WAYS OF CREATING RATIONAL AGROCHENOSIS OF WINTER WHEAT FOR THE FOOTHILL AREA CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS
With the development of intensive farming, the productivity of agrocenoses began to increase, while at the same time a decrease in their stability was observed. Agrocenoses are not capable of self-regulation and self-renewal and, to a greater extent, are in danger of failure during the mass reproduction of pests or pathogens. An important role in the rational use of natural resources is played by the structure of crop rotations, which, in turn, depends on the characteristics of the soil and climatic conditions of the region, the adaptive properties of cultivated species and the genetic diversity of varieties. It is possible to increase the sustainability and productivity of agrocenoses by applying adaptive agroecological macroand microzonation of cultivated species, the use of adapted varieties, mosaic design of agrocenoses. The article presents the results of many years of research into improving the adaptive properties of winter wheat varieties for the conditions of the foothill area of the Central Caucasus. For a comprehensive assessment of varieties compliance with the conditions of cultivation, such characteristics as plasticity and stability of the variety were used. As an indicator of ontogenetic adaptability, homeostaticity of plants were used. More than 30 varieties of winter wheat were studied using the parameters of productivity and resistance to a harmful complex of diseases, which are represented by: Fusarium head blight, brown and yellow rusts, Septoria blight, pyrenophoresis, etc.
Keywords: winter wheat, variety, agrocenosis, spike fusarium, productivity, homeostasis, environmental plasticity, variety mixtures.
ACTION AND CONSEQUENCES OF URBAN SEWAGE SLUDGES IN COMBINATION WITH ZEOLITE-CONTAINING AGRO-ORE ON WATER AVAILABILITY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF GRAINPASTURE CROP ROTATION
The effect and the after-effect of the ameliorative norms of urban sewage sludge (USS) in combination with a zeolite-containing agro-ore on the moisture regime, the reserves of productive moisture and the productivity of grain-pasture crop rotation are shown. It was established that the effect and aftereffect of the reclamation norms of USS in combination with zeolite-containing agro-ore increased humidity in the arable horizon by 3.2-5.1%. Urban sewage sludge in combination with the zeolitecontaining agro-ore had the maximum effect on the accumulation of productive moisture in the meadow black soil due to precipitation during the cold period of the year. The maximum productivity of grain-pasture crop rotation was marked against the background of the effect and the after-effect of USS in combination with a zeolite-containing agro-ore (51.7-73.6%).
Key words: urban sewage sludge, zeolite-containing agro-ore, meadow black soil, moisture regime, productive moisture reserves, crop rotation productivity.
FORMATION AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY OF MIXED AGROPHYTOCENOSES WITH SWEET CLOVER (MELILOTUS)
The article presents the results of studying the characteristics of the formation of annual forage crops in mixed agrophytocenoses, their photosynthetic activity depending on the mixture components, seeding rates in the mixture, the background of mineral nutrition. The studies were conducted in the three-factor field experiment in 2015-2017 on the experimental field of the Penza Agricultural Institute – a branch of the FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops. The studies were carried out according to generally accepted methods on leached medium loamy black soil, with a high and elevated content of available forms of macronutrients. Annual forage crops (Sudan grass (Sorghium vulgare), maize, sawa millet (Echonichloa frumentacea), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), amaranth (Amaranthus)) were studied in mixed sowing with a white sweet clover (Melilotus albus). The seeding rates of the legume and associated components were 70 + 40%, 55 + 55%, 40 + 70% of the total norm. As a nutritional background, the doses of mineral fertilizers N45P45K45 (background 1) and N60P60K60 (background 2) were studied. The purpose of the research was to study the formation and photosynthetic activity of agrophytocenoses of annual forage crops in mixed sowings with white sweet clover in the forest steppe of the Middle Volga region. It was established that the germination and preservation of annual grasses in mixed sowings depended on meteorological conditions during the years of research, a concomitant component in the mixture, seeding rates of components and mineral fertilizers. The most developed photosynthetic potential (regardless of other factors) was in mixtures of sweet clover with amaranth – 2.65 million m2 day/ha and of sweet clover with sawa millet – 2.08 million m2 day/ha. The seeding rate of 40 + 70% and the increased background of nutrition (N60P60K60) contributed to obtaining high rates of photosynthetic potential – 2.01 and 2.23 million m2/ha, respectively. The highest indicators of the net productivity of photosynthesis were obtained in mixtures of sweet clover with Sudan grass and of sweet clover with maize – 7.95 and 7.70 g/m2 per day, with a seeding rate of 40 + 70% – 6.55 g/m2 per day and on natural fertility (control) – 6.64 g/m2 per day.
