AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Agronomy


 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.001

WAYS OF CREATING RATIONAL AGROCHENOSIS OF WINTER WHEAT FOR THE FOOTHILL AREA CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of biological sciences, senior research worker; V.B. Abiev1, junior research worker North Caucasus Research Institute of Mountain and Foothill Agriculture – a branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science of the Federal Scientific Center Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladikavkaz, Russia, 1e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

With the development of intensive farming, the productivity of agrocenoses began to increase, while at the same time a decrease in their stability was observed. Agrocenoses are not capable of self-regulation and self-renewal and, to a greater extent, are in danger of failure during the mass reproduction of pests or pathogens. An important role in the rational use of natural resources is played by the structure of crop rotations, which, in turn, depends on the characteristics of the soil and climatic conditions of the region, the adaptive properties of cultivated species and the genetic diversity of varieties. It is possible to increase the sustainability and productivity of agrocenoses by applying adaptive agroecological macroand microzonation of cultivated species, the use of adapted varieties, mosaic design of agrocenoses. The article presents the results of many years of research into improving the adaptive properties of winter wheat varieties for the conditions of the foothill area of the Central Caucasus. For a comprehensive assessment of varieties compliance with the conditions of cultivation, such characteristics as plasticity and stability of the variety were used. As an indicator of ontogenetic adaptability, homeostaticity of plants were used. More than 30 varieties of winter wheat were studied using the parameters of productivity and resistance to a harmful complex of diseases, which are represented by: Fusarium head blight, brown and yellow rusts, Septoria blight, pyrenophoresis, etc.
Keywords: winter wheat, variety, agrocenosis, spike fusarium, productivity, homeostasis, environmental plasticity, variety mixtures.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.002

ACTION AND CONSEQUENCES OF URBAN SEWAGE SLUDGES IN COMBINATION WITH ZEOLITE-CONTAINING AGRO-ORE ON WATER AVAILABILITY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF GRAINPASTURE CROP ROTATION
A.N. Arefyev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor; E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; E.E. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor; K.N. Stehlmakh, post-graduate FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The effect and the after-effect of the ameliorative norms of urban sewage sludge (USS) in combination with a zeolite-containing agro-ore on the moisture regime, the reserves of productive moisture and the productivity of grain-pasture crop rotation are shown. It was established that the effect and aftereffect of the reclamation norms of USS in combination with zeolite-containing agro-ore increased humidity in the arable horizon by 3.2-5.1%. Urban sewage sludge in combination with the zeolitecontaining agro-ore had the maximum effect on the accumulation of productive moisture in the meadow black soil due to precipitation during the cold period of the year. The maximum productivity of grain-pasture crop rotation was marked against the background of the effect and the after-effect of USS in combination with a zeolite-containing agro-ore (51.7-73.6%).
Key words: urban sewage sludge, zeolite-containing agro-ore, meadow black soil, moisture regime, productive moisture reserves, crop rotation productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.003

FORMATION AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY OF MIXED AGROPHYTOCENOSES WITH SWEET CLOVER (MELILOTUS)
A.N. Kshnikatkina1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; O.A. Timoshkin2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences; O.Yu. Timoshkina2, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; A.I. Moskvin, doctoral student 1FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Russia 2FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, workers settlement Lunino, Penza region, Russia, tel. +7 (84161) 3-18-14, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studying the characteristics of the formation of annual forage crops in mixed agrophytocenoses, their photosynthetic activity depending on the mixture components, seeding rates in the mixture, the background of mineral nutrition. The studies were conducted in the three-factor field experiment in 2015-2017 on the experimental field of the Penza Agricultural Institute – a branch of the FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops. The studies were carried out according to generally accepted methods on leached medium loamy black soil, with a high and elevated content of available forms of macronutrients. Annual forage crops (Sudan grass (Sorghium vulgare), maize, sawa millet (Echonichloa frumentacea), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), amaranth (Amaranthus)) were studied in mixed sowing with a white sweet clover (Melilotus albus). The seeding rates of the legume and associated components were 70 + 40%, 55 + 55%, 40 + 70% of the total norm. As a nutritional background, the doses of mineral fertilizers N45P45K45 (background 1) and N60P60K60 (background 2) were studied. The purpose of the research was to study the formation and photosynthetic activity of agrophytocenoses of annual forage crops in mixed sowings with white sweet clover in the forest steppe of the Middle Volga region. It was established that the germination and preservation of annual grasses in mixed sowings depended on meteorological conditions during the years of research, a concomitant component in the mixture, seeding rates of components and mineral fertilizers. The most developed photosynthetic potential (regardless of other factors) was in mixtures of sweet clover with amaranth – 2.65 million m2 day/ha and of sweet clover with sawa millet – 2.08 million m2 day/ha. The seeding rate of 40 + 70% and the increased background of nutrition (N60P60K60) contributed to obtaining high rates of photosynthetic potential – 2.01 and 2.23 million m2/ha, respectively. The highest indicators of the net productivity of photosynthesis were obtained in mixtures of sweet clover with Sudan grass and of sweet clover with maize – 7.95 and 7.70 g/m2 per day, with a seeding rate of 40 + 70% – 6.55 g/m2 per day and on natural fertility (control) – 6.64 g/m2 per day.
Key words: fodder production, annual forage crops, seeding rate, mixture component, mineral fertilizers, mixed sowing, agrocenosis, photosynthetic activity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.004

TECHNIQUES OF THE FORMATION OF HIGH-PRODUCTIVE AGROPHYTOCENOSES OF PERENNIAL RYEGRASS
A.N. Kshnikatkina1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; O.A. Timoshkin2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences; P.V. Revnivtsev1, post-graduate 1FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Russia 2FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, workers settlement Lunino, Penza region, Russia, tel. +7 (84161) 3-18-14, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies conducted in 2016-2018 on the experimental field of the Penza Agricultural Institute – a branch of the FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops. The studies were carried out according to generally accepted methods on leached medium loamy black soil, with a high and elevated content of available forms of macronutrients. The purpose of the research was to study the timing of the use of mineral fertilizers, complex fertilizers, biostimulant on the productivity and nutritional value of perennial ryegrass forage of variety Weimar. It was established that the yield and the nutritional value of perennial ryegrass depended on meteorological conditions during the years of research and the factors studied. The most favorable for growth and development of perennial ryegrass was 2016 – there was received 8.32-15.85 t/ha of dry matter, in 2017 – 7.00- 12.29 t/ha, and in severely dry conditions of 2018 – 1.76-3.76 t/ha. On average for 2016-2018 the top dressing with mineral nitrogen in the growth phase of herbs was the most effective – there was received 10.63 t/ha of dry matter, 9.05 thousand feed units, 1307 kg/ha of digestible protein, which 86.9%; 104.8%; 297.3% respectively exceeded the control variant. Among complex fertilizers, Azosol 36 Extra showed high efficiency when used in the growth phase of perennial ryegrass – the increase in dry matter collection was 18.5%, of feed units – 21.8%, and of digestible protein – 37.6%. The introduction of mineral nitrogen in doses of N60 and N30 increased the nutritional value and energy content of the feed.
Key words: fodder production, perennial ryegrass, mineral fertilizers, productivity, nutritional value.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.005

EFFICIENCY AND QUALITY OF SAFFLOWER VARIETIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
A.N. Kshnikatkina2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; T.Y. Prakhova1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, chief research worker; A.A. Shchanin2, post-graduate 1FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, workers settlement Lunino, Russia 2FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia

The aim of the research was to evaluate safflower variety samples by their productivity and oil quality in the Middle Volga region. The studies were conducted in 2016-2018 on the experimental field of Penza Agricultural Institute. The vegetative period of safflower in 2016 proceeded in moderately moist conditions with a hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) of 1.1 and an average daily temperature of 20.1°C. The vegetation period of 2017 was characterized as insufficiently moistened with the HTC of 0.82 units. The conditions of 2018 were severely arid, the HTC was only 0.4 at average daily temperatures of 19.3°C. The growing season from full germination to full maturation of safflower in the conditions of the Middle Volga region averaged 114-119 days. The studied varieties of safflower on average for three years formed a fairly high and stable yield of 1.12 and 1.45 t/ha. The maximum yield of safflower seeds was obtained in 2018, when the conditions were arid, and averaged from 1.27 to 1.59 t/ha. The largest seeds were formed by varieties Astrakhanskiy 747 and Aleksandrit, the weight of 1000 seeds was 45.6 and 44.6 g. The huskness was 33.17% in average. The fat content in the seeds was high and amounted to 33.6-37.1%. The variety Alexandrit was distinguished by oil content, the oil content of which was 37.1%. All varieties were characterized by a very high content of linoleic acid 75.2-77.6%, with a very low amount of linolenic acid – 0.12-0.19%. The content of monounsaturated oleic acid varied in the range of 12.2-14.5%.
Key words: safflower, yield, vegetation period, oil content, fatty acid composition

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.006

PECULIARITIES OF THE FISH FAUNA OF LAKE SANDERKA IN THE FLOODPLAIN OF THE SURA RIVER WITHIN THE PENZA REGION
A.Y. Asanov, Candidate of Biological Sciences; A.I. Ivanov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. (8412) 64 18 41, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies of the fish fauna of the floodplain lake Sanderka, during which 15 species of fish were identified, which is 60% of the fish fauna composition common for the bayou waters of the Sura river. The species represented in the studied lake belong to the five faunal complexes. This indicates a preserved ecosystem of the lake, compared with other water bodies of this type. Of the 15 fish species identified in the lake Sanderka, five are valuable commercial fish. It has been established that the dominant species in the studied lake is roach, the rudd is also numerous, the number of bream is rather high. Despite the proximity of human settlements and thanks to the uniqueness of its ecosystem, lake Sanderka has preserved the biodiversity of the fish population. It can serve as a reference water body in the organization of monitoring studies of the fish fauna of the bayou lakes of the Penza Region and the Republic of Mordovia.
Key words: bayou lake, floodplain lake, fish fauna, faunal complex, natural monument.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.007

COMPETITIVE VARIETY TESTING OF SOFT SPRING WHEAT IN THE FOREST-STEPPE ZONE OF THE PENZA REGION
I.F. Dyomina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, senior research worker, tel. +79374133170, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; V.G. Krivobochek, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, chief research worker, tel. +79042668573, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Penza Agricultural Institute – a branch of the Federal State Budget Scientific Institute "Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops"

The problem of creating highly productive varieties of spring wheat with good quality of grain, adapted to the conditions of the forest-steppe zone, is relevant for the Penza region. The paper considers the results of studying a new breeding material of soft spring wheat in competitive variety testing in the forest-steppe zone of the Penza region for the main economically valuable traits. The studies were conducted in 2017-2018 on the fields of the department of selection of grain crops of the Penza Agricultural Institute. On average, for two years of study, the yield varied from 1.85...3.96 t/ha. An excess over the standard yield had the following lines – Erythrospermum 70/04-3 (3.96 t/ha), Erythrospermum 43/08-9 (3.77 t/ha), Erythrospermum 78/03-28 (3.66 t/ha), Erythrospermum 20/08-7 (3.62 t/ha), Erythrospermum 76/03-6 (3.61 t/ha) and variety Tulaikovskaya 108 (3.62 t/ha). The outlined promising lines belong to mid-season varieties. According to plant height, they are classified as undersized forms (86...105 cm). During the period of research, the varieties and lines formed a mass of 1000 grains from 29.1 to 42.1 g, of the most promising lines, the largest grain formed Erythrospermum 78/03-28. All promising samples had indicators of high quality: vitreousness, grain unit, gluten and protein content in grain belonged to the second quality group. The Erythrospermum 78/03-28 line was distinguished by a set of indicators, which, along with a high yield (3.66 t/ha), was distinguished by high indicators of grain quality.
Key words: soft spring wheat, lines, yield, growing season, raw gluten, lodging resistance.

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Veterinary and zootechny


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.008

SELENIUM AS A MODULATOR OF BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF ANIMAL ORGANISM
L.B. Zavodnik1, Candidate of Medicine; D.B. Voloshin2, post-graduate, OAO «Biocom»; E.S. Skrobko2, junior research assistant; T.N. Budko2, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor; A.M. Khokha2, Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor; R.N. Lyakh2, junior research assistant; B. Palech3, Doctor of Chemistry, professor; A. Shimkus4, Doctor of Biomedical Sciences, professor 1Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno, Belarus, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 2Grodno State Agrarian University, Belarus 3University of Lodz, Poland 4Small enterprise “Bioagrovet”, Kaunas, Lithuania

Selenium derivatives have a multifaceted effect on blood biochemical parameters of various animal species. An increase in total protein and its fractions and a decrease in hepatic tension were noticed in the experiment. This showed the active role of selenium in the modulation of the biochemical response of the body to its introduction from the outside. The manifestation of the properties of the inorganic, organic and chelated forms of the microelement was tested on various types of mammals. It was of the same type, although in varying degrees, in rats, piglets and sows, calves and dairy cows. Selenopyran, an organic compound, had a more notable effect compared to an inorganic preparation and microelement-containing yeast. This phenomenon must be taken into account when growing a healthy animal under conditions of selenium deficiency in the biogeochemical provinces of the territory of Belarus and the western part of Russia. Thus, selenium preparations should take their place both in the process of growing a healthy productive animal, and in the practice of modern therapeutic veterinary medicine.
 Key words: selenopyran, sodium selenite, Selenium yeast, biochemical blood test, rat, pig, cattle.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.009

EFFECT OF ECHINACEA PURPUREA ON BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MEAT POULTRY HATCHING EGGS
A.I. Daryin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor; N.N. Kerdyashov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor; A.A. Naumov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor; T.V. Shishkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +79061567215, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The effect of a plant stimulator, Echinacea purpurea, on the biochemical parameters of hatching eggs was studied. The study was conducted in laying hens of Cobb-500 broiler parent flocks under conditions of AO Vasilyevskaya Poultry Factory of Penza Oblast. Study showed a significant effect of Echinacea purpurea supplementation to the basic ration on the content of carotenoids and vitamins in the hatching eggs of the parent broiler flock. It was found that the content of most vitamins and carotenoids in the eggs increased with bird’s age. It was noted that the stimulating supplement had positive effect on the content of vitamins in the 32 and 38 weekold laying hens, with the exception of tocopherol. The average content of tocopherol in the experimental groups of 32 and 45 week-old birds was lower than that of the control group. At 45 weeks of age, laying hens showed a decrease in retinol and riboflavin in the eggs of an experimental bird compared to the control group. The decrease was the result of a more intensive increase in the egg productivity of the experimental birds compared to the control group. When analyzing the acid value, it was found that this indicator was lower in young layers, at the beginning of the experiment, and increased with age, but it did not go beyond the limits of the norm. So at 32 weeks of age, the average acid value was 5.701, at 38 weeks of age – 5.799, and at 45 weeks of age – 5.898 mg KOH/g.
Key words: laying hens, parent broiler flock, albumen, egg yolk, carotenoids, vitamins.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.010

BIOSYNTHESIS OF MILK COMPONENTS WHEN VARYING THE LEVEL OF READILY AVAILABLE CARBOHYDRATES IN COWS DIETS
E.L. Kharitonov, Doctor of Biological Science, professor; D.E. Panyushkin, Candidate of Biological Science; Z.N. Makar, Doctor of Biological Science All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Physiology, Biochemistry and Nutrition of Animals, Borovsk, Kaluga Region, Russia e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The relationship between metabolic indicators, the functional state of the mammary gland, the level of vitamins and milk production indicators of lactating cows were studied. It was established that with a higher level of starch content in the diet, the mammary gland's absorption of glucose (p <0.05), triacylglycerols, amino acids increased, as well as the fat content in milk and the average daily milk yield. Quantitative data on the absorption of the main milk precursors by the mammary gland in highly productive cows with a different composition of readily available carbohydrates in their diet were obtained. The use in diets of lactating cows of a higher level of starch in the composition of readily available carbohydrates (84:16 versus 57:43) in the period of milk yield increasing (or the first phase of lactation) increased the average daily milk yield of 3.8% fat from 27.9 to 30 kg or 10.8%. The obtained new experimental data will be used to develop physiological criteria for the nutrition of highly productive dairy cattle.
Key words: lactating cows, rumen fermentation, substrates of milk synthesis, milk productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.011

CONDITION AND PERSPECTIVES OF PORK PRODUCTION IN RUSSIA
V.M. Zimnyakov, Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor; * A.A. Kurochkin, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; E.N. Varlamova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 628-359, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. *FSBEI HE PenzSTU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 49-56-99, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The importance of pork as the main raw material for the meat processing industry in Russia is noted. The production of all kinds of meat was considered in Russia in 2017. The number of pigs is presented by categories of farms in Russia in 2013-2017. The largest number of pigs in 2017 is accounted for by agricultural organizations – 19.85 million pigs. Based on the analysis of pig industry research, the dynamics of pork production in Russia is presented in slaughter weight by farm categories in 2013-2017. In 2017, Russia produced 3509 thousand tons of pork in slaughter weight, which is 5% more than in 2016. The proportion of pigs for slaughter in live weight was 32.1% of the total livestock and poultry. The main contribution to the growth of pork production was made by the 20 largest campaigns in the industry. Their share was 61.8% of the total industrial production. The average meat consumption per capita in Russia in 2017 increased by about 3% and amounted to 75 kg, while the average consumption of pork was 25.7 kg/person. Analyzing the structure of meat consumption in 2017 per person by type of raw materials, it can be noted that pork has become a growth driver of meat consumption, in 2018 this trend remained high. The development strategy of pig industry suggests that opening further export markets is a prerequisite for further significant development of the industry.
Keywords: analysis, dynamics, meat, volume, pig breeding, production, livestock, consumption, market, structure, raw materials, export.

