AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Agronomy


 doi: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.001

EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS ON FORMATION OF AGROCENOSIS DENSITY, SEEDING QUALITIES AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SPRING WHEAT SEEDS
L.V. Karpova, Doctor Agricultural Sciences, professor; A.V. Strogonova, graduate student
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University,
tel. (8412)628373; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

There is a great shortage of trace elements in the soils of our country, which does not justify the biological potential of the productive indicators of the main crops.
The research objective is the scientific substantiation of the choice of the most effective way of applying complex liquid fertilizers with microelements in chelated form to form the density of agrocenosis, seedlings qualities and biochemical composition of spring wheat seeds.
It was established that, on average, over two years of research, the field germination of spring wheat against the background of natural fertility was in the range of 73.8-78.4%, and against the background of the application of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer it amounted to 73.6-79.3%. The largest number of plants remained for harvesting was noted both against the background without fertilizer application and against the background of mineral nutrition in the variants with seed treatment with Megamix-seeds and Megamix-Profi in the tillering and heading stages – 386 and 388 plants per 1 m2.
Micronutrient fertilizers influenced the weight of 1000 seeds, germination energy, laboratory germination and growth power. When growing this crop against the background of N16P16K16 application, the weight of 1000 seeds increased by 10.1% according to the experimental variants, germination energy – 9.4%, laboratory germination by 6.9%, weight of 100 sprouts – by 17%, and sprout length – 18.9%.
The biochemical composition of the grain shows a supply of the following nutrients: protein, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, the largest amount of which was accumulated in spring wheat grain grown during the treatment of seeds and crops with fertilizers Megamix-seeds and Megamix-Profi.
Keywords: variety, spring wheat, mineral fertilizer, macroelements, microelements, density of agrocenosis, biochemical composition.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.002

ABOUT THE CONTENT OF CADMIUM IN WILD-GROWING FODDER, MEDICINAL, AND FOOD PLANTS OF FORESTS OF THE PENZA REGION
A.I. Ivanov1, Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; M.I. Andreeva2, research worker
1 Penza State Agrarian University, Penza, Russia, tel. 896563331761, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2 A branch of the federal budgetary institution “Federal Office for the Safe Storage and Destruction of Chemical Weapons under the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation (military unit 70855) – 1206 facility for storage and destruction of chemical weapons (military unit 21222)”,
Leonidovka village, Penza region, Russia, tel. 89063994748, e-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The objects of the research were samples of soils and herbaceous plants taken in the forest ecosystems of the Penza region, which were analyzed for the total content of cadmium by atomic absorption spectrometry. It was found that in the samples taken from A-horizons of different varieties of grey forest soils, the content of this element was 4-5 times lower than the approximate permissible concentrations (APC). The cadmium concentration in the studied plant species was also significantly lower than the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). Two types of cadmium distribution were recorded fro herbs. In the goatweed, its content was higher in the underground organs, and in the carex – in the leaves. The minimal values were determined for reproductive organs. The cadmium content in the vegetative organs – representatives of various economic groups of feed plants was different. The lowest values were expressed among representatives of the legume family. The average values are determined for species of herbs, the maximum – for cereals. The samples of the biomaterial of various plant species taken in the study area and used as food and medicinal raw materials contained various amounts of the studied element. The minimum values were determined for alder cones, raspberries and strawberries, the maximum – for leaves and blueberries. Thus, fodder, medicinal and food plants procured in the research area were safe for cadmium content.
Key words: pollution, cadmium, grasses, medicinal plants, berries.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.003