Key words: fodder production, annual forage crops, seeding rate, mixture component, mineral fertilizers, mixed sowing, agrocenosis, photosynthetic activity.
TECHNIQUES OF THE FORMATION OF HIGH-PRODUCTIVE AGROPHYTOCENOSES OF PERENNIAL RYEGRASS
The article presents the results of studies conducted in 2016-2018 on the experimental field of the Penza Agricultural Institute – a branch of the FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops. The studies were carried out according to generally accepted methods on leached medium loamy black soil, with a high and elevated content of available forms of macronutrients. The purpose of the research was to study the timing of the use of mineral fertilizers, complex fertilizers, biostimulant on the productivity and nutritional value of perennial ryegrass forage of variety Weimar. It was established that the yield and the nutritional value of perennial ryegrass depended on meteorological conditions during the years of research and the factors studied. The most favorable for growth and development of perennial ryegrass was 2016 – there was received 8.32-15.85 t/ha of dry matter, in 2017 – 7.00- 12.29 t/ha, and in severely dry conditions of 2018 – 1.76-3.76 t/ha. On average for 2016-2018 the top dressing with mineral nitrogen in the growth phase of herbs was the most effective – there was received 10.63 t/ha of dry matter, 9.05 thousand feed units, 1307 kg/ha of digestible protein, which 86.9%; 104.8%; 297.3% respectively exceeded the control variant. Among complex fertilizers, Azosol 36 Extra showed high efficiency when used in the growth phase of perennial ryegrass – the increase in dry matter collection was 18.5%, of feed units – 21.8%, and of digestible protein – 37.6%. The introduction of mineral nitrogen in doses of N60 and N30 increased the nutritional value and energy content of the feed.
Key words: fodder production, perennial ryegrass, mineral fertilizers, productivity, nutritional value.
EFFICIENCY AND QUALITY OF SAFFLOWER VARIETIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
A.N. Kshnikatkina2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; T.Y. Prakhova1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, chief research worker; A.A. Shchanin2, post-graduate 1FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, workers settlement Lunino, Russia 2FSBEI HE Penza SAU, Penza, Russia
The aim of the research was to evaluate safflower variety samples by their productivity and oil quality in the Middle Volga region. The studies were conducted in 2016-2018 on the experimental field of Penza Agricultural Institute. The vegetative period of safflower in 2016 proceeded in moderately moist conditions with a hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) of 1.1 and an average daily temperature of 20.1°C. The vegetation period of 2017 was characterized as insufficiently moistened with the HTC of 0.82 units. The conditions of 2018 were severely arid, the HTC was only 0.4 at average daily temperatures of 19.3°C. The growing season from full germination to full maturation of safflower in the conditions of the Middle Volga region averaged 114-119 days. The studied varieties of safflower on average for three years formed a fairly high and stable yield of 1.12 and 1.45 t/ha. The maximum yield of safflower seeds was obtained in 2018, when the conditions were arid, and averaged from 1.27 to 1.59 t/ha. The largest seeds were formed by varieties Astrakhanskiy 747 and Aleksandrit, the weight of 1000 seeds was 45.6 and 44.6 g. The huskness was 33.17% in average. The fat content in the seeds was high and amounted to 33.6-37.1%. The variety Alexandrit was distinguished by oil content, the oil content of which was 37.1%. All varieties were characterized by a very high content of linoleic acid 75.2-77.6%, with a very low amount of linolenic acid – 0.12-0.19%. The content of monounsaturated oleic acid varied in the range of 12.2-14.5%.