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ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.012

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF A ROLLER SEEDING MECHANISM FOR CROPS OF A GRAIN CROP SEEDER
N.P. Lariushin, Doctor of Engineering Science, professor; A.V. Shukov, Candidate of Engineering Science, assistant-professor; T.A. Kiriukhina, Candidate of Engineering Science, assistant-professor; A.V. Abakumov, post-graduate FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia tel. +7 (8412) 62-85-17, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The seeding mechanism is one of the most responsible working bodies of the seeder for sowing crops. In order to obtain high and stable yields, the sowing devices must ensure the following: a continuous and uniform seed flow, the stability of the established seeding rate, the possibility of sowing seeds of various crops, minimal damage to the sown seeds, easy and convenient installation at a given seeding rate. Studies dedicated to improving the quality of sowing crops by improving the technological process of operation of the coil sowing apparatus are relevant and have important economic importance for the agroindustrial complex of Russia. The article presents the design and principle of operation of the developed roller seeding mechanism, which sectional coil grooves of are made in the shape of a torus, providing longitudinal stability of sowing seeds of grain crops, uniform distribution of seeds along the row and reducing injuries to seeds of cultivated crops. Because the grooves of the sectional coil are made in the form of a torus, this maximizes the working volume of the sectional coil, makes it possible to reduce the frequency of rotation of the sectional coil, the instability of the general seeding rate, improve the uniformity of seed distribution along the length of the row, reduce damage to the seeds and increase the yield of the cultivated crop.
Key words: sectional coil, roller seeding mechanism, working volume, seeds, grooves of the coil are made in the form of a torus.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.013

SINGLE-POINT ENRICHMENT OF AIR CHARGE OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING DIESEL WITH LIQUID ACTIVATORS
D.A. Ukhanov*, Doctor of Engineering Science, professor; A.P. Ukhanov, Doctor of Engineering Science, professor; M.V. Ryblov, Candidate of Engineering Science, assistant-professor; * FAO «25th State Scientific Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation», Moscow FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-85-17, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

An effective way to intensify the working process of diesel engines of automotive engineering is to enrich the air charge by supplying a certain dose (10–20%) of a hydrocarbon activator (alcohol, gasoline, kerosene, mineral diesel fuel or mixed vegetable-mineral fuel) to the engine intake pipeline in the intake stroke. For the practical implementation of this method, a single-point enrichment system for an air charge of a diesel engine has been developed. It contains an activator tank with a 10-20% volume of the tractor's tank, an activator filter, an electric pump, an electromagnetic nozzle, an electronic control unit and sensors. The results of comparative motor studies of diesel without enrichment and with enrichment of the air charge with various activators show that single-point enrichment using an electromagnetic nozzle installed at the entrance of the intake manifold improves the power, fuel, economic and environmental performance of the diesel.
Key words: automotive engineering, diesel, intake manifold, nozzle, liquid activator, single-point enrichment of air charge, electronic control unit, sensors.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.014

DISTRIBUTED ENRICHMENT OF AIR CHARGE OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING DIESELS WITH LIQUID ACTIVATORS
M.V. Ryblov, Candidate of Engineering Science, assistant-professor; A.P. Ukhanov, Doctor of Engineering Science, professor; D.A. Ukhanov*, Doctor of Engineering Science, professor FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia * FAO «25th State Scientific Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation», Moscow tel. (8412) 628 517, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

To intensify the working process of diesel engines of automotive engineering, to improve power, fuel, economic and environmental performance, a distributed method of enriching the air charge in the intake stroke with a 10 ... 20% dose of liquid activator (gasoline, alcohol, kerosene, etc.) is proposed. To implement this method, an electronic system of distributed enrichment of the diesel air charge was developed. It contains a filter, an electric pump, electromagnetic nozzles, a ramp, a pressure regulator, a fuel consumption sensor (a meter of motor fuel mass flow), a phase sensor and an electronic control unit (ECU). The general arrangement of the main system units and the principle of their operation are described. The formulas for programming the ECU that controls the operation of electromagnet nozzles are given. The results of experimental studies found that with distributed enrichment of the air charge of a tractor diesel D-243-648, depending on the activator dose and load-speed mode of operation, the activator cycle supply can be from 1 mg / cycle to 13 mg / cycle, while the duration of control pulses generated by the ECU varies from 0.27 ms to 3.5 ms. The developed system provides high-quality distribution of the activator-air mixture across the cylinders of a diesel engine in the intake stroke and automatic metering of the activator depending on the load and speed modes of the engine.
Key words: automotive engineering, diesel, intake channels, air charge enrichment, activator, irregularity, distributed system, electric pump, ramp, electromagnetic injector, electronic control unit, sensors, algorithm.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.015

IMPROVING THE FUEL ECONOMY OF CARGO CARS WITH CARBURETTIC ICE IN MODE INDIVIDUAL IDEAL PROCESS
A.V. Guschin1, graduate student; D.A. Ukhanov2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; A.P. Ukhanov1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor 1FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7(8412) 62-85-17, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; 2FUA "25 State Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defense of Russia", Moscow, Russia

To improve the fuel efficiency of trucks with gasoline carburetor internal combustion engines in self-idling mode, a device has been developed that ensures automatic engine operation by periodically repeated short-term cycles consisting of alternating shutdown cycles and fuel (or an fuel-air mixture) switching cycles through the output channel of idle carburetor system in the field of low frequencies of rotation of the cranked shaft (c.s.). The device consists of an electronic control unit (ECU), an electrical- pneumatic valve, a sensor of rotation velocity of c.s. of ICE, accelerator sensor and gearshift lever neutral sensor, electrically interconnected and with the power source by electrical wires through plug connectors. The ECU block is located in the cab of the car and is powered by direct current from the electrical system on board. It includes a voltage regulator, a signal amplifier, a one-shot (Schmidt trigger), a microcontroller, and a power switch (toggle switch).
Keywords: gasoline carburetor internal combustion engine, self-idling mode, fuel shutdown cycle, fuel switching cycle, fuel consumption, electronic control unit, sensors.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.016

RESULTS OF STAND TESTS FOR WEAR RESISTANCE OF PLOUGHSHARE AFTER STRENGTHENING WITH ELECTROMECHANICAL HARDENING
A.V. Morozov, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor; S.N. Petryakov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor; A.L. Ignatov, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor; I.D. Fedotov, 4th year student of engineering faculty FSBEI HE Ulianovsk SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8422) 55-95-97, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The work analyzed the conditions for testing the plowshares for wear resistance, on the basis of which a test stand is proposed and a description of its design features is given. The methods and results of comparative wear tests of samples of standard plowshares and plowshares strengthened by electromechanical hardening are given. Tests have confirmed the high efficiency of electromechanical hardening to increase the wear resistance of plowshares. Regression equations in natural and coded values are obtained, which determine the influence of independent factors on the wear of plowshare samples after electromechanical hardening.
Key words: plowshare, electromechanical hardening, stand tests, wear, factors.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.017

THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE MOVEMENT STABILITY OF ROTARY TILLER WITH PLOW DURING TILLAGE
V.F. Kupryashkin, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor; A.S. Ulanov, graduate student FSBEI HE Ogarev Mordovia State University, Saransk, Russia, tel. +79093248392, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Research analysis of labour saving device operation shows that the object of perturbations of the rotary tiller during the main tillage is its working body, in this case the plow, which is acted upon by normal and tangential forces. Thus, for a more complete analysis of the influence of the plow when interacting with the cultivated soil on the stability of the rotary tiller, an integrated approach was used to consider the main issues of kinematics and the dynamics of the working body, taking into account the features of the structural and technological parameters of the rotary tiller.
Keywords: Tillage, rotary tiller, plow, stability of movement, slipping, friction force.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.018

THEORETICAL CALCULATION OF CERTAIN PARAMETERS OF A COMBINED COULTER
A.N. Kalabushev, graduate student; N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; V.V. Shumaev, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-85-17, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

It is known that the uniform distribution of seeds and fertilizers over the depth and length of the row is the most important indicator when sowing grain seeds. Existing drill coulters for sowing seeds of grain crops do not fully meet these requirements. A solution to one of the actual problems of sowing crops with simultaneous fertilization is considered – laying the seeds on a compacted bed while excluding their contact with the furrow walls and without dropping the furrows during the laying of seeds and fertilizers, which affects the uniform distribution of seeds along the row and fertilizers seeding depth and, as a result, crop yield. For this purpose, theoretical studies of the inclination angle of the seeding channel and the width of the seedbed firmer were carried out, and the density of the soil at the bottom of the furrow was calculated. When these conditions are met, the seeds and fertilizers do not bounce off the furrow walls and lie on the firmed seedbed evenly, as a result the crop yield is increased. The authors have developed and manufactured a new type of combined coulter, which eliminates all the described disadvantages [1, 2].
Keywords: uniform distribution of seeds and fertilizers, quality of sowing, combined coulter, inclination angle, speed of fertilizer movement, seedbed firmer.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.019

FIELD STUDY OF A SEED DRILL WITH ROLLER FEED WITH TORUS SHAPED COIL GROOVES
N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; A.V. Shukov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor; T.A. Kiryukhina, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor; A.V. Abakumov, graduate student; FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-85-17, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article describes the experimental seed drill with a roller feed with the torus shaped sectional coil grooves, and also presents the results of field studies of the experimental seed drill. Information obtained contains experimental dependences of the uneven distribution of seeds along the row during Belgorodsky 100 spring barley sowing on the frequency of rotation of the coil, on the radius of the torus circle, as well as on the thickness of the separating disks of the roller feed with the torus shaped sectional coil grooves. Field studies were carried out by comparing SZ-5.4 basic seed drill with an experimental seed drill equipped with a new roller feed with the torus shaped sectional coil grooves. As shown by the test results, an experimental seed drill with roller feed with the torus shaped sectional coil grooves, performs the sowing process of Belgorodsky 100 spring barley consistently while observing agrotechnical requirements. At optimal values of indicators, instability of the general seeding rate, uniform distribution of seeds along the length of a row, damage to seeds is reduced and crop yields are increased.
Keywords: roller feed, sectional coil, seeder, torus shaped grooves, spring barley seeds, Belgorodsky 100.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.1.1.020

IMPROVING THE RELIABILITY OF HYDROSYSTEMS OF LAND RECLAMATION MACHINES BY ENSURING THE PURITY OF WORKING LIQUIDS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN
E.G. Rilyakin1, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor; S.A. Zhestkova1, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor; I.N. Syomov2, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor; Sh.I. Kodirov1, student FSBEI HE Penza SUAC1 tel. +79272866907 e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. FSBEI HE Penza SUA2 tel. +79374091311 e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents an assessment of the impact of contaminated working fluid of hydraulic systems of land reclamation machines on the efficiency of the equipment operation in the Republic of Tajikistan. The main factors affecting the change in the resource of these machines are considered. The most typical reasons for the ingress of solid particles into the cavities of transport-technological machines are identified. The influence of these particles on the processes of wear in the hydraulic equipment interfaces has been established. To ensure the purity of working fluids in the design of hydraulic systems of reclamation machines it is proposed to use centrifugal cleaners, the method of calculating the design and technological parameters of which are also given in the text of the scientific article.
Keywords: working fluid, contamination, reclamation machines, hydraulic system, reliability, centrifugal cleaning.

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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Agronomy


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.001

DUST STORMS IN THE VOLGOGRAD REGION, THEIR MANIFESTATION AND PREVENTION
A.M. Belyakov, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor, tel. +79272551674, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; Yu.I. Vasiliev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, tel. +79880149329, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; S.Yu. Turco, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, tel. +79610643117, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; M.V. Nazarova, tel. +79610646927, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Federal Research Center of Agroecology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

The article presents long-term observational materials on the frequency and intensity of dust storms on the territory of the Volgograd region. A map chart of the number of dust storms in the designated territory is made, and the reasons for their occurrence are also considered. It is shown in which cases the damage from them will be great, the thought about the necessary measures to prevent dust storms is clearly carried out. It is indicated how forest-reclamation measures should be tied to the danger that exists for this part of the region with specific soil and climatic conditions. The structure of the territory according to the wind-erosion potential is given in detail. Map charts on the soil erodibility of the Volgograd region will also be useful for choosing measures for protecting the soil from wind erosion. The dust storm climatology and the volume losses due to deflation, that were identified during dust storm manifestation in 1969, 1972, 1984 and 2015, as well as summary results of this article, undoubtedly expand and specify knowledge about deflation patterns, about mechanisms of deflationary adverse natural phenomena, reveal a number of previously unclear questions about the role of forest reclamation in areas prone to deflation and reveal how the parameters of forest belt systems need to be adapted to the specific conditions of the wind erosion development.
Keywords: soil deflation, dust storms, climatology, forest shelter belts, distribution, factors, orography, number, recurrence rate, erodability.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.002

INFLUENCE OF AVAILABLE MOISTURE ON THE STRUCTURAL INDICATORS AND YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT AND SPRING BARLEY DEPENDING ON THE METHODS OF MAIN SOIL TREATMENT UNDER ADAPTIVE PLANTS GROWTH SYSTEMS OF THE NORTHERN CASPIAN SEA REGION
А.А. Zibarov, Candidate of Agricultural sciences; К.А. Rodin, Candidate of Agricultural sciences; N.P. Melikhova, Candidate of Agricultural sciences; D.S. Tegesov, Candidate of Agricultural sciences; E.V. Zinchenko, Candidate of Agricultural sciences All-Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Agriculture, Volgograd, Russia, tel. +7 (8442) 60-24-36

The article presents research materials obtained in the Northern Caspian conditions, which allowed to enrich the studied problem with new knowledge and to prove that the maximum supply of spring moisture was accumulated in variants of chisel processing with the working bodies of the “Rancho” with loosening up to 0.35 m and plowing with a PN-4-35 plow to a depth of 0.20-0.22 m, which averaged over the years of the experiments was 48.3 and 47.7 mm, respectively. The minimum stock of productive moisture was accumulated in the variant of surface tillage and amounted to 44.6 mm. By the end of the summer, these differences became almost equal. Thus, in the variant of chisel processing with the working bodies of the “Rancho” with loosening up to 0.35 m in August, on average, 39.2 mm remained for the research years, and in the variant of the surface tillage with a BDT-3 to a depth of 0.10-0.12 m – 31.8 mm. In the variant of chisel processing with the working bodies of the “Rancho” with loosening up to 0.35 m, all individual indicators of winter wheat and spring barley were the greatest. Also, in this variant of tillage, the maximum yield was obtained both for winter wheat and spring barley, and on average for the research years it was 1.82 and 1.41 t/ha, respectively. In the variant of surface tillage with BDT-3 to a depth of 0.10-0.12 m, it was minimal and amounted to 1.29 and 0.76 t/ha, respectively.
Key words: adaptive farming systems, methods of basic tillage, biometric indicators, yield, winter wheat, spring barley. 