STUDIES OF THE POSSIBILITY OF USING MUSHROOM WASTE IN BIOREMEDIATION OF AGRICULTURAL SOILS
G.V. Ilyina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor; S.A. Sashenkova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
D.Yu. Ilyin, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State
Agrarian University», Russia, tel. (8412) 62-81-51, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper considers the possibilities of using organic substrates after cultivation mycelial cultures of xylotrophic basidiomycetes for bioremediation of soils contaminated with polyphenolic compounds and heavy metals. A 0.9-3-fold decrease in the integral soil toxicity indicator under the influence of mycelial-substrate complexes (mushroom cultivation and biotechnology waste) was shown. The dynamics of the humus content in soil samples as a result of introducing oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) as a fertilizer was studied. It was found that the content of humus in the experimental variants increased by 0.08-0.14%. At the same time, the use of mushroom cultivation waste as fertilizers made it possible to increase the yield of spring wheat “Tulaykovskaya 10” by 10.7-29.5%.
Key words: bioremediation of soils, xylotrophic basidiomycetes, mycelial cultures, mushroom waste, integral toxicity

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.004

PROTEIN CONTENT IN GRAINS OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MINERAL NUTRITION
V.V. Koshelyaev1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor; V.I. Salnikov2, postgraduate; I.P. Koshelyaeva1, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. 8(8412) 62-83-73, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2 Branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution «Russian Agricultural Center» in the Penza Region, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 35-26-50, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The main direction of improving the quality of grain is the cultivation of new varieties genetically predisposed to form high quality grain. At the same time, the genetic potential of varieties can only be realized under specific weather conditions and the application of cultivation techniques that favourably affect the growth and development of plants. In these studies, various conditions were created by changing plant nutritional regimes in order to determine the possibilities of varieties to form a grain crop with a high protein content. The purpose of the work was to evaluate and highlight varieties of winter wheat that can realize the potential of grain quality at various levels of intensification of mineral nutrition. To achieve the goal, a two-factor field experiment was carried out. Factor A – winter wheat varieties, factor B – levels of mineral nutrition. As a result, it was established that varieties of winter wheat were characterized by unequal properties to accumulate protein in grain. Variety Claudia 2 was characterized by high activity to accumulate protein when fertilizing. Bezenchukskaya 380, Moskovskaya 56 were characterized by medium activity and Nemchinovskaya 57, Scepter and Fatigna – by low. The application of mineral fertilizers at the rate of N16 P16 K16 during sowing in fall and N68 for top dressing in spring contributed to the formation of grain with a higher protein content in all varieties of winter wheat.
Key words: winter wheat, varieties, protein content, mineral nutrition, fertilizer.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.005

CORN GRAIN PRODUCTIVIY, DEPENDING ON FOLIAR APPLICATION OF POLYNUTRIENT FERTILIZER
P.A. Semina, Doctor Agricultural Sciences, professor; I.V. Gavryushina, Candidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia, tel. (8412)628151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies on the effect of foliage treatment of crops with solutions of complex fertilizers Azosol 36 Extra and Aquarin 5 with micro-elements in chelate form on the structural elements and grain productuvity of early ripening and medium early maize hybrids at various levels of root nutrition. In the variants without mineral fertilizers, after applying complex fertilizers in the 5-leaf phase, the number of grains on a cob increased by 7.0-9.0%, and after double treatment – by 8.0-9.9%, and there is no big difference in hybrids notably. On the fertilized soil, the treatment of crops in the 5-leaf phase of corn with micronutrient fertilizers allowed to increase the number of grains on a cob of the early ripening hybrid Ladozhskiy 191 MB by 7.2-7.5%, and a double application increased the number of grains on a cob by 7.8-8.1 % When treating the crops of the mid-early hybrid Azosol 36 Extra, the growth of full-fledged grains amounted to 3.0-3.9%, and a greater number of grains were formed when microfertilizers were applied in the 5-leaf phase. Aquarin 5 contributed to an increase in the number of grains on a cob by 4.5-5.6%, and the best results were obtained with its double use. After foliar treatment of early ripening hybrid crops with complex microelement fertilizers in the variants without solid mineral fertilizer, the weight of corn cobs increased by 6.4-11.1% with a slight advantage of using Aquarin 5. The use of Azosol 36 Extra on the crops of the Ronaldinio hybrid in a natural soil made it possible to increase the weight of grain from the cobs by 8.3-9.7%, treatment with Aquarin 5 – by 11.1-13.2%, with large increases obtained after the double use of chelated fertilizer. The binary use of Azosol 36 Extra on the crops of the early ripening Ladozhskiy hybrid 191 MV under conditions of improved root nutrition contributed to an additional 8.2% of grain from a cob. Treatment in the 5-leaf phase and the double use of Aquarin 5 increased the weight of the grain of one cob by 8.6-8.7%. In the crops of the mid-early hybrid, the advantage was also for the Aquarin 5 microfertilizer. Its use in the 5-leaf phase increased the weight of a cob grain by 9.1%, and its double use by 10.1%. Azosol 36 Extra provided smaller grain increments – 5.2-6.2%, moreover, the difference in treatment time was not significant. A promising way to increase the productivity of corn grain is to use complex fertilizer with microelements in the chelate form Aquarin 5 in the 5-leaf phase and double foliar treatment, which contributes to an increase in grain harvest from a unit area on an unapproved agricultural background by 9.6-12.4%, and with the improvement of root nutrition conditions – by 7.7-8.8%.
Keywords: corn, hybrid, fertilizers, microelements, corn cob, grain, productivity.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.006