Key words: safflower, yield, vegetation period, oil content, fatty acid composition
PECULIARITIES OF THE FISH FAUNA OF LAKE SANDERKA IN THE FLOODPLAIN OF THE SURA RIVER WITHIN THE PENZA REGION
The article presents the results of studies of the fish fauna of the floodplain lake Sanderka, during which 15 species of fish were identified, which is 60% of the fish fauna composition common for the bayou waters of the Sura river. The species represented in the studied lake belong to the five faunal complexes. This indicates a preserved ecosystem of the lake, compared with other water bodies of this type. Of the 15 fish species identified in the lake Sanderka, five are valuable commercial fish. It has been established that the dominant species in the studied lake is roach, the rudd is also numerous, the number of bream is rather high. Despite the proximity of human settlements and thanks to the uniqueness of its ecosystem, lake Sanderka has preserved the biodiversity of the fish population. It can serve as a reference water body in the organization of monitoring studies of the fish fauna of the bayou lakes of the Penza Region and the Republic of Mordovia.
Key words: bayou lake, floodplain lake, fish fauna, faunal complex, natural monument.
COMPETITIVE VARIETY TESTING OF SOFT SPRING WHEAT IN THE FOREST-STEPPE ZONE OF THE PENZA REGION
The problem of creating highly productive varieties of spring wheat with good quality of grain, adapted to the conditions of the forest-steppe zone, is relevant for the Penza region. The paper considers the results of studying a new breeding material of soft spring wheat in competitive variety testing in the forest-steppe zone of the Penza region for the main economically valuable traits. The studies were conducted in 2017-2018 on the fields of the department of selection of grain crops of the Penza Agricultural Institute. On average, for two years of study, the yield varied from 1.85...3.96 t/ha. An excess over the standard yield had the following lines – Erythrospermum 70/04-3 (3.96 t/ha), Erythrospermum 43/08-9 (3.77 t/ha), Erythrospermum 78/03-28 (3.66 t/ha), Erythrospermum 20/08-7 (3.62 t/ha), Erythrospermum 76/03-6 (3.61 t/ha) and variety Tulaikovskaya 108 (3.62 t/ha). The outlined promising lines belong to mid-season varieties. According to plant height, they are classified as undersized forms (86...105 cm). During the period of research, the varieties and lines formed a mass of 1000 grains from 29.1 to 42.1 g, of the most promising lines, the largest grain formed Erythrospermum 78/03-28. All promising samples had indicators of high quality: vitreousness, grain unit, gluten and protein content in grain belonged to the second quality group. The Erythrospermum 78/03-28 line was distinguished by a set of indicators, which, along with a high yield (3.66 t/ha), was distinguished by high indicators of grain quality.
Key words: soft spring wheat, lines, yield, growing season, raw gluten, lodging resistance.
Veterinary and zootechny
SELENIUM AS A MODULATOR OF BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF ANIMAL ORGANISM
Selenium derivatives have a multifaceted effect on blood biochemical parameters of various animal species. An increase in total protein and its fractions and a decrease in hepatic tension were noticed in the experiment. This showed the active role of selenium in the modulation of the biochemical response of the body to its introduction from the outside. The manifestation of the properties of the inorganic, organic and chelated forms of the microelement was tested on various types of mammals. It was of the same type, although in varying degrees, in rats, piglets and sows, calves and dairy cows. Selenopyran, an organic compound, had a more notable effect compared to an inorganic preparation and microelement-containing yeast. This phenomenon must be taken into account when growing a healthy animal under conditions of selenium deficiency in the biogeochemical provinces of the territory of Belarus and the western part of Russia. Thus, selenium preparations should take their place both in the process of growing a healthy productive animal, and in the practice of modern therapeutic veterinary medicine.
Key words: selenopyran, sodium selenite, Selenium yeast, biochemical blood test, rat, pig, cattle.