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.003

INFLUENCE OF PLACEMENT METHODS ON PRESERVATION AND QUALITY OF JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE TUBERS WHEN STORING IN CONDITIONS OF A VEGETABLE STOREHOUSE
A.S. Kataev, post-graduate student; E.A. Renyov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor; S.L. Eliseev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor FSBEI HE Perm SATU, Perm, Russia, tel. +79028076776, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents data from two years of research to identify the most optimal of traditional methods of storing Jerusalem artichoke tubers of the Skorospelka variety. As part of the study, the following methods of storage tubers were studied: a polypropylene bag, a plastic box, and a bulk in a vegetable storehouse with unregulated conditions. Shelf life was 102 and 194 days. In the first year of storage, the weight loss of the tubers was 16.4-22.5%. In the second year, the highest storeability of the tubers was recorded when stored in bags; the weight loss was 5%. The method of storage of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in polypropylene bags in some years provided less damage from diseases and the storeability was 49-64% higher compared with storage in a bulk and in plastic boxes. The method of storing tubers of Jerusalem artichoke in a bulk contributed to their wilting by 1.7-5.8% compared with storage in bags and boxes. During storage of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in boxes, their carbohydrate complex was destroyed to a lesser extent. The fiber content in terms of absolutely dry matter was reduced by 0.2-2.5%, or 0.9-1.1% less than when stored in bags and in a bulk. The content of watersoluble carbohydrates was 2.5-4.8%, which was 3.3-7.4% less than during storage in a bulk. According to the results of research, the most optimal of the traditional methods of Jerusalem artichoke tubers storage was the storage in bags.
Key words: Jerusalem artichoke tubers, method of storage, habit, storeability, biochemical composition.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.004

INFLUENCE OF PLANTING TIME AND TYPES OF THE PLANTING MATERIAL ON THE SURVIVABILITY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF COMMON HOP (Humulus lupulus L.)
A.V. Korotkov, Candidate of agricultural sciences, assistant-professor, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; Z.P. Korotkova, junior research worker, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; N.N. Pushkarenko, Candidate of technical sciences, assistant-professor, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. FSBEI HE Chuvash State Agricultural Academy, Cheboksary, Russia

In hop production, the time of the planting and the type of planting material are of great importance, mainly because the condition of the hop plant and the care technology during the growing season in the first and subsequent years depend on the time of the planting and the material used. The article presents data on the results of research when planting new hopyard with different types of planting material and the time of their planting. Under production conditions, shortening the period of low market fruiting and obtaining a good harvest of cones in the second year are possible only when using annual seedlings as planting material. In the first year, the survivability and yield of plants during the autumn planting by annual seedlings is higher than during the spring one. In the second and third years of planting, the dependence of the crop on the type of planting material used was maintained. In less favorable years survival rate decreased, and in more favorable years it increased. The best option for planting hopyards was the autumn planting of annual seedlings in the first and second decades of October, which allowed us to maintain survivability at a high level. For novice farmers and enterprises, in order to save money, stem cuttings can be used as planting material when laying hopyards. During the period prior to the beginning of abundant fruiting of hops, the duration of which is two years from planting, it is possible to resolve the issues of acquiring the necessary hop growing equipment, ensuring the production of a hop harvester and a dryer.
Key words: planting material, stem cutting, annual seedlings, spring and autumn planting, survivability, yield, fruiting.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.005

ASSESSMENT OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MINERAL NUTRITION
V.V. Koshelyaev1, Doctor of agricultural sciences, professor; V.I. Salnikov2, post-graduate student; I.P. Koshekyaeva1, Doctor of agricultural sciences, assistant-professor 1FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-73, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; 2Branch of the Federal State Budget Institution "Rosselkhoz Center" in the Penza Region, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 35-26-50, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The introduction of varieties, that are capable of maximizing the resources of the technology of their cultivation into production, is a promising, environmentally safe and economically beneficial direction of development of grain production. The aim of the work is to assess and identify winter wheat varieties that can realize the potential of grain yield at various levels of intensification of mineral nutrition. To achieve this goal, two factorial field experience was carried out. Factor A – varieties of winter wheat, factor B – levels of mineral nutrition. As a result, it was found that, on average, over the years of the research, the highest grain yield of winter wheat varieties was formed with a combination of applying fertilizer N16 P16 K16 in autumn when sowing and N68 in top dressing in spring. Over the years of research the Skipetr and Moskovskaya 56 varieties formed higher yields – 6.1 and 6.0 t/ha, respectively. The yield of varieties Nemchinov 57 and Clavdia 2 was lower and amounted to 5.6 t/ha. The grain yield of the Bezenchukskaya 380 and Fatinya varieties was formed somewhat lower – 5.4 and 5.1 t/ha, respectively.
Key words: winter wheat, varieties, yield, mineral nutrition, fertilizer.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.006

INFLUENCE OF COMPLEX SULFUR-CONTAINING MICROELEMENT FERTILIZERS ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF MILK THISTLE (SILIBUM MARIANUM) IN CONDITIONS OF THE FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
A.N. Kshnikatkina, Doctor of agricultural sciences, professor; S.A. Kshnikatkin, Doctor of agricultural sciences, professor; P.G. Alenin, Doctor of agricultural sciences, professor; I.A. Voronova, Candidate of agricultural sciences, assistant-professor FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. 8(8412)62-81-51, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies on the influence of exogenous seed treatment and foliar dressing of grass stand with complex sulfur-containing microelement fertilizers on seed productivity, technological and biochemical properties of the fruit of the milk thistle of the variety Debut. The greatest positive effect was achieved with the exogenous treatment of milk thistle seeds with a complex sulfurcontaining fertilizer Megamix-Zinc, the fruit yield – 1.23 t/ha, increase – 0.34 t/ha (38.2%); the content of oil – 35.9%; of protein – 29.8 and 7.0%; in relation to the control it increased by 7.6%, the content of essential amino acids was 149.5 mg/g of DM (dry matter) (in control – 124,0 mg/g of DM). With double foliar top dressing of milk thistle crops during the rosette and budding phase, the fruit yield amounted to 1.06-1.19 t/ha, in relation to the control it increased by 0.17-0.3 t/ha; oil content – by 2.9-7.0%, protein – by 1.4-2.9%. The highest yield of milk thistle seeds of 1.47 t/ha was obtained with foliar dressing of plants and seed treatment with Megamix-Zinc. The oil content was 35.3%, protein – 25.4%, flavonolignans – 3.06%, acid number – 0.28.
Key words: milk thistle, complex sulfur-containing microelement fertilizers, yield, seed productivity, technological and biochemical properties.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.007

YIELD AND QUALITY OF SPRING TRITITICALE GRAIN WHILE USING NANOKREMNIY AND SILIPLANT IN CONDITIONS OF FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
A.N. Kshnikatkina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; S.A. Kshnikatkin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; P.G. Alenin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; A.A. Dolzhenko, post-graduate FSBEI HE Penza SAU, tel. 8(8412) 62-81-51, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

NanoKremniy and Siliplant preparations stimulated growth processes, which contributed to an increase in the parameters of photosynthesis of spring triticale agrocenoses. The maximum values of the leaf surface – 34.6 thousand m2/ha, of the photosynthetic potential – 1.82 million m2 days/ha, of the net productivity of photosynthesis – 3.26 g/m2 per day, of the ear grain size – 36-38, of grain weight per spike – 1.2-1.3 g were observed during seed treatment and double foliar top dressing in the tillering and heading phase with the NanoKremniy preparation. When presowing seed treatment was used, the highest grain yield of triticale (4.05 t/ha on average over three years) was obtained using the preparation NanoKremniy. A reliable increase in the control amounted to 0.8 t/ha (32.5%). Silicon-containing preparations NanoKremniy and Siliplant contribute to improving the technological properties of spring triticale grains. Indicators of the grain unit on the variants of experience amounted to 776-781 g/l. The greatest indicator of the grain unit (781 g/l) was when the preparation NanoKremniy was used for seed treatment. The grain hardness in relation to the control increased by 4.0-11.0%, the content of raw gluten – by 1.5- 2.1%, of protein – by 2.7-3.1%. Foliar plant nutrition with silicon-containing preparations in different phases of the growing season had a significant impact on increasing yields and improving the technological properties of spring triticale Ukro grain. On average, over three years, the yield of grain according to the variants of the experiment was 34.4-4.49 t/ha, the increase relative to the control was 0.39-1.43 t/ha (12.5-48.6%). The highest grain yield (4.49 t/ha) was obtained by double feeding with the preparation NanoKremniy during the tillering and heading stages, the grain yield increase was 1.43 t/ha (48.6%). The maximum indicators of the technological properties of spring triticale grain were obtained by double foliar fertilization of plants with the NanoKremniy preparation: grain unit – 792 g/l, hardness – 62%, raw gluten – 26.2%, protein – 15.8%.
Key words: spring triticale, microelement fertilizers Siliplant and NanoKremniy, yield, technological properties of grain.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.008

THE FORMATION OF SAFFLOWER AGROCOENOSIS IN THE CONDITIONS OF FOREST-STEPPE OF MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
A.N. Kshnikatkina2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; T.Y. Prakhova1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences; A.A. Shchanin2, post-graduate 1FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, workers settlement Lunino, Russia 2FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia

The purpose of the research was to study the formation of productive agrocoenosis of safflower in the conditions of the Middle Volga region. The studies were conducted in 2015-2018 on the fields of the Penza Institute of Agriculture. The growing season of safflower in 2015 proceeded in insufficiently moistened conditions with HTC – 0.76, with an average daily temperature of 21.3 °C. In 2016, the vegetative period of safflower proceeded in moderately moistened conditions with HTC – 1.1 and an average daily temperature of 20.1°C. The vegetation period of 2017 was characterized as insufficiently moistened with HTC – 0.82 units. The conditions of 2018 were severe, HTC was only 0.4. The seedlings of the culture appeared in nine days. After 71 days, the flowering phase began, it lasted on average about 30 days. The duration of the period from flowering to ripeness of safflower was 36 days. The growing season of safflower in the conditions of the Middle Volga region averages 116 days. Field germination of safflower varied within 71.2-77.6%, the safety of plants for harvesting ranged from 93.6 to 96.5%. The largest leaf area of safflower was formed during the flowering phase (22.9-26.8 thousand m²/ha). The value of the photosynthetic potential ranged from 1.98 to 2.55 million m² × day/ha. The highest net productivity of photosynthesis was observed in 2018 and 2016 and amounted to 2.95 and 2.99 g/m² × day, respectively. Safflower, on average over four years, formed a fairly high and stable yield: 1.19 and 1.32 t/ha. The maximum yield of safflower seeds was obtained in 2016 and averaged 1.32 t/ha. Key words: safflower, yield, growing season, field germination, photosynthetic activity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.009

USAGE OF A NEW PLANT PRODUCTIVITY INDEX FOR EVALUATION OF WINTER WHEAT BREEDING MATERIAL
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor; M.A. Basieva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; E.S. Miroshnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; V.B. Abiev, junior research worker North Caucasus Research Institute of Hill and Foothill Agriculture – a branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science of the Federal Scientific Center "Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences", tel. +7 (8672) 23-04-20 e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

An important problem in the selection process is to increase the efficiency of selection of a selection material on the basis of productivity using selection indexes. We used the most popular indexes in breeding practice (Mexican, Canadian, spike linear density index, as well as a new modification of the index – plant productivity index (PPI)) to determine the most effective and informative index indicators to determine the breeding value of winter wheat genotypes in various environmental conditions. The studies were conducted on 120 varieties of winter soft wheat in the foothill zone of the Central Caucasus. As a result of the conducted research, it was established that the greatest information content on productivity in the “genotype-environment” relationship was obtained during the assessment by the PPI index. The correlation analysis revealed reliable relationships between the yield of winter wheat variety samples and the plant productivity index, which showed the highest value, r = 0.93. Reflecting productivity as a result of genotype-environment interaction, PPI helps to identify resistant genotypes for bio- and abiostressors, which allows preliminary assessment of the adaptive properties of the breeding material, and using the index itself as a marker of adaptability.
Keywords: winter wheat, variety, productivity, selection indexes.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.010

YIELD OF MODERN CHICKPEA VARIETIES DEPENDING ON THE METHOD OF SEEDING AND FORECROPS
G.A. Maslova, post-graduate, junior research worker, tel. +79372500015, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; V.I. Zhuzhukin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, chief research worker; A.N. Astashov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, chief research worker FSBEI HE Saratov SAU, Saratov, Russia FSBSI RusRISC «Rossorgo», Saratov, Russia

The article presents the data of a field experiment on the study of yield of chickpea modern varieties selected at FSBSI RusRISC "Rossorgo" depending on the method of sowing and its forecrop. In the experiment it was found that, depending on a year of the research, the effect of factors in the overall variability of the chickpea varieties yield differed. In 2017, according to the results of a three-factor analysis of variance, it was found that the contribution of factor A to the total variability was 1.32%, that of factor B – 64.00%, of factor C – 4.66%, the interaction A*B – 7.11%, A*C – 2.05%, B*C – 12.23%, A*B*C – 4.80%, the remains (unrecorded factors) – 3.83%. The yield ranking of chickpea varieties was carried out in the following sequence: Benefis> Sfera> Bonus> Sharik> Sokol> Galileo. On the field variant with a 45 cm row spacing and with spring wheat as a forecrop, the Sharik variety formed the highest yield (7.34 t/ha). In 2018, it was found that the contribution of factor A to the overall variability was 8.97%, that of factor B – 43.19%, of factor C – 18.88%, the interaction A*B – 18.77%, A*C – 1, 65%, B*C – 2.03%, A*B*C – 3.97%, the remains (unrecorded factors) – 2.54%. The yield ranking of chickpea varieties was carried out in the following sequence: Bonus> Galileo> Benefis> Sfera> Sharik> Sokol. On the field variant with a row spacing of 70 cm, and with spring barley as a forecrop, the variety Sfera formed the highest yield (3.38 t/ha). In 2017, chickpea varieties significantly differed in seed yield (Benefis, Galileo, Sfera (factor A)), but Bonus and Sokol varieties did not significantly differ in yield from Sharik. In 2018, the chickpea varieties Sharik, Sokol differed significantly, and the Benefis variety did not significantly differ in yield from the Sfera variety and the Galileo variety, and the Bonus variety from the Galileo variety.
Key words: chickpea, variety, factor, interaction, yield, row spacing, forecrop.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.011

ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF WINTER TRITICALE CULTIVATION IN AGRIBUSINESS ENTITIES
E.I. Pozubenkova, Candidate of economic sciences, assistant-professor; A.A. Galiullin, Candidate of agricultural sciences, assistant-professor FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Crop production is one of the fastest growing industries. The production of many types of crop products is profitable and provides positive financial results to agricultural enterprises. However, at present, negative trends continue to appear in the development of the crop growing industry: reduction of agricultural land and sown areas, the formation of their irrational structure, a decrease in the rate of renewal of fixed assets and capital supply, the instability of production volumes of most types of products, the level of profit and profitability of production. In the current natural and economic conditions of the Middle Volga region, the main gross grain harvest should be provided by winter crops. Achieving this goal is envisaged by increasing the sown area of winter grains, increasing their productivity by introducing more advanced cultivation technologies and introducing new promising varieties with stable productivity in different weather conditions. One of the promising crops, at present, is winter triticale – winter-resisting, high-yielding, resistant to a complex of abiotic and biotic environmental factors. Based on the materials of a particular entity of agribusiness, indicators of economic efficiency of production and sale of grain of winter triticale “Krokha” are determined.
Key words: grain crops, winter triticale, winter resistance, high yield, economic efficiency.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.012

PRODUCTIVITY OF GUIZOTIA ABYSSINICA DEPENDING ON SEEDING RATE UNDER CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
T.Ya. Prakhova1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences; A.N. Kshnikatkina2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; A.P. Medvedev2, post-graduate 1FSBSI Federal Scientific Center of Fibre Crops, urban-type settlement Lunino, Russia 2FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia

The aim of the research was to study the productivity of Abyssinian Guizotia depending on seeding rates under conditions of the Middle Volga region. The object of the research was Medea, the new variety of Guizotia. The study of seeding standards was carried out in 2016-2018. Five seeding rates were studied from 1.0 to 3.0 million viable seeds per hectare, with a pitch of 0.5 million viable seeds. The vegetation period of the crop proceeded under conditions of moderate moisture – HTC-1.2 and constituted 111-125 days. The productivity of Guizotia varied in the range of 1.63-1.75 t/ha, depending on the seeding rate. The highest seed yield was observed in the variant with a seeding rate of 2.0 million viable seeds per hectare and constituted 1.75 t/ha. Oil content of seeds ranged from 39.5-40.8%. The higher fat content was in the seeds in the variants with seeding rates of 2.0 and 2.5 million viable seeds per hectare and constituted 40.7-40.8%. Number of capitula per plant varied from 154.8 pieces per variant with a seeding rate of 3.0 million viable seeds/ha to 186.7 units – with a seeding rate of 1.0 million viable seeds/ha. The mass of 1000 seeds varied from 3.41 to 3.65 g. The largest seeds were the Guizotia when sown with a seeding rate of 2.5 and 2.0 million viable seeds per hectare. The optimal seeding rate of Guizotia under conditions of the Middle Volga region is 2.0 and 2.5 million viable seeds per hectare.
Keywords: Guizotia abyssinica, seeding rates, yield, oil content, crop structure

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.013

PRODUCTIVITY OF THE SUNFLOWER DEPENDING ON THE CONDITIONS OF THE RELIEF, SOIL TREATMENT AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS
M.N. Ryazanov, post-graduate student; E.G. Kotlyarova, Doctor of agricultural sciences, assistant-professor Belgorod SAU n.a. V.Ya. Gorin, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The purpose of the research was to identify the optimal combination of soil-protecting and mediumimproving techniques in order to increase the productivity of sunflower when it is cultivated on the slopes of a 3-5° steepness of northern exposure in the formed environmentally sustainable agricultural landscapes of the Central Russian upland of the central black earth. A three-factor experiment was carried out: factor A (relief conditions): 1. Slope 0-3°, 2. slope 3-5° of north exposure; factor B: 1. Plowing (control) – PLN-4-35 to a depth of 25-27 cm, 2. Deep nonmoldboard cultivation – SunFlower to a depth of 25-27 cm, 3. without processing (No-till); factor C: 1. Without fertilizers; 2. Green manure (white mustard); 3. Straw compost (20 t/ha). As a result of research, the effect of differences in relief conditions on the productivity of sunflower was not established. Conducting the main tillage, regardless of the method (moldboard or nonmoldboard) contributed to a significant increase in the yield of sunflower (by 0.2-0.3 t/ha) and oil content of its seeds (by 1.2-1.4%). The positive effect of compost was revealed, especially when it was applied when plowing, which ensured the highest yield of 3.21 t/ha and oil collection (1.66 t/ha). This gave grounds to continue research on other important aspects of sunflower cultivation on the slopes (3-5°) of the northern exposure, including the study of fertility indicators and soil erosion resistance, in order to expand its crops with such lands under the obligatory condition of full development of landscape farming systems.
Key words: sunflower, yield, oil content, tillage, organic fertilizers, landscape farming.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.014

COMPLEX FERTILIZERS AS A FACTOR OF REGULATING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CORN
S.A. Syomina1, Doctor of Agricultural sciences, professor; I.V. Gavryushina1, Candidate of Biological sciences, assistant professor; Yu.A. Syomina2, Candidate of Agricultural sciences 1FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 2FSBSU «Federal Scientific Center of Vegetable Production», Odintsovo, Moscow region

The article presents the results of studies of the effect of foliar treatment with complex water-soluble fertilizers with microelements on morphobiometric indicators and yield of corn, depending on the level of root nutrition. At the first level of improved root nutrition, the foliar treatment of corn with complex fertilizers made it possible to further increase the intensity of the linear growth of plants by 3.6-9.7%, and on the second – by 3.3-9.0% relative to the variants without treatment. The smallest linear increase in soil fertilization at both levels was obtained using Humate+7B. The largest number of developed cobs on fertilized agro-backgrounds were formed by plants with foliar treatment with Cytovit and EcoFus (an increase of 13.5-20.0%), and on an uncomfortable agrofone when using Siliplant universal (an increase of 9.0%). Against the background of natural soil fertility, with the use of complex fertilizers, the weight gain of one plant was 4.8-16.1%. Against the background of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers, an increase of 6.1-12.0% was obtained, and when applying N120􀉊90К60, the increase varied from 6.2 to 14.7%. At all studied levels of root nutrition, the greatest stimulating effect was obtained during the treatment of crops with Cytovit. The best indicators of phytomass yield were recorded for all agricultural backgrounds plants with foliar treatment with Cytovit, the gain to the variants without complex fertilizer was 15.8- 16.5%. EcoFus treatment turned out to be in the second place in terms of efficiency, an increase in green mass of 11.6-14.9% was obtained. The maximum yield of dry matter was formed with the complex use of Ecofus and Cytovit with mineral fertilizers – 17.4-18.0 t/ha.
Key words: corn, mineral fertilizers, microelements, cob, biomass, yield.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.015

COMPETITIVE VARIETY TRIAL OF PROMISING BREEDING MATERIAL OF INDUSTRIAL HEMP
V.A. Serkov, Chief Research Worker, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Penza Institute of Agriculture – a branch of FSBSI FSC for Bast Crops, Russia, Penza region, district Lunino, tel. +7 (84161)-3-18-14, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; R.O. Belousov, Director General of OOO “Konoplex”, tel. +7 (495) 230-05-07, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; R.M. Alexandrov, Director General of OOO "UK Konoplex», tel. +7 (800) 230-05-07, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; O. K. Davydova, Deputy Director General of OOO "UK Konoplex», tel. +7 (800) 222-73-20, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A three-year scientific research was conducted in the comparative assessment of perspective hybrid populations of Central Russian ecotype monoecious industrial hemp in competitive variety trials. The results are hereby presented. The object of the research was three varieties of non-psychotropic industrial hemp, approved for use on the territory of the Russian Federation, and two promising breeding numbers, selected according to the results of preliminary trials of previous years. The goal of the research is to create new highly productive varieties of non-psychotropic monoecious industrial hemp that are adapted to the agro-ecological conditions of the Middle Volga region and possess higher levels, in comparison to the existing varieties, of economically valuable traits, as well as stability of the monoecious property during reproduction, with content of less than 0.1% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The main method of research works is multiple family-group selection according to a complex of selectively valuable features and properties. During the experiment, methods and schematic models generally accepted in breeding research institutions were used. The content of less than 0.1% THC in the upper parts of the inflorescences was taken as the main limiting feature of selection. Following the results of 2018 competitive variety trial cycle of promising breeding numbers, an application was submitted for inclusion of breeding number GP-7/012m under the name “Milena industrial hemp variety” in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation (RF). It is planned to perform the next stage of breeding improvement with a promising breeding number GP- 13/012v in order to increase the yield of common and long fiber in the plant stems. On the basis of the introduction of new breeding varieties of industrial hemp, it is planned to transfer scientific results to various regions of hemp-harvesting of the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation in order to increase their economic development rates, increase competitiveness of their products and ensure import substitution.
Key words: Cannabis sativa, non-psychotropic variety, breeding number, cannabinoid, tetrahydrocannabinol, competitive variety trial, economically valuable feature, oil content, fiber yield.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.016

EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT PROTECTANTS ON HARD SPRING WHEAT DEPENDING ON THE PRECURSOR IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SOUTH FOREST-STEPPE OF WESTERN SIBERIA
Yu.V. Frizen, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; T.V. Gorbacheva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences FSBEI HE Omsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin, Omsk, Russia, tel. +7 (3812) 65-27-63, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies of the influence of chemical preparations (protectants), which preparative form contained various active substances, on the formation of the main elements of the structure of the harvest of hard spring wheat, depending on its precursor. The work makes it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of a disinfectant on hard spring wheat, depending on its precursor in the conditions of the southern forest-steppe of Western Siberia. As a result of the research, it was established that the highest field germination of hard spring wheat sown on clean fallow and of spring rape was provided by the drug Scarlet (76.9 and 71.3%, respectively), and on spring wheat – by Vincite (56.5 %). The lowest intensity of plant damage by root rot was observed in all variants using the drug Lamador. The benefits of clean fallow, like its predecessor, remained unchanged. The lowest susceptibility of hard spring wheat plants to root rot was noted after the clean fallow and was 17%, while for other precursors, this indicator was 33...50%. The affection of plants with root rot had a negative impact on the formation of the main elements of the structure of the crop and as a result significantly reduced the amount of the yield.
Key words: hard spring wheat, root rot, precursor, protectant, yield structure.

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Veterinary and zootechny


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.017

ASSESSMENT OF THE FEMALE CHICKENS OF THE COBB-500 CROSS ON REPRODUCTIVE QUALITIES IN CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
V.N. Burdashkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant Professor А.I. Daryin, Professor T.V. Shishkina, Assistant Professor FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-80, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In breeding work with meat poultry, great attention is paid to the hatching of eggs per layer, as the quantity of broilers produced depends on this indicator. Investigations were carried out in the production conditions of the second-order reproducer of the OAO (OJSC) Vasilievskaya poultry farm in the Bessonovsky district of the Penza region on female birds of the Cobb-500 cross. The parental group of the bird was completed with replacement chickens in the age of 17-18 weeks. We studied the main indicators of egg productivity (egg production on the initial layer for 50 weeks of productivity; weight of eggs, hatching eggs yield and hatching of young animals at the age of 350 days of life, yield of healthy chickens from one parent couple; safety of adult birds and live weight of layers) and morphological indicators of egg quality (weight of eggs, diameter of the air chamber, shape index, specific weight and shell thickness) of female hens at the age of 350 days of life. All indicators were compared with the standard of the Cobb-500 cross. As a result of the conducted research, the efficiency of breeding with the female birds of the Cobb-500 cross was established by reproductive qualities, which ensured more than 140 broilers from one parental pair, with 90.9% of hatching eggs and 83.4% of hatching. The productive qualities of the hens of the parent form of the Cobb-500 cross over all the studied parameters were not inferior to the standard of the cross.
Key words: female of cross Cobb-500, egg production, hatching eggs, egg quality, chickens hatchability.

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ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.018

A DEVICE FOR ADDITIONAL CLEANING OF SUGAR BEET ROOTS
K.Z. Kukhmazov, Doctor of Technical Sciences FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +79273624824, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Materials of the article are devoted to the actual problem – improving the quality of cleaning sugar beet roots. In the conditions of the Middle Volga region, the harvesting of sugar beet begins in the second decade of September, which is characterized by a deterioration of the agro-physical properties of the soil, which leads to a sharp decrease in the quality of harvesting. Therefore, the sugar beet roots require additional cleaning from soil impurities after combine harvesting. The article presents the results of studies on the fractional composition of the heap and size-mass characteristics of the root crops after combine harvesting. A description of the design and principle of operation of the device for additional cleaning of root crops is given, its design and operating parameters are theoretically justified. A prototype has been manufactured and its production verification is given. It was established that at the operating speed of a feed conveyor of 2.0 m/s, the device's performance per hour of clean work was 28.0 tons, while the content of impurities in the cleaned pile did not exceed 8.0%.
Keywords: sugar beet, root crop, soil impurities, beet harvester, device for cleaning root crops, fractional composition of a heap, size-mass characteristic, rotary cleaner, elastic cleaners.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.019

LABORATORY RESEARCH INTO SCREW FEEDER FOR SOWING GRAIN SEEDS
D.V. Sinenkov, external PhD student AO Research and Production Enterprise Rubin, mob.: 89613517798, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of laboratory research into an experimental screw feeder conducted in order to optimize the proposed design, which influences the improvement of the quality of sowing grain seeds. The relevance of the study is due to the improved quality of sowing grain seeds because of the development of a new type of screw feeder and the justification of its design and operating parameters. The main indicator characterizing the quality of sowing is the uneven seed distribution along the length of the row, since this indicator directly affects the yield of the cultivated crop. Conducting a multifactor experiment allowed us to find the optimal values of the outer diameter of the screw helix, pitch of the screw helix, and screw rotation frequency, at which the coefficient of variation of the uneven seed distribution along the row was the smallest. In coded and decoded form, the second order regression equations are presented, which establish the dependence of the coefficient of variation on the abovementioned screw feeder factors. A new type of screw feeder, capable of stacking grain seeds evenly, has been designed and manufactured. Screw feeder was installed and tested in laboratory conditions, based on generally accepted methods in accordance with regulatory standards.
Keywords: uneven seed distribution along the row, design and operating parameters, sowing quality, screw feeder, grain crops.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.2.2.020

IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF EXTRUDATE DEHYDRATION IN A VACUUM CHAMBER OF A MODERNIZED EXTRUDER
D.I. Frolov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, associate professor; A.A. Kurochkin, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, professor; P.K. Garkina, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, associate professor; V.M. Zimnyakov*, Doctor of Economic Sciences, professor; O.N. Kukharev*, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, professor FSBEI HE Penza STU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 49-56-99, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. *FSBEI HE Penza SAU, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-59, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The work of modern models of food extruders goes mainly with passing the extruded material into the environment, which, taking into account the processing of raw materials with high moisture content, leads to insufficient drying of the extrudate. Extrusion of raw materials in vacuum allows to eliminate this drawback. The article presents a theoretical justification for increasing the efficiency of extrudate dehydration in a vacuum chamber of a modernized extruder by computer simulation of the thermal vacuum effect. The Navier-Stokes equation averaged with the addition of Reynolds stresses and the laws of conservation of mass, moment, and energy were used to calculate the flow and heat transfer rates. Computer simulation of a simplified model of a vacuum chamber was performed using the SolidWorks Flow Simulation software module. Geometry was built in SolidWorks CAD. The data obtained by computer simulation of a simplified model of an extruder vacuum chamber confirmed the influence of the thermal vacuum effect on the characteristics of the extruded product. The created vacuum in the zone of ejection of the extruded vegetable raw material from the extruder matrix creates such fluid medium parameters that significantly increase the drying rate of the extrudate, increase its expansion index and contribute to more efficient removal of moisture from this zone.
Keywords: extruder, thermal vacuum effect, matrix die, explosion coefficient, vacuum chamber, volume flow rate.