PRODUCTIVITY OF MEDIUM EARLY POTATO VARIETIES DEPENDING ON THE APPLICATION OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS AND CHICKEN MANURE
N.P. Chekaev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor; N.V. Koryagina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies on the influence of mineral fertilizers and chicken manure on the productivity of potato tubers of domestic and foreign selection. In the studies conducted in 2017-2019 on leached chernozem under the conditions of the Penza region, it was found that when chicken manure and mineral fertilizers are applied, the yield and quality of tubers increases, which is directly related to the supply of plants with nutrients. The use of chicken manure at a dose of 2 t/ha allowed to increase the total yield of tubers of the studied varieties of potatoes by 22.6-29.5%, marketable tubers by 24.3-35.5% compared with the variant without fertilizers. The highest yields were observed in variants with the combined use of carbamide in a dose of N30 and potassium sulfate at a dose K60 and in variants with a combined use of ammophos at a dose N30P30K30 and potassium sulfate at a dose K30. The use of moderate doses of mineral fertilizers and chicken manure at a dose of 2 t/ha increases not only the productivity of potato tubers, but also the content of dry matter, starch and nitrates in the tubers, not exceeding the MAC value. The combined use of nitrogen-potassium and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers with the addition of potassium sulfate at doses of K60 and K30 can improve the quality indicators of tubers for all studied varieties.
Keywords: potato varieties, yield, quality of tubers, mineral fertilizers, chicken manure.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.007

LEGAL SUPPORT AND WAYS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF STATE LAND SUPERVISION IN THE PENZA REGION
O.F. Kadykova, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Assistant-Professor; A.P. Duzhnikov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-Professor;
T.N. Chuvorkina, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Assistant-Professor; A.V. Dolbilin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant-Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. (8-412) 628338, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the system of legal support for the organization of land supervision at the regional level, the results of the analysis of the activities of state inspectors on the use and protection of land in the Penza region are presented, violations of land legislation are presented, the main directions for improving the effectiveness of land supervision are identified. The analysis of legal sources on the studied problem showed that in the implementation of state land supervision regulatory and legal acts of different levels are applied. According to existing legislation, state land supervision is carried out by specially authorized federal executive bodies. Among departments, the Federal State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography Service (hereinafter referred to as the Rosreestr) has the largest powers in the field of land supervision.
Based on the analysis of the main indicators of state supervision in the Penza region, the effectiveness of the Rosreestr Directorate is determined. The indicators characterizing the activities of state inspectors of the Rosreestr on the protection and land use for 2015-2018 are considered. Concrete examples of violations of land legislation in the region are given. It was revealed that controversial situations arising in the course of inspections are related to unauthorized occupation of a land plot or its use without appropriate documents. The results of the analysis of the performance indicators of the state inspectors of Rosreestr on the protection and land use in the region indicate that the performance of the state function of state land supervision in the Penza region is within the normal range. The control and supervision measures proposed by the authors allow to improve the effectiveness of land supervision in the Penza region.
Key words: legal regulation, state land supervision, performance of executive authorities.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.008