EFFECT OF ECHINACEA PURPUREA ON BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MEAT POULTRY HATCHING EGGS
The effect of a plant stimulator, Echinacea purpurea, on the biochemical parameters of hatching eggs was studied. The study was conducted in laying hens of Cobb-500 broiler parent flocks under conditions of AO Vasilyevskaya Poultry Factory of Penza Oblast. Study showed a significant effect of Echinacea purpurea supplementation to the basic ration on the content of carotenoids and vitamins in the hatching eggs of the parent broiler flock. It was found that the content of most vitamins and carotenoids in the eggs increased with bird’s age. It was noted that the stimulating supplement had positive effect on the content of vitamins in the 32 and 38 weekold laying hens, with the exception of tocopherol. The average content of tocopherol in the experimental groups of 32 and 45 week-old birds was lower than that of the control group. At 45 weeks of age, laying hens showed a decrease in retinol and riboflavin in the eggs of an experimental bird compared to the control group. The decrease was the result of a more intensive increase in the egg productivity of the experimental birds compared to the control group. When analyzing the acid value, it was found that this indicator was lower in young layers, at the beginning of the experiment, and increased with age, but it did not go beyond the limits of the norm. So at 32 weeks of age, the average acid value was 5.701, at 38 weeks of age – 5.799, and at 45 weeks of age – 5.898 mg KOH/g.
Key words: laying hens, parent broiler flock, albumen, egg yolk, carotenoids, vitamins.
BIOSYNTHESIS OF MILK COMPONENTS WHEN VARYING THE LEVEL OF READILY AVAILABLE CARBOHYDRATES IN COWS DIETS
The relationship between metabolic indicators, the functional state of the mammary gland, the level of vitamins and milk production indicators of lactating cows were studied. It was established that with a higher level of starch content in the diet, the mammary gland's absorption of glucose (p <0.05), triacylglycerols, amino acids increased, as well as the fat content in milk and the average daily milk yield. Quantitative data on the absorption of the main milk precursors by the mammary gland in highly productive cows with a different composition of readily available carbohydrates in their diet were obtained. The use in diets of lactating cows of a higher level of starch in the composition of readily available carbohydrates (84:16 versus 57:43) in the period of milk yield increasing (or the first phase of lactation) increased the average daily milk yield of 3.8% fat from 27.9 to 30 kg or 10.8%. The obtained new experimental data will be used to develop physiological criteria for the nutrition of highly productive dairy cattle.
Key words: lactating cows, rumen fermentation, substrates of milk synthesis, milk productivity.
CONDITION AND PERSPECTIVES OF PORK PRODUCTION IN RUSSIA
The importance of pork as the main raw material for the meat processing industry in Russia is noted. The production of all kinds of meat was considered in Russia in 2017. The number of pigs is presented by categories of farms in Russia in 2013-2017. The largest number of pigs in 2017 is accounted for by agricultural organizations – 19.85 million pigs. Based on the analysis of pig industry research, the dynamics of pork production in Russia is presented in slaughter weight by farm categories in 2013-2017. In 2017, Russia produced 3509 thousand tons of pork in slaughter weight, which is 5% more than in 2016. The proportion of pigs for slaughter in live weight was 32.1% of the total livestock and poultry. The main contribution to the growth of pork production was made by the 20 largest campaigns in the industry. Their share was 61.8% of the total industrial production. The average meat consumption per capita in Russia in 2017 increased by about 3% and amounted to 75 kg, while the average consumption of pork was 25.7 kg/person. Analyzing the structure of meat consumption in 2017 per person by type of raw materials, it can be noted that pork has become a growth driver of meat consumption, in 2018 this trend remained high. The development strategy of pig industry suggests that opening further export markets is a prerequisite for further significant development of the industry.
Keywords: analysis, dynamics, meat, volume, pig breeding, production, livestock, consumption, market, structure, raw materials, export.
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF A ROLLER SEEDING MECHANISM FOR CROPS OF A GRAIN CROP SEEDER
The seeding mechanism is one of the most responsible working bodies of the seeder for sowing crops. In order to obtain high and stable yields, the sowing devices must ensure the following: a continuous and uniform seed flow, the stability of the established seeding rate, the possibility of sowing seeds of various crops, minimal damage to the sown seeds, easy and convenient installation at a given seeding rate. Studies dedicated to improving the quality of sowing crops by improving the technological process of operation of the coil sowing apparatus are relevant and have important economic importance for the agroindustrial complex of Russia. The article presents the design and principle of operation of the developed roller seeding mechanism, which sectional coil grooves of are made in the shape of a torus, providing longitudinal stability of sowing seeds of grain crops, uniform distribution of seeds along the row and reducing injuries to seeds of cultivated crops. Because the grooves of the sectional coil are made in the form of a torus, this maximizes the working volume of the sectional coil, makes it possible to reduce the frequency of rotation of the sectional coil, the instability of the general seeding rate, improve the uniformity of seed distribution along the length of the row, reduce damage to the seeds and increase the yield of the cultivated crop.