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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Agronomy


 doi: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.001

EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS ON FORMATION OF AGROCENOSIS DENSITY, SEEDING QUALITIES AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SPRING WHEAT SEEDS
L.V. Karpova, Doctor Agricultural Sciences, professor; A.V. Strogonova, graduate student
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
tel. (8412)628373; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

There is a great shortage of trace elements in the soils of our country, which does not justify the biological potential of the productive indicators of the main crops.
The research objective is the scientific substantiation of the choice of the most effective way of applying complex liquid fertilizers with microelements in chelated form to form the density of agrocenosis, seedlings qualities and biochemical composition of spring wheat seeds.
It was established that, on average, over two years of research, the field germination of spring wheat against the background of natural fertility was in the range of 73.8-78.4%, and against the background of the application of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer it amounted to 73.6-79.3%. The largest number of plants remained for harvesting was noted both against the background without fertilizer application and against the background of mineral nutrition in the variants with seed treatment with Megamix-seeds and Megamix-Profi in the tillering and heading stages – 386 and 388 plants per 1 m2.
Micronutrient fertilizers influenced the weight of 1000 seeds, germination energy, laboratory germination and growth power. When growing this crop against the background of N16P16K16 application, the weight of 1000 seeds increased by 10.1% according to the experimental variants, germination energy – 9.4%, laboratory germination by 6.9%, weight of 100 sprouts – by 17%, and sprout length – 18.9%.
The biochemical composition of the grain shows a supply of the following nutrients: protein, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, the largest amount of which was accumulated in spring wheat grain grown during the treatment of seeds and crops with fertilizers Megamix-seeds and Megamix-Profi.
Keywords: variety, spring wheat, mineral fertilizer, macroelements, microelements, density of agrocenosis, biochemical composition.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.002

ABOUT THE CONTENT OF CADMIUM IN WILD-GROWING FODDER, MEDICINAL, AND FOOD PLANTS OF FORESTS OF THE PENZA REGION
A.I. Ivanov1, Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; M.I. Andreeva2, research worker
1 Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, tel. 896563331761, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2 A branch of the federal budgetary institution “Federal Office for the Safe Storage and Destruction of Chemical Weapons under the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation (military unit 70855) – 1206 facility for storage and destruction of chemical weapons (military unit 21222)”,
Leonidovka village, Penza region, Russia, tel. 89063994748, e-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The objects of the research were samples of soils and herbaceous plants taken in the forest ecosystems of the Penza region, which were analyzed for the total content of cadmium by atomic absorption spectrometry. It was found that in the samples taken from A-horizons of different varieties of grey forest soils, the content of this element was 4-5 times lower than the approximate permissible concentrations (APC). The cadmium concentration in the studied plant species was also significantly lower than the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). Two types of cadmium distribution were recorded fro herbs. In the goatweed, its content was higher in the underground organs, and in the carex – in the leaves. The minimal values were determined for reproductive organs. The cadmium content in the vegetative organs – representatives of various economic groups of feed plants was different. The lowest values were expressed among representatives of the legume family. The average values are determined for species of herbs, the maximum – for cereals. The samples of the biomaterial of various plant species taken in the study area and used as food and medicinal raw materials contained various amounts of the studied element. The minimum values were determined for alder cones, raspberries and strawberries, the maximum – for leaves and blueberries. Thus, fodder, medicinal and food plants procured in the research area were safe for cadmium content.
Key words: pollution, cadmium, grasses, medicinal plants, berries.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.003

STUDIES OF THE POSSIBILITY OF USING MUSHROOM WASTE IN BIOREMEDIATION OF AGRICULTURAL SOILS
G.V. Ilyina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; S.A. Sashenkova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
D.Yu. Ilyin, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State
Agrarian University», Russia, tel. (8412) 62-81-51, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper considers the possibilities of using organic substrates after cultivation mycelial cultures of xylotrophic basidiomycetes for bioremediation of soils contaminated with polyphenolic compounds and heavy metals. A 0.9-3-fold decrease in the integral soil toxicity indicator under the influence of mycelial-substrate complexes (mushroom cultivation and biotechnology waste) was shown. The dynamics of the humus content in soil samples as a result of introducing oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) as a fertilizer was studied. It was found that the content of humus in the experimental variants increased by 0.08-0.14%. At the same time, the use of mushroom cultivation waste as fertilizers made it possible to increase the yield of spring wheat “Tulaykovskaya 10” by 10.7-29.5%.
Key words: bioremediation of soils, xylotrophic basidiomycetes, mycelial cultures, mushroom waste, integral toxicity

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.004

PROTEIN CONTENT IN GRAINS OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MINERAL NUTRITION
V.V. Koshelyaev1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; V.I. Salnikov2, postgraduate; I.P. Koshelyaeva1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. 8(8412) 62-83-73, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2 Branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution «Russian Agricultural Center» in the Penza Region, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 35-26-50, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The main direction of improving the quality of grain is the cultivation of new varieties genetically predisposed to form high quality grain. At the same time, the genetic potential of varieties can only be realized under specific weather conditions and the application of cultivation techniques that favourably affect the growth and development of plants. In these studies, various conditions were created by changing plant nutritional regimes in order to determine the possibilities of varieties to form a grain crop with a high protein content. The purpose of the work was to evaluate and highlight varieties of winter wheat that can realize the potential of grain quality at various levels of intensification of mineral nutrition. To achieve the goal, a two-factor field experiment was carried out. Factor A – winter wheat varieties, factor B – levels of mineral nutrition. As a result, it was established that varieties of winter wheat were characterized by unequal properties to accumulate protein in grain. Variety Claudia 2 was characterized by high activity to accumulate protein when fertilizing. Bezenchukskaya 380, Moskovskaya 56 were characterized by medium activity and Nemchinovskaya 57, Scepter and Fatigna – by low. The application of mineral fertilizers at the rate of N16 P16 K16 during sowing in fall and N68 for top dressing in spring contributed to the formation of grain with a higher protein content in all varieties of winter wheat.
Key words: winter wheat, varieties, protein content, mineral nutrition, fertilizer.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.005

CORN GRAIN PRODUCTIVIY, DEPENDING ON FOLIAR APPLICATION OF POLYNUTRIENT FERTILIZER
P.A. Semina, Doctor Agricultural Sciences, professor; I.V. Gavryushina, Candidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia, tel. (8412)628151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies on the effect of foliage treatment of crops with solutions of complex fertilizers Azosol 36 Extra and Aquarin 5 with micro-elements in chelate form on the structural elements and grain productuvity of early ripening and medium early maize hybrids at various levels of root nutrition. In the variants without mineral fertilizers, after applying complex fertilizers in the 5-leaf phase, the number of grains on a cob increased by 7.0-9.0%, and after double treatment – by 8.0-9.9%, and there is no big difference in hybrids notably. On the fertilized soil, the treatment of crops in the 5-leaf phase of corn with micronutrient fertilizers allowed to increase the number of grains on a cob of the early ripening hybrid Ladozhskiy 191 MB by 7.2-7.5%, and a double application increased the number of grains on a cob by 7.8-8.1 % When treating the crops of the mid-early hybrid Azosol 36 Extra, the growth of full-fledged grains amounted to 3.0-3.9%, and a greater number of grains were formed when microfertilizers were applied in the 5-leaf phase. Aquarin 5 contributed to an increase in the number of grains on a cob by 4.5-5.6%, and the best results were obtained with its double use. After foliar treatment of early ripening hybrid crops with complex microelement fertilizers in the variants without solid mineral fertilizer, the weight of corn cobs increased by 6.4-11.1% with a slight advantage of using Aquarin 5. The use of Azosol 36 Extra on the crops of the Ronaldinio hybrid in a natural soil made it possible to increase the weight of grain from the cobs by 8.3-9.7%, treatment with Aquarin 5 – by 11.1-13.2%, with large increases obtained after the double use of chelated fertilizer. The binary use of Azosol 36 Extra on the crops of the early ripening Ladozhskiy hybrid 191 MV under conditions of improved root nutrition contributed to an additional 8.2% of grain from a cob. Treatment in the 5-leaf phase and the double use of Aquarin 5 increased the weight of the grain of one cob by 8.6-8.7%. In the crops of the mid-early hybrid, the advantage was also for the Aquarin 5 microfertilizer. Its use in the 5-leaf phase increased the weight of a cob grain by 9.1%, and its double use by 10.1%. Azosol 36 Extra provided smaller grain increments – 5.2-6.2%, moreover, the difference in treatment time was not significant. A promising way to increase the productivity of corn grain is to use complex fertilizer with microelements in the chelate form Aquarin 5 in the 5-leaf phase and double foliar treatment, which contributes to an increase in grain harvest from a unit area on an unapproved agricultural background by 9.6-12.4%, and with the improvement of root nutrition conditions – by 7.7-8.8%.
Keywords: corn, hybrid, fertilizers, microelements, corn cob, grain, productivity.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.006

PRODUCTIVITY OF MEDIUM EARLY POTATO VARIETIES DEPENDING ON THE APPLICATION OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS AND CHICKEN MANURE
N.P. Chekaev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor; N.V. Koryagina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies on the influence of mineral fertilizers and chicken manure on the productivity of potato tubers of domestic and foreign selection. In the studies conducted in 2017-2019 on leached chernozem under the conditions of the Penza region, it was found that when chicken manure and mineral fertilizers are applied, the yield and quality of tubers increases, which is directly related to the supply of plants with nutrients. The use of chicken manure at a dose of 2 t/ha allowed to increase the total yield of tubers of the studied varieties of potatoes by 22.6-29.5%, marketable tubers by 24.3-35.5% compared with the variant without fertilizers. The highest yields were observed in variants with the combined use of carbamide in a dose of N30 and potassium sulfate at a dose K60 and in variants with a combined use of ammophos at a dose N30P30K30 and potassium sulfate at a dose K30. The use of moderate doses of mineral fertilizers and chicken manure at a dose of 2 t/ha increases not only the productivity of potato tubers, but also the content of dry matter, starch and nitrates in the tubers, not exceeding the MAC value. The combined use of nitrogen-potassium and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers with the addition of potassium sulfate at doses of K60 and K30 can improve the quality indicators of tubers for all studied varieties.
Keywords: potato varieties, yield, quality of tubers, mineral fertilizers, chicken manure.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.007

LEGAL SUPPORT AND WAYS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF STATE LAND SUPERVISION IN THE PENZA REGION
O.F. Kadykova, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Assistant-Professor; A.P. Duzhnikov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-Professor;
T.N. Chuvorkina, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Assistant-Professor; A.V. Dolbilin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. (8-412) 628338, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the system of legal support for the organization of land supervision at the regional level, the results of the analysis of the activities of state inspectors on the use and protection of land in the Penza region are presented, violations of land legislation are presented, the main directions for improving the effectiveness of land supervision are identified. The analysis of legal sources on the studied problem showed that in the implementation of state land supervision regulatory and legal acts of different levels are applied. According to existing legislation, state land supervision is carried out by specially authorized federal executive bodies. Among departments, the Federal State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography Service (hereinafter referred to as the Rosreestr) has the largest powers in the field of land supervision.
Based on the analysis of the main indicators of state supervision in the Penza region, the effectiveness of the Rosreestr Directorate is determined. The indicators characterizing the activities of state inspectors of the Rosreestr on the protection and land use for 2015-2018 are considered. Concrete examples of violations of land legislation in the region are given. It was revealed that controversial situations arising in the course of inspections are related to unauthorized occupation of a land plot or its use without appropriate documents. The results of the analysis of the performance indicators of the state inspectors of Rosreestr on the protection and land use in the region indicate that the performance of the state function of state land supervision in the Penza region is within the normal range. The control and supervision measures proposed by the authors allow to improve the effectiveness of land supervision in the Penza region.
Key words: legal regulation, state land supervision, performance of executive authorities.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.008

FORMATION OF THE STRATEGY OF CROP PRODUCTION INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT
S.N. Alekseyeva, Candidate of Economic Sciences, assistant-professor; G.A. Volkova, Candidate of Economic Sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. 8(8412) 628563, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The aim of the article is the study and systematization of factors affecting the formation of a strategy for the innovative development of crop production. In the work were used general and special research methods, as well as strategic planning methods, which provide initial information for making an informed decision about the optimal development strategy using modern applied methodology.
The authors highlighted the directions of the strategy for the development of crop production, which suggest an increase in agricultural production only with the constant introduction of innovations. Based on the materials of an agricultural organization, the article analyzes the external and internal environment, evaluates the factors of the organization’s strategic position.
The formation of the strategy for the innovative development of crop production will contribute to a range of research and development, creation of innovations, their development in order to maximize income and increase the competitiveness of crop production. The relevance of this study also led to the fact that crop production is an important indicator of the country's food security.
Key words: crop production, development strategy, innovation, planning, strategic directions, the external and internal environment of the organization, oil-bearing crops, production program.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.009

INFLUENCE OF EARLY-SPRING FERTILIZING WITH SULPHUR-CONTAINING MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON THE QUALITY OF WINTER WHEAT GRAIN FLOUR
F.A. Mudarisov1, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor; M.K. Sadygova2, Doctor of Technical sciences, professor; E.Sh. Minacheva2, post-graduate student;
A.A. Galiullin3, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University n.a. P.A. Stolypin», Ulyanovsk, Russia, tel. 8(8422) 55-95-47, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Saratov State Agrarian University n.a. N.I. Vavilov», Saratov, Russia, tel. 8 (8452) 23-32-92, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
3 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Penza, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 628-151

Wheat flour obtained from winter soft wheat grain of the Saratovskaya 17 variety, grown under the conditions of leached, medium-power, low-humus, medium loamy black soil of the Middle Volga region of the Russian Federation (Ulyanovsk Region) in 2017-2018 was studied in the work. According to leading experts in the field of plant nutrition, the presence of sufficient sulphur in cultivated plants is the main factor in obtaining high-quality protein compounds. The effect of early spring fertilizing with ammonium nitrate with the addition of ammonium sulfate in the amount of 5 and 10% was studied. The crude gluten content in 2018 grain flour was lower by 4.5-7.0% compared with the 2017 test variants; therefore, the water-absorbing capacity (WAC) in the 2018 test variants was two to three units lower. The use of sulfur-containing fertilizers in the early spring feeding of winter wheat affected the quality of finished products. When applying sulphur-containing fertilizers in the amount of 10%, high porosity, specific volume of bread, and form stability were obtained, which showed the dependence of these indicators on gluten, viscosity, and amylase indices.
Key words: mixolab, test profile, profiler index, gluten index, sulphur fertilizers.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.010

COMPARTMENT DESCRIPTION OF SHELTERBELT FORESTS ON AGRICULTURAL LANDS
S.V. Bogomazov, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor; O.S. Balakireva, student;
E.V. Efremova, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor; O.A. Tkachuk, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor;
A.V. Lyandenburskaya, senior lecturer; A.A. Levin, assistant
Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. (8412) 628546, е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article provides an analysis of economic use of shelterbelt forests on agricultural lands. The aim of the research was a compartment description of shelterbelt forests on the territory of the Volchkovsky village council of the Belinsky district in order to preserve and restore the stock of reclamative afforestating land. In the laboratory conditions, an up-to-date cartographic material was created on the basis of high-resolution and ultra-high-resolution satellite images, visual interpretation was made with the preparation of a vector polygonal layer of the current location of the shelterbelt forests, the number of decrypted objects, their legal status and total area (199.2 ha) were determined. The calculation of the NDVI index showed that the state, not requiring restoration (updating) measures, had 77 forest strips with a total area of 127.1 hectares; a condition requiring restoration (renewal) measures was relevant for 31 forest strips with an area of 70.4 ha; one forest strip with an area of 1.7 hectares was completely lost. A roadmap for the conservation of the stock of reclamative afforestating land was developed.
Keywords: inventory, shelterbelt forests, agricultural land, geographical information systems