FORMATION OF THE STRATEGY OF CROP PRODUCTION INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT
S.N. Alekseyeva, Candidate of Economic Sciences, assistant-professor; G.A. Volkova, Candidate of Economic Sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. 8(8412) 628563, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The aim of the article is the study and systematization of factors affecting the formation of a strategy for the innovative development of crop production. In the work were used general and special research methods, as well as strategic planning methods, which provide initial information for making an informed decision about the optimal development strategy using modern applied methodology.
The authors highlighted the directions of the strategy for the development of crop production, which suggest an increase in agricultural production only with the constant introduction of innovations. Based on the materials of an agricultural organization, the article analyzes the external and internal environment, evaluates the factors of the organization’s strategic position.
The formation of the strategy for the innovative development of crop production will contribute to a range of research and development, creation of innovations, their development in order to maximize income and increase the competitiveness of crop production. The relevance of this study also led to the fact that crop production is an important indicator of the country's food security.
Key words: crop production, development strategy, innovation, planning, strategic directions, the external and internal environment of the organization, oil-bearing crops, production program.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.009

INFLUENCE OF EARLY-SPRING FERTILIZING WITH SULPHUR-CONTAINING MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON THE QUALITY OF WINTER WHEAT GRAIN FLOUR
F.A. Mudarisov1, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor; M.K. Sadygova2, Doctor of Technical sciences, professor; E.Sh. Minacheva2, post-graduate student;
A.A. Galiullin3, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University n.a. P.A. Stolypin», Ulyanovsk, Russia, tel. 8(8422) 55-95-47, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Saratov State Agrarian University n.a. N.I. Vavilov», Saratov, Russia, tel. 8 (8452) 23-32-92, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
3 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Penza, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 628-151

Wheat flour obtained from winter soft wheat grain of the Saratovskaya 17 variety, grown under the conditions of leached, medium-power, low-humus, medium loamy black soil of the Middle Volga region of the Russian Federation (Ulyanovsk Region) in 2017-2018 was studied in the work. According to leading experts in the field of plant nutrition, the presence of sufficient sulphur in cultivated plants is the main factor in obtaining high-quality protein compounds. The effect of early spring fertilizing with ammonium nitrate with the addition of ammonium sulfate in the amount of 5 and 10% was studied. The crude gluten content in 2018 grain flour was lower by 4.5-7.0% compared with the 2017 test variants; therefore, the water-absorbing capacity (WAC) in the 2018 test variants was two to three units lower. The use of sulfur-containing fertilizers in the early spring feeding of winter wheat affected the quality of finished products. When applying sulphur-containing fertilizers in the amount of 10%, high porosity, specific volume of bread, and form stability were obtained, which showed the dependence of these indicators on gluten, viscosity, and amylase indices.
Key words: mixolab, test profile, profiler index, gluten index, sulphur fertilizers.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.010

COMPARTMENT DESCRIPTION OF SHELTERBELT FORESTS ON AGRICULTURAL LANDS
S.V. Bogomazov, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor; O.S. Balakireva, student;
E.V. Efremova, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor; O.A. Tkachuk, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor;
A.V. Lyandenburskaya, senior lecturer; A.A. Levin, assistant
Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. (8412) 628546, е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article provides an analysis of economic use of shelterbelt forests on agricultural lands. The aim of the research was a compartment description of shelterbelt forests on the territory of the Volchkovsky village council of the Belinsky district in order to preserve and restore the stock of reclamative afforestating land. In the laboratory conditions, an up-to-date cartographic material was created on the basis of high-resolution and ultra-high-resolution satellite images, visual interpretation was made with the preparation of a vector polygonal layer of the current location of the shelterbelt forests, the number of decrypted objects, their legal status and total area (199.2 ha) were determined. The calculation of the NDVI index showed that the state, not requiring restoration (updating) measures, had 77 forest strips with a total area of 127.1 hectares; a condition requiring restoration (renewal) measures was relevant for 31 forest strips with an area of 70.4 ha; one forest strip with an area of 1.7 hectares was completely lost. A roadmap for the conservation of the stock of reclamative afforestating land was developed.
Keywords: inventory, shelterbelt forests, agricultural land, geographical information systems