Key words: sectional coil, roller seeding mechanism, working volume, seeds, grooves of the coil are made in the form of a torus.
SINGLE-POINT ENRICHMENT OF AIR CHARGE OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING DIESEL WITH LIQUID ACTIVATORS
An effective way to intensify the working process of diesel engines of automotive engineering is to enrich the air charge by supplying a certain dose (10–20%) of a hydrocarbon activator (alcohol, gasoline, kerosene, mineral diesel fuel or mixed vegetable-mineral fuel) to the engine intake pipeline in the intake stroke. For the practical implementation of this method, a single-point enrichment system for an air charge of a diesel engine has been developed. It contains an activator tank with a 10-20% volume of the tractor's tank, an activator filter, an electric pump, an electromagnetic nozzle, an electronic control unit and sensors. The results of comparative motor studies of diesel without enrichment and with enrichment of the air charge with various activators show that single-point enrichment using an electromagnetic nozzle installed at the entrance of the intake manifold improves the power, fuel, economic and environmental performance of the diesel.
Key words: automotive engineering, diesel, intake manifold, nozzle, liquid activator, single-point enrichment of air charge, electronic control unit, sensors.
DISTRIBUTED ENRICHMENT OF AIR CHARGE OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING DIESELS WITH LIQUID ACTIVATORS
To intensify the working process of diesel engines of automotive engineering, to improve power, fuel, economic and environmental performance, a distributed method of enriching the air charge in the intake stroke with a 10 ... 20% dose of liquid activator (gasoline, alcohol, kerosene, etc.) is proposed. To implement this method, an electronic system of distributed enrichment of the diesel air charge was developed. It contains a filter, an electric pump, electromagnetic nozzles, a ramp, a pressure regulator, a fuel consumption sensor (a meter of motor fuel mass flow), a phase sensor and an electronic control unit (ECU). The general arrangement of the main system units and the principle of their operation are described. The formulas for programming the ECU that controls the operation of electromagnet nozzles are given. The results of experimental studies found that with distributed enrichment of the air charge of a tractor diesel D-243-648, depending on the activator dose and load-speed mode of operation, the activator cycle supply can be from 1 mg / cycle to 13 mg / cycle, while the duration of control pulses generated by the ECU varies from 0.27 ms to 3.5 ms. The developed system provides high-quality distribution of the activator-air mixture across the cylinders of a diesel engine in the intake stroke and automatic metering of the activator depending on the load and speed modes of the engine.
Key words: automotive engineering, diesel, intake channels, air charge enrichment, activator, irregularity, distributed system, electric pump, ramp, electromagnetic injector, electronic control unit, sensors, algorithm.
IMPROVING THE FUEL ECONOMY OF CARGO CARS WITH CARBURETTIC ICE IN MODE INDIVIDUAL IDEAL PROCESS
To improve the fuel efficiency of trucks with gasoline carburetor internal combustion engines in self-idling mode, a device has been developed that ensures automatic engine operation by periodically repeated short-term cycles consisting of alternating shutdown cycles and fuel (or an fuel-air mixture) switching cycles through the output channel of idle carburetor system in the field of low frequencies of rotation of the cranked shaft (c.s.). The device consists of an electronic control unit (ECU), an electrical- pneumatic valve, a sensor of rotation velocity of c.s. of ICE, accelerator sensor and gearshift lever neutral sensor, electrically interconnected and with the power source by electrical wires through plug connectors. The ECU block is located in the cab of the car and is powered by direct current from the electrical system on board. It includes a voltage regulator, a signal amplifier, a one-shot (Schmidt trigger), a microcontroller, and a power switch (toggle switch).
Keywords: gasoline carburetor internal combustion engine, self-idling mode, fuel shutdown cycle, fuel switching cycle, fuel consumption, electronic control unit, sensors.