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.011

TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATION OF LIQUID NITROGEN AND NITROGEN-CONTAINING FERTILIZERS ON THE BASIS OF KAS-32 IN SEEDING CEREAL AND GRAIN LEGUME CROPS
V.A. Milyutkin1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; A.M. Petrov1, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
O.N. Kukharev2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; N.G. Dluzhevsky3, process engineer, Deputy Director
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Samara State Agrarian University", Russia, tel. 8-927-264-41-88, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia, tel. 8-927-784-79-11, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
3 Public Joint Stock Company KuibyshevAzot, tel. 8-927-784-79-11, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents materials from the laboratory and field studies of the Samara State Agrarian University on the effectiveness of liquid mineral nitrogen and new nitrogen-sulfur fertilizers based on KAS-32 compared with solid fertilizers – ammonium nitrate produced by PAO KuibyshevAzot (Tolyatti, Samara oblast) in the cultivation of cereal crops (durum wheat ) and legumes (soybeans) using MINI-TILL technology provided by the agricultural machinery complex AO Evrotehnika (Samara) of the German company AMAZONEN-Werke (Germany). Objective: to determine the effectiveness of nitrogen liquid mineral fertilizers produced by PAO KuibyshevAzot and new nitrogen-sulfur fertilizers in comparison with traditional solid mineral fertilizers – ammonium nitrate – with the determination of the optimal doses, methods and time of application, the necessary technical means for various crops, including cereals and legumes. In the dry year of 2018 (the seventh drought year since 1936), fairly high results were obtained in terms of yield and quality of the products when using KAS-32, KAS-32 with sulfur and RPS (sulfur-containing nutritious solution) in comparison with solid mineral fertilizers (ammonia nitrate) when applied by AO Eurotechnika sprayers equipped with large-droplet sprayers and extension hoses for foliar and nonroot (root) dressing of plants.
Keywords: machinery, technologies, MINI-TILL, fertilizers, liquid, solid, application, dressing, yield, quality, grain crop, grain legumes.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.012

THE ROLE OF BIOPREPARATIONS AND THEIR TANK MIXTURES IN INCREASING DISEASE RESISTANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SOYBEAN
A.T. Farniyev, Doctor of Agricultural sciences; A.Kh. Kozyrev, Doctor of Agricultural sciences;
А.А. Sabanova, Candidate of Agricultural sciences; Kh.P. Kokoyev, Candidate of Agricultural sciences
Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher education «Gorsky (Mountain) State Agrarian University», Vladikavkaz, tel. (8672)53-11-33. Е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Soybean is a valuable bean crop that provides a balanced diet for feeding farm animals, and enriches the soil with biological nitrogen. The most important factor in deciding the production of ecologically clean agricultural products is biological preparations of various origins, used as growth stimulants, as well as preparations that increase resistance to pathogens and adverse environmental factors. In the steppe zone of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, the effect of the following biological products was studied: strains 17-1, 38-22, rhizotorfin, Albite on soybean plants of Alba and ES Mentor varieties during seed inoculation and spraying of vegetative plants. A high disease resistance of plants to fusarium, ascochitosis, peronosporosis and anthracnose was revealed upon double treatment with a tank mixture (strains 17-1 + 38-22 + Albite). A hundred-per-cent biological effectiveness of biological preparations against fusarium and anthracnose was determined, high efficiency (94%, 63.7% and 92.5%, 53.8%) against ascochitosis and peronosporosis, respectively, was for Alba and EU Mentor varieties. At the same time, all indicators of the structure of yield and productivity of soybean were improved. Seed productivity increased from 2.42 to 3.40 t/ha for Alba variety and from 2.23 to 3.01 t/ha for ES Mentor variety.
Key words: soybean, biological products, disease resistance, biological effectiveness, yield, crop structure.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.013

CHANGE IN THE AGROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LEACHED CHERNOZEM DEPENDING ON THE APPLICATION OF LOCAL SILICEOUS ROCKS AND FERTILIZERS
N.P. Chekaev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor; A.E. Ryabov, graduate student;
T.A. Vlasova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor; Yu.V. Koryagin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 62–83–67, e–mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies on the influence of siliceous rocks (diatomite) and fertilizers on the agrophysical properties of leached chernozem and crop yields. As shown by the studies conducted in 2015–2017 at the training and production center of the FSBEI HE Penza SAU (Mokshan district, Penza oblast), over the three years of application of diatomite at a rate from 2 to 8 t/ha, the number of water–resistant units in the variants without fertilizers had changed slightly, the difference compared to the initial values ranged from 1.1 to 2.6%. Against the background of the use of manure with the introduction of different doses of diatomite, an increase in the number of water–resistant aggregates was observed compared with the initial value by 13.6% in the variant without diatomite and by 20.9% in the variant with a diatomite at a rate of 8 t/ha. Against the background of the use of mineral fertilizers, the difference was from 1.8 to 4.7%. Improving the structural state and exerting a softening effect on the arable horizon, the use of diatomite and organic fertilizers increases the yield of crops. Doses of diatomite from 2.0 to 8.0 t/ha increased crop yields by 8.9–18.4%. Against the background of the use of manure at a rate of 48 t/ha, the yield of the first crop had increased. Winter wheat yield had increased by 69.8–86.3%. The yield of the second and third crops had increased from 13.7 to 26.5%.
Keywords: siliceous rock, manure, mineral fertilizers, soil aggregate water stability, bulk density, porosity, yield.

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Veterinary and zootechny


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.014

INFLUENCE OF THE QUALITY AND THE LEVEL OF PROTEIN IN DIETS ON THE GROWTH RATE OF FATTENING BULL-CALVES
D.G. Pogosyan, Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. (8412) 62-81-51, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents and summarizes the results of many years of research on the influence of the quality and the level of protein in diets on the growth rate of bull-calves. The studies found that improving the quality of protein in the diets of fattening bull-calves of dairy breeds at different growth periods due to a decrease in protein disintegration in the rumen by 2.5-6.9% contributed to an increase in the average daily gain in live weight of young animals by 2.5-16.4%.
An increase in the protein level in the diets of intensively fed calves of Holstein and Aberdeen Angus breeds aged from 3 to 12 months by 1.5 times was due to increased feeding of concentrates significantly increased the average daily gain in live weight of young animals by 47 and 30%, respectively.
Key words: bull-calves, compound feed, disintegration of protein in the rumen, diet, concentrates, average daily gain, live weight, growth rate.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.015

CYTOMETRIC INDICATORS OF THE EPITHELIAL LAYER OF THE HEN OVIDUCT IN THE AGE INTERVAL OF 30-120 DAYS
R.Yu. Khokhlov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor; S.I. Kuznetsov, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. (8412) 628-151, e-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article is devoted to the study of cytometric parameters of the epithelial layer of the mucous membrane of the oviduct of hens before the start of egg-laying, namely from 30 to 120 days of age. As a result of the analysis of the obtained cytometric indicators, it was found that the thickness of the epithelial layer of the cranial part of the oviduct progressively increases from 30 to 90 days of age. A similar trend is observed in the caudal part of the oviduct a month later, that is, from 60 days of age. Cranial epithelial cells had the largest nuclei at the age of 90 days, and caudal – at the age of 120 days. The sizes of epithelial cells in the cranial region varied from the minimum values at the age of 30 days to the maximum values at the age of 60 days. The minimum area of epithelial cells is noted in the caudal region, as well as in the cranial, at the age of 30 days. However, the maximum area of epithelial cells in the caudal region does not coincide with the cranial region, since the largest epithelial cells in the caudal region are observed at 120 days of age. The minimal ratio of nuclei to the cytoplasm in the cranial part of the oviduct was observed at 60 days of age, and in the caudal – at 90 days of age. The highest nuclear cytoplasmic ratio in the cranial part was recorded at 30 days of age, and in the caudal part – at 30 and 120 days of age.
Key words: hen, oviduct, epithelium, morphogenesis, nuclear cytoplasmic ratio.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.016

IMMUNE STATUS OF OFFSPRING CALVES OF SERVICING BULLS OF FOREIGN BREEDING AND DOMESTIC STUD FARMS
G.I. Boryaev1, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor; Yu.S. Goncharuk1, postgraduate student;
E.V. Zdorovyeva1, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Assistant-professor; A.V. Nosov1, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Assistant-professorт;
Yu.N. Fyodorov2, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor; Ye.K. Kistanova3, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Assistant-professor
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, т. 8(8412) 628151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «All-Russian Scientific Research and Technological Institute of Biological Industry», e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
3 Institute of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Pedigree bulls make the contribution of genetic progress to the population, therefore, an assessment of the immunological status of their offspring will add the characteristics of the breeding qualities of bulls and develop ways to increase the congenital immunity of young animals. The results of the studies suggest that the offspring of foreign servicing bulls has a decrease in the humoral link of the immune system compared to the offspring obtained from bulls of domestic stud farms and foreign bulls brought to Russia at eight months of age. The observed decrease was expressed in a reduced level of G-class immunoglobulins by 40%, of M-class – by 5 times and of IgA – by 60%, as well as in a decrease in the number of T-lymphocytes in the blood of calves.
Key words: highly productive animals, servicing bulls, domestic breeding, foreign breeding, calves, immune status

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ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.017

CONTROL OF TECHNICAL CONDITION OF THE AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION
A.S. Ivanov1, Candidate of Technical sciences, assistant-professor; V.V. Lyandenburskiy2, Candidate of Technical sciences, assistant-professor;
I.I. Fakhrutdinov2, student; P.M. Ekimov2, post-graduate;
V.A. Ivanov1, Candidate of Technical sciences;K.Z. Kukhmazov1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Penza, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 65-82-42 Е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State University of Architecture and Construction», Penza, Russia

The aim of the study was to develop an automatic gearbox troubleshooting algorithm based on performance tests, as existing algorithms do not allow to determine a problem in a car at the lowest cost. Based on the analysis, it was proposed to change the algorithm for diagnosing an automatic transmission of cars. As a result of performance tests using the Consult III+, the measurements of the degree of depressing the accelerator pedal, changes in vehicle speed and engine speed depending on time, changes in the degree of throttle opening and pressure in the high-pressure fuel line to detect a faulty condition of a gearbox were made. The measurement time for each of the indicators was not more than 30 seconds. An automatic gearbox troubleshooting algorithm was developed using an interrogatory part.
Key words: car, diagnosis, automatic gearbox, algorithm.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.018

RESEARCH OF MOBITOX SUPER SEED DRESSING MACHINE, FITTED WITH A TWO DISC DISTRIBUTOR AND A TWO-LEVEL REFLECTIVE DEVICE
A.V. Machnev1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, assistant-professor; O.N. Kukharev2, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor;
O.Yu. Machneva2, postgraduate;V.A. Machnev2, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor;
P.N. Horev2, Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant-professor; A.V. Yashin2, Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant-professor
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State University of Food Production», Moscow, Russia
2 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. (8412) 62-85-79, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The use of seed dressers improves their field germination, reduces smut diseases and root rot. The experience of the use of dressing agents in grain-sowing farms showed that the self-propelled seed dressers PS-20AM01, Mobitox Super, PSK-15 are most widely used in the Russian Federation. The disadvantages of these machines are expressed in the impossibility of conducting high-quality dressing on sites with an inclination angle of more than 7 degrees and when the machine is operating at a capacity in the range from 60 to 100% of the base. In addition, the increased moisture content of the seeds after dressing (according to the agrotechnical requirements of perfectly rigid body (PRB) – no more than 1%) and the crushing of seeds somewhat reduce the effectiveness of using chamber dressers. The aim of the research was to improve the quality of seed dressing through the use of a two-disk distributing and a two-level reflecting devices. We conducted comparative studies of the Mobitox Super seed dresser, equipped with a two-disk distributor and a two-level seed reflector, with the basic version of Mobitox Super. The studies were carried out in the OOO "Russkoye Polye" of Serdobsky district of the Penza region on the treatment of winter wheat Biryuza seeds with a combined insectofungic seed dresser Select Max with a consumption rate of 1.7 l/t. It was established that in the range from 30 to 150 mm of opening the spade-type dispenser flap of the developed chamber self-propelled seed dresser, the quality of seed dressing significantly increased and its productivity increased to 2.1 t/h in comparison with the commercially available Mobitox Super.
Key words: seed dresser, seeds, distributor, two-level reflecting device, sprayer, spray material, seed crushing, completeness of dressing.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.019

PROVIDING RATIONAL TEMPERATURE REGIME OF A KAMAZ CAR GEARBOX USED IN AGRICULTURE
A.A. Orekhov, Candidate of Technical sciences, assistant-professor; S.V. Tomokhin, Doctor of Technical sciences, professor;
I.A. Spitsyn, Doctor of Technical sciences, professor; K.Z. Kuhmazov, Doctor of Technical sciences, professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. 8 (8412) 62-85-79, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper discusses the features of operation of cars at low ambient temperatures, as well as existing methods and means of heat treatment of their units. If the issues of thermal preparation and maintaining a rational temperature regime of automobile internal combustion engines are largely resolved, then for the units of their transmissions they require further development. The application of heat accumulators for the thermal preparation of automobile units is analyzed. A method and system for ensuring a rational temperature regime of a KamAZ car gearbox using a phase transition heat accumulator is proposed. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. The calculation of the volume of heat-accumulating material necessary for heating the gear oil of a KamAZ car gearbox to a rational temperature in winter conditions has been carried out. A hydraulic and functional diagram of the oil temperature control system in a KamAZ car gearbox with a phase-transfer heat accumulator has been developed, the use of which will provide quick access to the rational temperature regime of the car gearbox and its stabilization in both winter and summer seasons and, thereby, reduce wear of parts, mechanical losses in the gearbox, fuel consumption by the car.
Key words: thermal preparation, unit, automobile, transmission, gearbox, ambient temperature, power loss, phase transition heat accumulator, wear rate.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.020

IMPROVING EFFICIENCY OF HARVESTING GRAIN CROPS
I.V. Konoshin, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor; R.A. Bulavintsev, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor;
A.V. Volzhentsev, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor; M.R. Mikhailov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor;
A.V. Zvekov, senior lecturer
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Oryol State Agrarian University named after N.V. Parakhin", Oryol, Russia, tel. 8-910-306-29-89, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.,
tel. 8-903-880-00-34, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Harvesting crops, including cereals, is the most responsible and resource-consuming stage of crop production. Therefore, the solution of issues on improving the technology of harvesting grain crops is an urgent topic currently.
The aim of the research presented in the article was to increase the efficiency of the technology of harvesting grain crops by increasing the main (operational) time of work of grain harvesting equipment without a fundamental change in its design and composition.
The result of the research is an analytical, theoretical and practical substantiation of the effectiveness of the use of non-stop unloading of the combine harvester in vehicles in the technology of harvesting grain crops, which will allow, depending on the type and yield of the crop:
– to increase the main operating time TО on average by 14-14.7%;
– to ensure that the areas with an uneven distribution of crushed straw are excluded.
In the future, non-stop unloading of the combine may be recommended for use during operation of driverless combines.
Key words: resource-saving technologies in crop production, grain crops, grain harvesting, combine harvester, grain unloading.