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.011

TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATION OF LIQUID NITROGEN AND NITROGEN-CONTAINING FERTILIZERS ON THE BASIS OF KAS-32 IN SEEDING CEREAL AND GRAIN LEGUME CROPS
V.A. Milyutkin1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; A.M. Petrov1, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
O.N. Kukharev2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; N.G. Dluzhevsky3, process engineer, Deputy Director
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Samara State Agrarian University", Russia, tel. 8-927-264-41-88, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia, tel. 8-927-784-79-11, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
3 Public Joint Stock Company KuibyshevAzot, tel. 8-927-784-79-11, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents materials from the laboratory and field studies of the Samara State Agrarian University on the effectiveness of liquid mineral nitrogen and new nitrogen-sulfur fertilizers based on KAS-32 compared with solid fertilizers – ammonium nitrate produced by PAO KuibyshevAzot (Tolyatti, Samara oblast) in the cultivation of cereal crops (durum wheat ) and legumes (soybeans) using MINI-TILL technology provided by the agricultural machinery complex AO Evrotehnika (Samara) of the German company AMAZONEN-Werke (Germany). Objective: to determine the effectiveness of nitrogen liquid mineral fertilizers produced by PAO KuibyshevAzot and new nitrogen-sulfur fertilizers in comparison with traditional solid mineral fertilizers – ammonium nitrate – with the determination of the optimal doses, methods and time of application, the necessary technical means for various crops, including cereals and legumes. In the dry year of 2018 (the seventh drought year since 1936), fairly high results were obtained in terms of yield and quality of the products when using KAS-32, KAS-32 with sulfur and RPS (sulfur-containing nutritious solution) in comparison with solid mineral fertilizers (ammonia nitrate) when applied by AO Eurotechnika sprayers equipped with large-droplet sprayers and extension hoses for foliar and nonroot (root) dressing of plants.
Keywords: machinery, technologies, MINI-TILL, fertilizers, liquid, solid, application, dressing, yield, quality, grain crop, grain legumes.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.012

THE ROLE OF BIOPREPARATIONS AND THEIR TANK MIXTURES IN INCREASING DISEASE RESISTANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SOYBEAN
A.T. Farniyev, Doctor of Agricultural sciences; A.Kh. Kozyrev, Doctor of Agricultural sciences;
А.А. Sabanova, Candidate of Agricultural sciences; Kh.P. Kokoyev, Candidate of Agricultural sciences
Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher education «Gorsky (Mountain) State Agrarian University», Vladikavkaz, tel. (8672)53-11-33. Е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Soybean is a valuable bean crop that provides a balanced diet for feeding farm animals, and enriches the soil with biological nitrogen. The most important factor in deciding the production of ecologically clean agricultural products is biological preparations of various origins, used as growth stimulants, as well as preparations that increase resistance to pathogens and adverse environmental factors. In the steppe zone of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, the effect of the following biological products was studied: strains 17-1, 38-22, rhizotorfin, Albite on soybean plants of Alba and ES Mentor varieties during seed inoculation and spraying of vegetative plants. A high disease resistance of plants to fusarium, ascochitosis, peronosporosis and anthracnose was revealed upon double treatment with a tank mixture (strains 17-1 + 38-22 + Albite). A hundred-per-cent biological effectiveness of biological preparations against fusarium and anthracnose was determined, high efficiency (94%, 63.7% and 92.5%, 53.8%) against ascochitosis and peronosporosis, respectively, was for Alba and EU Mentor varieties. At the same time, all indicators of the structure of yield and productivity of soybean were improved. Seed productivity increased from 2.42 to 3.40 t/ha for Alba variety and from 2.23 to 3.01 t/ha for ES Mentor variety.
Key words: soybean, biological products, disease resistance, biological effectiveness, yield, crop structure.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.013