RESULTS OF STAND TESTS FOR WEAR RESISTANCE OF PLOUGHSHARE AFTER STRENGTHENING WITH ELECTROMECHANICAL HARDENING
The work analyzed the conditions for testing the plowshares for wear resistance, on the basis of which a test stand is proposed and a description of its design features is given. The methods and results of comparative wear tests of samples of standard plowshares and plowshares strengthened by electromechanical hardening are given. Tests have confirmed the high efficiency of electromechanical hardening to increase the wear resistance of plowshares. Regression equations in natural and coded values are obtained, which determine the influence of independent factors on the wear of plowshare samples after electromechanical hardening.
Key words: plowshare, electromechanical hardening, stand tests, wear, factors.
THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE MOVEMENT STABILITY OF ROTARY TILLER WITH PLOW DURING TILLAGE
Research analysis of labour saving device operation shows that the object of perturbations of the rotary tiller during the main tillage is its working body, in this case the plow, which is acted upon by normal and tangential forces. Thus, for a more complete analysis of the influence of the plow when interacting with the cultivated soil on the stability of the rotary tiller, an integrated approach was used to consider the main issues of kinematics and the dynamics of the working body, taking into account the features of the structural and technological parameters of the rotary tiller.
Keywords: Tillage, rotary tiller, plow, stability of movement, slipping, friction force.
THEORETICAL CALCULATION OF CERTAIN PARAMETERS OF A COMBINED COULTER
It is known that the uniform distribution of seeds and fertilizers over the depth and length of the row is the most important indicator when sowing grain seeds. Existing drill coulters for sowing seeds of grain crops do not fully meet these requirements. A solution to one of the actual problems of sowing crops with simultaneous fertilization is considered – laying the seeds on a compacted bed while excluding their contact with the furrow walls and without dropping the furrows during the laying of seeds and fertilizers, which affects the uniform distribution of seeds along the row and fertilizers seeding depth and, as a result, crop yield. For this purpose, theoretical studies of the inclination angle of the seeding channel and the width of the seedbed firmer were carried out, and the density of the soil at the bottom of the furrow was calculated. When these conditions are met, the seeds and fertilizers do not bounce off the furrow walls and lie on the firmed seedbed evenly, as a result the crop yield is increased. The authors have developed and manufactured a new type of combined coulter, which eliminates all the described disadvantages [1, 2].
Keywords: uniform distribution of seeds and fertilizers, quality of sowing, combined coulter, inclination angle, speed of fertilizer movement, seedbed firmer.
FIELD STUDY OF A SEED DRILL WITH ROLLER FEED WITH TORUS SHAPED COIL GROOVES
The article describes the experimental seed drill with a roller feed with the torus shaped sectional coil grooves, and also presents the results of field studies of the experimental seed drill. Information obtained contains experimental dependences of the uneven distribution of seeds along the row during Belgorodsky 100 spring barley sowing on the frequency of rotation of the coil, on the radius of the torus circle, as well as on the thickness of the separating disks of the roller feed with the torus shaped sectional coil grooves. Field studies were carried out by comparing SZ-5.4 basic seed drill with an experimental seed drill equipped with a new roller feed with the torus shaped sectional coil grooves. As shown by the test results, an experimental seed drill with roller feed with the torus shaped sectional coil grooves, performs the sowing process of Belgorodsky 100 spring barley consistently while observing agrotechnical requirements. At optimal values of indicators, instability of the general seeding rate, uniform distribution of seeds along the length of a row, damage to seeds is reduced and crop yields are increased.
Keywords: roller feed, sectional coil, seeder, torus shaped grooves, spring barley seeds, Belgorodsky 100.
IMPROVING THE RELIABILITY OF HYDROSYSTEMS OF LAND RECLAMATION MACHINES BY ENSURING THE PURITY OF WORKING LIQUIDS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN
The article presents an assessment of the impact of contaminated working fluid of hydraulic systems of land reclamation machines on the efficiency of the equipment operation in the Republic of Tajikistan. The main factors affecting the change in the resource of these machines are considered. The most typical reasons for the ingress of solid particles into the cavities of transport-technological machines are identified. The influence of these particles on the processes of wear in the hydraulic equipment interfaces has been established. To ensure the purity of working fluids in the design of hydraulic systems of reclamation machines it is proposed to use centrifugal cleaners, the method of calculating the design and technological parameters of which are also given in the text of the scientific article.
Keywords: working fluid, contamination, reclamation machines, hydraulic system, reliability, centrifugal cleaning.