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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Agronomy


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.001

ASSESSMENT OF POTATO SELECTION MATERIAL BASED ON THE STUDY OF PRODUCTION PROCESS PARAMETERS AND MORPHO-BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTION SAMPLES
A.A. Kabunin, Candidate of Agricultural sciences;
I.V. Kabunina, Candidate of Economic Sciences
FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, Russia,
t. +7 (84161) 3-18-71, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The results of the analysis of productivity parameters of more than 100 selecton potato samples in nursery-gardens of various levels at Penza Research Institute of Agriculture for 2001-2017 are presented with the aim of developing methodological approaches for the efficient pointing potato varieties in the selection process, which are highly efficient in the work of photosynthetic apparatus and dominate tuberization in the processes of photosynthesis products distribution during the formation of plant biomass.
The results of the analysis showed that for these purposes it is possible to effectively use the indicator "coefficient of economic usefulness of plant biomass" (Ceupb). It represents the percentage of tubers in the total crude biomass of the plant (the mass of tubers plus the mass of top at the time of its maximum development). Combining the data on this indicator revealed that in the group of selection samples with high productivity, the Ceupb indicator was higher than in groups with medium and low productivity by 61.6, 58.2 and 53.5%, respectively on average for different years. At the same time, the yield of tubers of selection samples with the highest Ceupb, depending on the conditions of the period, was 19-54% higher than in the group with a low Ceupb, and 6-16% higher than the average tuber yield in the entire set of the studied numbers. In the group of samples with a high Ceupb, the leaf-stem mass of plants was developed slightly lower, but the intensity of photosynthesis processes was higher, the tuberization predominated in the process of distribution of photosynthesis products.
The Ceupb indicator can be used with high efficiency for the assessment and pionting out the breeding samples with an increased efficiency of the production process.
Key words: potato selection, productivity parameters, improving assessment methods.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.002

ECOLOGICAL VARIABILITY AND PHENOTYPIC STABILITY OF YIELD OF WINTER AND SPRING SOFT WHEAT VARIETIES IN THE FOREST STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
V.G. Krivibochek, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
S.V. Kosenko, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
I.F. Dyomina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, Russia,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A comparative study of two crops was conducted. Four varieties of winter wheat (Fotinha, Clavdiya 2, Nympha, Alyonushka) and five varieties of spring wheat (Pyramida, Arhat, Mashenka, Atlant, Irishka) of the selection of Penza Agricultural Institute (a branch of FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops) were tested. In the field experiment, the contribution to the general variability of the trait “factor productivity” was established: genotype (variety), environment (year) and their interaction (genotype-environment). The main influence on yield variability was exerted by weather conditions, the year factor for winter varieties was 46.5%, and for spring varieties - 64.8%. Estimates of winter and spring wheat varieties were made according to the parameters of phenotypic variability and ecological plasticity of the yield trait for the period 2014-2018. The greatest range of ecological variation was noted in spring wheat varieties, CV = 11.5...28.8%. Relatively weak ecological variation in the yield was in winter varieties (CV = 11...16.8%). The varieties Fotinha (winter) and Arhat (spring) were characterized by low yield variability. The high rate of reaction to the growing conditions was distinguished in the winter variety Clavdiya 2 (CV = 16.8%) and in the spring variety Mashenka (CV = 28.8%). In terms of phenotypic yield stability, winter wheat varieties showed a high ecological buffering (SF = 1.49), this indicator was slightly lower in spring wheat (SF = 1.75). The most yield flexible grains had Clavdiya 2 (bi = 1.52), Arhat
(bi = 1.54), Mashenka (bi = 1.45).
Key words: winter wheat, spring wheat, variety, productivity, variability, ecological variation, phenotypic stability, ecological plasticity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.003

EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF TREATING INDUSTRIAL HEMP SEEDS WITH PROTECTORS, AGROCHEMICALS AND GROWTH REGULATORS
I.I. Pluzhnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
N.V. Kriushin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
I.V. Bakulova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
FSBSI FSC FC, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article contains results of efficiency evaluation of presowing treatment of hemp seeds of the varieties Vera and Nadezhda with seed treater agents Benorad, WP; Thiram, ASC; Bunker, ASC, with agrochemicals such as Lignohumat, Biocomplex-BTU and with growth regulator Albit, LP. The use of the studied chemicals in laboratory conditions contributed to an increase in the weight of seedlings with root in the Vera variety by 17.2-34.5%, in the Nadezhda variety by 5.7-31.4% compared to the control. In the field, in the Nadezhda variety, in the 4-5 leaf phase, the root weight in the varieties with treated seeds increased by 24.4-39.0%, the weight of the plant – by 29.3-46.3%. Treatment with seed treaters provided a decrease in seed contamination with phytopathogens in the Vera variety by 22.2-32.5%, in the Nadezhda variety – by 19.6-27.2%. The use of agrochemicals and a growth regulator led to the destruction of pathogenic mycoflora in the Vera variety by 11.5-14.1%, in the Nadezhda variety – by 4.9-16.2%. In the field, the biological effectiveness of root rot suppression with the use of seed treaters on the Vera variety was 50.4-91.3%, on the Nadezhda variety 71.1-85.6%; with the use of agrochemicals and a growth regulator in the Vera variety – 15.0-70.9%, in the Nadezhda variety – 23.3-63.3%. The highest productivity of hemp plants on the Vera variety was ensured by the use of Benorad, WP, Bunker, ASC, Lignohumat and Albit, LP chemicals. The increase in the yield of stems to the control was 13.6; 17.1; 17.0 and 15.9%, seeds – 22.7; 18.2; 15.2 and 25.8%, respectively. By the Nadezhda variety, the highest yield of plants was established with the use of such chemicals as Bunker, ASC; Lignohumate and Albit, LP. The increase in the yield of stems to the control was 28.1; 32.8 and 28.9%, seeds – 22.7; 22.7 and 18.7%.
Keywords: industrial hemp, non-psychotropic variety, seed treatment, biological effectiveness, weight of root and plant, yield of stems and seeds.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.004

OILSEED CROPS – BIODIVERSITY, VALUE AND PRODUCTIVITY
T.Ya. Prakhova, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
V.A. Prakhov;
V.N. Brazhnikov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
O.F. Brazhnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
FSBSI FSC FC, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The background information on traditional (white mustard, oil flax) and non-traditional (Camelina sativa, Сrambe abyssinica, oil radish) oilseed crops is provided. Their characteristic of economic importance and uses are presented. The studied crops are good as preceding ones for many crops. They have a phytosanitary and soil cleaning effect, high resistance to abiotic and biotic factors, and a significant productivity potential for oilseed crops. Oil radish and white mustard are used as sidereal crops. They are indispensable for providing livestock with soilage in the green conveyor system. Due to the different ripening periods of oilseed crops, the oilseed inflow during the season becomes even, which makes it possible to optimize the organization of production processes in the form of raw conveyors. An analysis of the production of oil cruciferous crops and flax in Russia showed that over the past five years (2014-2018), their planting acreage tended to increase. Thus, in 2018 oil flax crops increased by 31.3% compared to 2017, the planting acreage of ​​mustard doubled. The largest planting acreage of ​​camelina came in 2014 (268.1 thousand ha), then there was a decrease, and in 2018 it amounted to only 78.9 thousand ha. The productivity of oilseed crops reaches high values (1.21-2.38 t/ha), which indicates the realization of the yield potential, regardless of the conditions of the year. Expanding the range of oilseed crops and their varieties allows you to make fuller use of the existing bioclimatic potential.
Key words: oilseed crops, economic importance, productivity, camelina sativa, oil flax, white mustard, Crambe abyssinica, oil radish

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.005

LATEST DIRECTIONS OF COMMON HEMP SELECTION FOR SOLVING MODERN PROBLEMS OF DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND IMPORT SUBSTITUTION
V.A. Serkov, Chief Research Worker, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences,
Penza Institute of Agriculture – a branch of FSBSI FSC for Bast Crops, Russia, Penza region,
district Lunino, t. +7 (84161) 3-18-14, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
R.O. Belousov, Director General of OOO “Konoplex”, t. 8 (495) 230-05-07, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
R.M. Alexandrov, Director General of OOO "UK Konoplex”, t. 8 (800) 230-05-07,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
O.K. Davydova, Deputy Director General of OOO "UK Konoplex”, t. 8 (800) 222-73-20,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A retrospective analysis of breeding activity over the past 25-year period of time was performed. The necessity of expanding the lines of selection of hemp sowing at the present stage was substantiated. The importance of culture to ensure the needs of innovative industries with high-quality raw materials in the required volumes was emphasized. A comparative assessment of the development of hemp breeding in the Russian Federation and abroad was given. The role of state support for the dynamic development and improvement of the hemp breeding industry was noted.
The characteristics of varieties that are widely used in the hemp regions of the country are presented. The problems of selection activities are highlighted and the conditions for solving primary problems are specified. It is stated about the need to strengthen the material and technical base of scientific institutions involved in selection and seed-growing activities with the common hemp. The conclusion on the need to diversify selection activities of common hemp in the Russian Federation is made.
Key words: common hemp, drug-free variety, economically valuable trait, cellulose content, cannabidiol content, oil content, hemp breeding development, import substitution.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.006

SEEDING RATE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.) IN THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
T.Ya. Prakhova1, Doctor of Agricultural sciences;
A.N. Kshnikatkina2, Doctor of Agricultural sciences, Professor
A.A. Shchanin2, post-graduate
1Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops”, workers settlement Lunino, Russia
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Penza State Agrarian University”, Penza, Russia

The aim of our research was to study the productivity of safflower depending on the seeding rate in the conditions of the Middle Volga region. The object of the research was the variety Zavolzhsky 1. The study of seeding rates was carried out in 2016-2018. Five sowing norms from 200 to 400 thousand germinating seeds per hectare, with a step of 50 thousand germinating seeds were studied. With an increase in the seeding rate of safflower, the field germination of seeds increased. Its highest rate was noted in the variant with a sowing rate of 400 thousand germinating seeds per 1 ha – 87.1%, which was 1.6% higher than the sowing rate of 200 thousand germinating seeds per 1 ha, where the seedlings were the least – 85.5%. The maximum safety index of safflower plants was observed in the variant with a seeding rate of 300 and 350 thousand germinating seeds per 1 ha – 92.9 and 92.8%, respectively. Safflower productivity varied in the range of 1.09-1.41 t/ha, depending on the seeding rate. The highest seed yield was observed in the variant with a sowing rate of 300 and 350 thousand germinating seeds per hectare and amounted to 1.17-1.39 and 1.19-1.41 t/ha, respectively. The number of baskets on a plant ranged from 9.8 pieces in the variant with a sowing rate of 200 thousand germinating seeds per hectare to 14.7 pieces – with a sowing rate of 350 thousand germinating seeds per hectare. Safflower formed the largest seeds when sown with a sowing rate of 300 and 350 thousand germinating seeds per hectare. The mass of 1000 seeds here was 43.4 g. The optimal norm for sowing safflower in contrasting conditions of the Middle Volga region is 300-350 thousand germinating seeds per hectare.
Key words: safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius L.), seeding rate, yield, field germination, yield structure.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.007

EFFECT AND AFTEREFFECT OF URBAN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND ITS COMBINATIONS WITH ZEOLITE CONTAINING AGRONOMICAL ORE ON THE ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF MEADOW-CHERNOZEM SOIL
A.N. Arefiev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
E.E. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Herewith the effect and aftereffect of land reclamation norms of urban sewage sludge (USS) and their combinations with zeolite-containing agricultural ore on acid-base properties of meadow-chernozem soil are shown. It was found that urban sewage sludge in combination with zeolite increased the cation exchange capacity in the arable layer of meadow-chernozem soil by 4.97-5.84 mg-eq/100 g of soil, the amount of exchangeable bases by 6.65-7.83 mg-eq/100 g of soil, the pHsalt by 1.24-1.50 units. The value of hydrolytic acidity in these options decreased by 1.69-2.01 mg-eq/100 g of soil. With the unilateral effect and aftereffect of the reclamation norms of urban sewage sludge, the soil from the slightly acid one turned into a soil with a near-neutral medium reaction. And with the unilateral effect of a zeolite-containing agricultural ore and its combined effect with urban sewage sludge the soil turned into a soil with a neutral medium reaction.
Key words: meadow-chernozem soil, urban sewage sludge, clinoptilolite, zeolite-containing agricultural ore, cathodic exchange capacity, total exchange bases, metabolic acidity, hydrolytic acidity.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.008

YIELD AND QUALITY OF GRAIN OF SPRING SOFT WHEAT, DEPENDING ON THE APPLICATION OF HUMIC AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS
S.V. Bogomazov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant Professor;
A.A. Levin, post-graduate student;
O.A. Tkachuk, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant Professor;
A.V. Lyandenburskaya, senior lecturer
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-85-46, е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies of the effect of humic fertilizer Humostim and mineral fertilizers on the yield and grain quality of spring soft wheat of the Tulaykovskaya 108 variety. The work performed allows us to expand our understanding of the effect of humic acid salts in the composition of humic fertilizers on the development of spring wheat and to give recommendations on how to use them for increasing the yield and quality of household products, maintaining the ecological cleanliness of the environment. The aim of the research was to improve the elements of spring wheat cultivation technology in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region, which allow optimizing the conditions of growth and development through the composite application of humic and mineral fertilizers. The studies have established that the greatest increase in spring wheat productivity was observed in the variants with the introduction of mineral fertilizers and the treatment of seeds and crops with the drug Humostim (1.55 t/ha). Mineral fertilizers significantly increased the mass fraction of protein in spring wheat grain by 2.3%, the mass fraction of crude gluten by 4.14%. Humic fertilizer Humostim slightly increased the quality indicators of grain. The highest level of profitability (81%) was noted in the variant with the treatment of seeds and vegetative plants with humic fertilizer Humostim. The use of mineral fertilizers for a projected yield of 4.0 t/ha led to a decrease in profitability by 16.2%.
Key words: humic fertilizers, mineral fertilizers, spring wheat, biological productivity, protein weight content, crude gluten content, profitability.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.009

INFLUENCE OF ALBIT ON THE STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF THE SEED PLANT OF TABLE BEET
V.I. Gryazeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-73, email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Seed quality is one of the most important factors for obtaining a good harvest. Difficulty is in the reproduction of seeds of cross-pollinated biennial plants, which is beetroot. The main goal in its seed production is the maintenance of economically valuable traits of populations. The effect of Albit on the structure and productivity of the seed plant of table beet was studied in Penza region. It was established that the seed ripening period in all variants of treatment with albite was shorter than in the control by 4–9 days. In most variants, on average over two years, the highest seed productivity was observed in the seed-bearing plants of the III-IV branching types. Type I seed plants are less productive, but their seeds are larger and have better sowing qualities. The greatest number of seeds from a plant was formed in all variants of the seed-bearing plants of the III-IV branching types. The same trend is observed in the variants of the experiment with Albit. More branched seed-bearing plants are more productive than less branched ones. So, during treatment in the budding phase, type III-IV type seed-bearing plants formed 127.5 grams, while 118.0 grams of type I seed-bearing plants. After treatment during the flowering phase, multiramouse seed-bearing plants are 11.5 grams more productive than the subramous. The treatment of seed plants of table beet with Albit contributed to an increase in the mass of 1000 seedballs in an average of 1.5-2.1 grams. Studies have shown that there is a matricular heterogeneity, which is a consequence of differences in the location of seeds on the mother plant. The best quality seeds are formed on the central axis, and the worst – on second order rosette shoots.
Keywords: table beet, seeds, Albit, seed plant, productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.010