CHANGE IN THE AGROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LEACHED CHERNOZEM DEPENDING ON THE APPLICATION OF LOCAL SILICEOUS ROCKS AND FERTILIZERS
N.P. Chekaev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor; A.E. Ryabov, graduate student;
T.A. Vlasova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor; Yu.V. Koryagin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Penza State Agrarian University, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 62–83–67, e–mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies on the influence of siliceous rocks (diatomite) and fertilizers on the agrophysical properties of leached chernozem and crop yields. As shown by the studies conducted in 2015–2017 at the training and production center of the FSBEI HE Penza SAU (Mokshan district, Penza oblast), over the three years of application of diatomite at a rate from 2 to 8 t/ha, the number of water–resistant units in the variants without fertilizers had changed slightly, the difference compared to the initial values ranged from 1.1 to 2.6%. Against the background of the use of manure with the introduction of different doses of diatomite, an increase in the number of water–resistant aggregates was observed compared with the initial value by 13.6% in the variant without diatomite and by 20.9% in the variant with a diatomite at a rate of 8 t/ha. Against the background of the use of mineral fertilizers, the difference was from 1.8 to 4.7%. Improving the structural state and exerting a softening effect on the arable horizon, the use of diatomite and organic fertilizers increases the yield of crops. Doses of diatomite from 2.0 to 8.0 t/ha increased crop yields by 8.9–18.4%. Against the background of the use of manure at a rate of 48 t/ha, the yield of the first crop had increased. Winter wheat yield had increased by 69.8–86.3%. The yield of the second and third crops had increased from 13.7 to 26.5%.
Keywords: siliceous rock, manure, mineral fertilizers, soil aggregate water stability, bulk density, porosity, yield.

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Veterinary and zootechny


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.014

INFLUENCE OF THE QUALITY AND THE LEVEL OF PROTEIN IN DIETS ON THE GROWTH RATE OF FATTENING BULL-CALVES
D.G. Pogosyan, Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. (8412) 62-81-51, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents and summarizes the results of many years of research on the influence of the quality and the level of protein in diets on the growth rate of bull-calves. The studies found that improving the quality of protein in the diets of fattening bull-calves of dairy breeds at different growth periods due to a decrease in protein disintegration in the rumen by 2.5-6.9% contributed to an increase in the average daily gain in live weight of young animals by 2.5-16.4%.
An increase in the protein level in the diets of intensively fed calves of Holstein and Aberdeen Angus breeds aged from 3 to 12 months by 1.5 times was due to increased feeding of concentrates significantly increased the average daily gain in live weight of young animals by 47 and 30%, respectively.
Key words: bull-calves, compound feed, disintegration of protein in the rumen, diet, concentrates, average daily gain, live weight, growth rate.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.015

CYTOMETRIC INDICATORS OF THE EPITHELIAL LAYER OF THE HEN OVIDUCT IN THE AGE INTERVAL OF 30-120 DAYS
R.Yu. Khokhlov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor; S.I. Kuznetsov, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. (8412) 628-151, e-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article is devoted to the study of cytometric parameters of the epithelial layer of the mucous membrane of the oviduct of hens before the start of egg-laying, namely from 30 to 120 days of age. As a result of the analysis of the obtained cytometric indicators, it was found that the thickness of the epithelial layer of the cranial part of the oviduct progressively increases from 30 to 90 days of age. A similar trend is observed in the caudal part of the oviduct a month later, that is, from 60 days of age. Cranial epithelial cells had the largest nuclei at the age of 90 days, and caudal – at the age of 120 days. The sizes of epithelial cells in the cranial region varied from the minimum values at the age of 30 days to the maximum values at the age of 60 days. The minimum area of epithelial cells is noted in the caudal region, as well as in the cranial, at the age of 30 days. However, the maximum area of epithelial cells in the caudal region does not coincide with the cranial region, since the largest epithelial cells in the caudal region are observed at 120 days of age. The minimal ratio of nuclei to the cytoplasm in the cranial part of the oviduct was observed at 60 days of age, and in the caudal – at 90 days of age. The highest nuclear cytoplasmic ratio in the cranial part was recorded at 30 days of age, and in the caudal part – at 30 and 120 days of age.
Key words: hen, oviduct, epithelium, morphogenesis, nuclear cytoplasmic ratio.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.016

