeding and productive qualities of cows and to expand reproduction of the dairy herd, it is advisable to purchase breeding animals abroad.
Key words: technology, Holstein breed, origin, heifers, insemination, sexed semen, offspring, milk production, milk yield, mass fraction of fat and protein in milk.
CYTOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS
S.N. Tsepkovskaya, Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, assistant-professor;
A.V. Ostapchuk, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
L.L. Oshkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian
Cytology is a safe, fast, inexpensive and reliable procedure for the diagnosis of various pathological processes, including malignant and benign neoplasms in animals, which is available to a practicing veterinarian.
The article discusses the methodology of sampling, describes the technique of cytological research, considers indicators of various pathological processes, including the criteria for malignant neoplasms.
Key words: cytology, malignant neoplasms, malignant neoplasia, tumor cells, criteria for malignancy.
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems
RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH ON THE SUBSTANTIATION OF CONSTRUCTION PARAMETERS OF A CHAMBER SEED TREATER UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
O.Yu. Machneva, graduate student;
O.N. Kukharev, doctor of engineering sciences, professor;
A.V. Machnev, doctor engineering sciences, associate professor;
V.A. Machnev, doctor of engineering sciences, professor;
P.N. Horev, candidate of engineering sciences, associate professor
The main shortcomings in the work of seed treaters were identified, which include increased crushing of seeds, uneven supply, increased humidity of seeds after dressing. It has been established that when the seed treaters are working at seed deliveries of 70-100% of the maximum, there is a sharp change in the quality indicators, which can be reduced by using a two-disk distributing and two-level reflecting devices. The objective of the research is to substantiate the design and technological parameters of a chamber seed treater with a two-disk distributing and two-level reflecting devices that can improve the quality of seed treatment. For this purpose, a prototype chamber seed treater with a two-disk distributing and two-level reflecting devices was developed, manufactured and tested in the field. A study of the sowing qualities and technological properties of seeds of spring wheat of the Raduga variety showed that the seed purity was 99.54%, their moisture content before pickling was 13.9%, their germination rate was 98% with 1000 seeds weighing 41 g, and the crushing of the seeds was 0.14%. The optimal values of the distance between the annular disk and the upper level reflector L1 = 60 mm, the diameter of the lower level reflector D2 = 350 mm, the height of the upper level reflector H1 = 30 mm, the height of the lower level reflector H2 = 30 mm with 0.11-0.05% crushing seeds with the chamber seed treater. The maximum seed flow rate of 5.98 kg/s was established, corresponding to a 2.2% feed irregularity and 0.06% crushing by the chamber seed treater with 150 mm opening of the flap of the petal dispenser.
Keywords: Seed treater, seeds, dispensing device, reflecting device, diameter of a dispenser output opening, seed supply, seed crushing.
RESULTS OF LABORATORY RESEARCH OF A BUTTER CHURN WITH A FLEXIBLE VIBRATORY DRIVE
A.V. Yashin, Сandidate of Engineering sciences, associate professor;
Yu.V. Polyvyany, Candidate of Engineering sciences
The materials of the article are devoted to an urgent problem – improving the technological process of butter churning and developing the design of the butter churn. The article notes that in the presence of a significant number of personal subsidiary farms and small farms with small volumes of butter production, there is a need for periodic butter churns. According to the analysis of existing designs and theoretical studies, it was found that in order to reduce the loss of butter due to its sticking to the churning mechanism and to reduce the churning energy intensity, it is necessary that the churning mechanism be made in the form of a membrane, which is also the bottom of the tank, which makes periodic oscillatory movements through a crank-and-rod mechanism. An optimization criterion is defined. It is the energy-intensity of butter churning. And the degree of use of milk fat is a limit to this target function. An adequate mathematical relation has been defined in a coded form of the energy intensity of butter churning in a butter churn with a flexible vibratory drive. At the same time, the energy intensity of butter churning by a butter churn with a flexible vibratory drive was Ec = 3.84 × (W × h / kg) at performance Qm = 11.5 kg/h and drive power Ndr = 43.2 W, and the degree of use of milk fat S=99.6 %, which corresponds to the 0.4% fat loss in buttermilk and does not exceed the requirements of GOST.
Keywords: flexible vibratory drive, butter churn, membrane, churning mechanism, energy intensity.