FORMATION OF GIANT MISCANTHUS BIOMASS IN THE FOREST STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
V.A. Gushchina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
N.I. Ostroborodova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Penza State Agrarian University”,
Russia, tel.  +7 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The introduction of giant miscanthus into production requires the study of the possibility of cultivating it in the zone of unstable moisture on low-fertile soils. The purpose of the work is to determine the best way to control weeds in the agrocenosis of giant miscanthus when growing it in the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga. Univariate field experiment included mechanical and chemical methods of weed control before planting, as well as in plantings of the first year of life. It was established that the formation of productivity elements of giant miscanthus was affected by weather conditions during the growing season and methods of weed control. The optimal thermal regime and precipitation in 2016 ensured the height of the plants of 163.0...210.0 cm with the number of stems 10.0...16.0 pcs per plant unit at the end of the vegetation. On average, over the three years, in the variants with the herbicides Magnum and Ballerina, tall stems (166.9...175.2 cm) with the largest number of shoots of 10.0...11.7 pcs. were formed on the background of the Tornado 500. Compared with the absolute control, the growth of plants in height was 36.0...44.3 cm, the number of stems increased by 4.3...6.0 pcs/plant. Having a minimal phytotoxic effect on the growth and development of the crop, there was no strict relationship between the formed aboveground mass and the root system over the years. An increase in plant power was not always accompanied by an increase in the mass of rootstalks.
Key words: giant miscanthus, weediness, unstable moisture, rhizomes, herbicides, biomass, hydrothermal coefficient.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.011

INFLUENCE OF CROP TENDING METHODS ON SUGAR BEET PRODUCTIVITY
E.V. Zheryakov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, docent
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, +7 (8412) 62-85-65, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In the field experiments conducted in the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Volga region, we studied the features of the formation of sugar beet productivity depending on the methods of crop tending. According to the results of the research and analysis, it was found that the highest yield of root crops was obtained during three herbicidal treatments, which amounted to 43.60 t/ha. By the beginning of harvesting, the assimilative surface of sugar beet leaves decreased, but was almost the same in all the variants of the experiment and varied from 44.35 to 45.41 thousand m2/ha. The greatest value of the photosynthetic potential during the growing season was noted during three intertillage, and the net productivity of photosynthesis was in the following variants: one row space + two herbicidal and two row space + one herbicidal treatments. Evaluation of weed amount showed that the use of three herbicidal treatments contributed to an increase in weed infestation of soil at the time of harvesting. If in the period of one or three pairs of true leaves the number of weeds in the variant with three intertillage was 93.6 pcs/m2, and with herbicidal treatment 63.8 pcs/m2, then the reverse trend was observed before harvesting.
Key words: sugar beet, weed infestation, herbicides, intertillage, productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.012

INFLUENCE OF URBAN SEWAGE SLUDGE ON THE SPRING PRODUCT OF SPRING TRITICALE
O.M. Kasynkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-73, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Fertilizer plays an active role, providing one or another degree of plant variability. It is an element of natural selection in an indirect form, since it provides the advantage of genotypes that are specifically adapted to competitive environmental conditions. The article presents the results of a study of the effect of the use of urban sewage sludge (USS) as fertilizer for the yield of spring triticale of the Ukro variety on dark gray forest soil. The studies were carried out in 2014-2016 at the site of FSBEIHE Penza SAU. It was established that the use of urban sewage sludge contributed to an increase in the yield of spring triticale of the Ukro variety. The maximum yield of 3.79 t/ha was obtained in the option with USS at a dose of 10 t/ha and a sowing rate of 4.0 mln. grains per 1 ha. The increase in relation to control was 0.27 t/ha.
Key words: spring triticale productivity, urban sewage sludge, plant height, lodging resistance, weight of 1000 grains.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.013

AFTEREFFECT OF DIATOMITE AND ITS COMBINATIONS WITH MANURE ON THE FERTILITY OF LEACHED BLACK CHEROZEM AND CARROT YIELD
E.E. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor,
A.N. Arefiev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The unilateral aftereffect of diatomite and its combinations with manure on the fertility elements of leached chernozem and carrot yield is shown. The most significant effect on the content of humus, nutrients, water-stable aggregates and density was exerted by the integrated use of diatomite and manure. Over three years of research, an increase in the humus content in the plough-layer of leached chernozem was 0.19-0.24% on average, in the content of alkaline-hydrolyzable nitrogen 36.2-38.0 mg/kg of soil, in mobile phosphorus content 23.2-28.5 mg/kg of soil, in mobile potassium content 45.6-49.9 mg/kg of soil, water-stable aggregates 15.3-18.3%. The equilibrium density decreased by 0.11-0.14 g/cm3. The complex aftereffect of diatomite and manure had the most significant effect on carrot yield. Its productivity against the background of their aftereffect increased by 39.4-45.1%.
Key words: leached chernozem, diatomite, manure, humus, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, structure, density, carrots, productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.014

METHODS OF CULTIVATION OF ANDROGYNOUS BURNET (POTERIUM POLYGAMUM) IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
A.N. Kshnikatkina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.A. Orlov, post-graduate student
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, tel. +7 (8412) 62-81-51, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studying the influence of exogenous seed treatment and foliar dressing with complex micronutrient fertilizers on the productivity of the androgynous burnet of the variety Sultan. Exogenous seed treatment with chelated fertilizers had a positive effect on the formation of burnet agrocenosis. The most effective prepraration was Megamix-Seeds. Field germination increased by 5%, the safety of plants at the end of the growing season – by 9.5%, the percentage of overwintering – by 3.1%, the mass of air-dried roots increased 1.7 times. The best indicators of photosynthetic activity were also noted when the seeds were treated with the MegaMix-Seeds microelement fertilizer, the leaf surface area of the first-year burnet during the budding phase was 40.3 thousand m2/ha, the photosynthetic potential was 2.78 million m²/ha×day, the net photosynthesis productivity – 3.63 g/m²×day. The highest productivity of the burnet of the 1st year of use was generated when using Megamix-Seeds for seed treatment: 4.44 t/ha of feed units, 0.57 t/ha of digestible protein, 90.2 GJ/ha of exchange energy. The highest productivity of burnet was obtained with double foliar top dressing during the growth and budding phase with Azosol 36 Extra: the collection of dry matter was 9.65 t/ha, of feed units – 5.9 t/ha, of digestible protein – 0.74 t/ha, of exchange energy – 119.9 GJ. It was economically effective to use Megamix-Seeds, NanoKremny and Tsitovit preparations for seed treatment, the profitability was 147.7-148.2%. With double top dressing with the drug Azosol 36 – Extra in the phase of regrowth and budding, the profitability was 207.6%.
Key words: androgynous burnet, complex microelement chelated fertilizers, parameters of photosynthesis, productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.015

PRODUCTIVITY OF POTERIUM POLYGAMUM DEPENDING ON A COVER CROP
А.N. Kshnikatkina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
I.Yu. Yudin, graduate student
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, tel. +7 (8412) 62-81-51, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of the study of the influence of cover crops on the productivity of Poterium polygamum. Studies have established that cover crops and the timing of their harvest have had a significant impact on the formation of agrocenosis of the Poterium polygamum. When harvesting grain crops for grain, the safety indicators of burnet plants were 9.2-11.0% lower than when harvesting for silage. The highest indicators of field germination 87.5%, plant safety 89.5% and winter hardiness 94.5% of photosynthesis parameters were noted when sowing burnet under cover of oil flax. Among grain cover crops, the highest yield of seeds of the Poterium polygamum 248.9 kg/ha was obtained by sowing under the cover of barley and harvesting for silage. On average, over three years, the yield of Poterium seeds, when harvesting barley for silage, was higher in comparison with oats by 102.2 kg (69.7%). The smallest yields of burnet seeds (124.5 kg/ha) were obtained by sowing under the cover of oats and harvesting for grain. The highest seed yields of Poterium polygamum of the first year of use (845.2 kg/ha) and feed productivity were obtained by sowing under a cover of oil flax: 3.84 tons of feed units per hectare, 0.48 tons of digestible protein, 78.4 GJ available energy. It is most cost-effective to cultivate a polygonaceous polygon for seeds and fodder purposes under the cover of oil flax, profitability – 252.2%.
Key words: Poterium polygamum, cover crops, agrocenosis, photosynthesis, productivity, weed infestation.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.016

ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTIVITY AND STABILITY OF WINTER TRITICALE VARIETIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FOOTHILL ZONE OF THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
M.A. Basiyeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
E.S. Miroshnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
North Caucasian Research Institute of Mountain and Foothill Agriculture – a branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science of the Federal Scientific Center "Vladikavkaz Scientific Center
of the Russian Academy of Sciences", village Mikhailovskoye, North Ossetia-Alania, Russia,
tel. +7 (8672) 23-04-20 e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The adaptive properties of winter triticale varieties under the agroecological conditions of the foothill zone of the Central Caucasus were estimated. The studies were conducted in 2016-2018 on the fields of North Caucasian Research Institute of Mountain and Foothill Agriculture Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The research material was seven varieties of winter triticale from the world collection of All-Union Research Institute of Plant Breeding. For a comprehensive estimation and selection of valuable source material for selection for adaptability, a set of techniques was used to establish the reliability of the observed differences and obtain the necessary information about potential productivity and environmental plasticity. The most popular indices in breeding practice were used in the work: Mexican, Canadian, linear spike density, as well as a new modification of the index – the plant productivity index (PPI). High resistance to environmental stress factors was established in the varieties Legion, Sotnik and Almaz, and the maximum compliance with environmental conditions in the region was found in varieties Zavet, Gorka, Ramzay, and Gor. Varieties of high-intensity type Zavet and Gor were responsive to improving conditions and were characterized by stable productivity.
Key words: winter triticale, productivity, adaptability, resistance to stress, indices of environmental conditions, ecological plasticity, stability.

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Veterinary and zootechny


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.017

REPRODUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF HEIFERS AND DAIRY PRODUCTIVITY OF COWS OF HOLSTEIN BREED OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN
V.V. Lyashenko, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
I.V. Kaeshova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
A.V. Gubina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The modernization of the dairy cattle breeding industry in the Penza Region, as in the other regions of Russia, is carried out through the construction of new modern dairy complexes, the active introduction of innovative milk production technologies, and the purchase of highly productive imported cattle.
The purpose of the work was to evaluate the reproductive abilities and milk productivity of highly productive cows of different origin under the conditions of intensive milk production technology. The object of the study was Holstein animals of different origin (Hungary, Germany, Russia). The studies were carried out in OOO “UK “Rusmolco” of the Penza region in the conditions of a specialized enterprise for the breeding replacement young animals of the cattle and two high-tech dairy complexes.
It was established that in the studied groups of animals, the efficiency of insemination of heifers with the sexed semen differed. Russian heifers showed the highest rate – 59.7%, and German heifers the lowest – 49.2%. Insemination of heifers with sexed semen contributed to a higher yield of calves. The yield of calves was: in Hungarian animals – 92%; Russian – 84.4%; and German – 65.4%. The largest number of heifers was received from German first-calf cows – 89%, from Hungarian 83.2%, and from Russian –77.4%.
In the conditions of intensive milk production technology in the OSP “MTK Pachelmskoe khozyajstvo s. Arshinovka” the milk yield of German first-calf cows for 305 days of lactation was 8% more (p ≤ 0.05) than of Russian herdmates; in OOO “RAO Narovchatskoye”, the yield of milk of Hungarian first-calf cows for 305 days of lactation was 13.7% more (p ≤ 0.001) than of Russian herdmates.
Consequently, in conditions of intensive technology for the production of milk at large high-tech complexes, it is economically reasonable to use domestic cattle of the Holstein breed. In order to increase the breeding and productive qualities of cows and to expand reproduction of the dairy herd, it is advisable to purchase breeding animals abroad.
Key words: technology, Holstein breed, origin, heifers, insemination, sexed semen, offspring, milk production, milk yield, mass fraction of fat and protein in milk.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.018

CYTOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS
S.N. Tsepkovskaya, Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, assistant-professor;
A.V. Ostapchuk, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
L.L. Oshkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian
University», Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-81-51, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Cytology is a safe, fast, inexpensive and reliable procedure for the diagnosis of various pathological processes, including malignant and benign neoplasms in animals, which is available to a practicing veterinarian.
The article discusses the methodology of sampling, describes the technique of cytological research, considers indicators of various pathological processes, including the criteria for malignant neoplasms.
Key words: cytology, malignant neoplasms, malignant neoplasia, tumor cells, criteria for malignancy.

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ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.019

RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH ON THE SUBSTANTIATION OF CONSTRUCTION PARAMETERS OF A CHAMBER SEED TREATER UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
O.Yu. Machneva, graduate student;
O.N. Kukharev, doctor of engineering sciences, professor;
A.V. Machnev, doctor engineering sciences, associate professor;
V.A. Machnev, doctor of engineering sciences, professor;
P.N. Horev, candidate of engineering sciences, associate professor
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-85-79, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The main shortcomings in the work of seed treaters were identified, which include increased crushing of seeds, uneven supply, increased humidity of seeds after dressing. It has been established that when the seed treaters are working at seed deliveries of 70-100% of the maximum, there is a sharp change in the quality indicators, which can be reduced by using a two-disk distributing and two-level reflecting devices. The objective of the research is to substantiate the design and technological parameters of a chamber seed treater with a two-disk distributing and two-level reflecting devices that can improve the quality of seed treatment. For this purpose, a prototype chamber seed treater with a two-disk distributing and two-level reflecting devices was developed, manufactured and tested in the field. A study of the sowing qualities and technological properties of seeds of spring wheat of the Raduga variety showed that the seed purity was 99.54%, their moisture content before pickling was 13.9%, their germination rate was 98% with 1000 seeds weighing 41 g, and the crushing of the seeds was 0.14%. The optimal values of the distance between the annular disk and the upper level reflector L1 = 60 mm, the diameter of the lower level reflector D2 = 350 mm, the height of the upper level reflector H1 = 30 mm, the height of the lower level reflector H2 = 30 mm with 0.11-0.05% crushing seeds with the chamber seed treater. The maximum seed flow rate of 5.98 kg/s was established, corresponding to a 2.2% feed irregularity and 0.06% crushing by the chamber seed treater with 150 mm opening of the flap of the petal dispenser.
Keywords: Seed treater, seeds, dispensing device, reflecting device, diameter of a dispenser output opening, seed supply, seed crushing.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.020

RESULTS OF LABORATORY RESEARCH OF A BUTTER CHURN WITH A FLEXIBLE VIBRATORY DRIVE
A.V. Yashin, Сandidate of Engineering sciences, associate professor;
Yu.V. Polyvyany, Candidate of Engineering sciences
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +79022099691, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The materials of the article are devoted to an urgent problem – improving the technological process of butter churning and developing the design of the butter churn. The article notes that in the presence of a significant number of personal subsidiary farms and small farms with small volumes of butter production, there is a need for periodic butter churns. According to the analysis of existing designs and theoretical studies, it was found that in order to reduce the loss of butter due to its sticking to the churning mechanism and to reduce the churning energy intensity, it is necessary that the churning mechanism be made in the form of a membrane, which is also the bottom of the tank, which makes periodic oscillatory movements through a crank-and-rod mechanism. An optimization criterion is defined. It is the energy-intensity of butter churning. And the degree of use of milk fat is a limit to this target function. An adequate mathematical relation has been defined in a coded form of the energy intensity of butter churning in a butter churn with a flexible vibratory drive. At the same time, the energy intensity of butter churning by a butter churn with a flexible vibratory drive was E= 3.84 × (W × h / kg) at performance Q= 11.5 kg/h and drive power Ndr = 43.2 W, and the degree of use of milk fat S=99.6 %, which corresponds to the 0.4% fat loss in buttermilk and does not exceed the requirements of GOST.
Keywords: flexible vibratory drive, butter churn, membrane, churning mechanism, energy intensity.

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