IMMUNE STATUS OF OFFSPRING CALVES OF SERVICING BULLS OF FOREIGN BREEDING AND DOMESTIC STUD FARMS
G.I. Boryaev1, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor; Yu.S. Goncharuk1, postgraduate student;
E.V. Zdorovyeva1, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Assistant-professor; A.V. Nosov1, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Assistant-professorт;
Yu.N. Fyodorov2, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor; Ye.K. Kistanova3, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Assistant-professor
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, т. 8(8412) 628151, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «All-Russian Scientific Research and Technological Institute of Biological Industry», e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
3 Institute of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Pedigree bulls make the contribution of genetic progress to the population, therefore, an assessment of the immunological status of their offspring will add the characteristics of the breeding qualities of bulls and develop ways to increase the congenital immunity of young animals. The results of the studies suggest that the offspring of foreign servicing bulls has a decrease in the humoral link of the immune system compared to the offspring obtained from bulls of domestic stud farms and foreign bulls brought to Russia at eight months of age. The observed decrease was expressed in a reduced level of G-class immunoglobulins by 40%, of M-class – by 5 times and of IgA – by 60%, as well as in a decrease in the number of T-lymphocytes in the blood of calves.
Key words: highly productive animals, servicing bulls, domestic breeding, foreign breeding, calves, immune status

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ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.017

CONTROL OF TECHNICAL CONDITION OF THE AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION
A.S. Ivanov1, Candidate of Technical sciences, assistant-professor; V.V. Lyandenburskiy2, Candidate of Technical sciences, assistant-professor;
I.I. Fakhrutdinov2, student; P.M. Ekimov2, post-graduate;
V.A. Ivanov1, Candidate of Technical sciences;K.Z. Kukhmazov1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Penza, Russia, tel. 8(8412) 65-82-42 Е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State University of Architecture and Construction», Penza, Russia

The aim of the study was to develop an automatic gearbox troubleshooting algorithm based on performance tests, as existing algorithms do not allow to determine a problem in a car at the lowest cost. Based on the analysis, it was proposed to change the algorithm for diagnosing an automatic transmission of cars. As a result of performance tests using the Consult III+, the measurements of the degree of depressing the accelerator pedal, changes in vehicle speed and engine speed depending on time, changes in the degree of throttle opening and pressure in the high-pressure fuel line to detect a faulty condition of a gearbox were made. The measurement time for each of the indicators was not more than 30 seconds. An automatic gearbox troubleshooting algorithm was developed using an interrogatory part.
Key words: car, diagnosis, automatic gearbox, algorithm.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.018

RESEARCH OF MOBITOX SUPER SEED DRESSING MACHINE, FITTED WITH A TWO DISC DISTRIBUTOR AND A TWO-LEVEL REFLECTIVE DEVICE
A.V. Machnev1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, assistant-professor; O.N. Kukharev2, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor;
O.Yu. Machneva2, postgraduate;V.A. Machnev2, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor;
P.N. Horev2, Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant-professor; A.V. Yashin2, Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant-professor
1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State University of Food Production», Moscow, Russia
2 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. (8412) 62-85-79, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The use of seed dressers improves their field germination, reduces smut diseases and root rot. The experience of the use of dressing agents in grain-sowing farms showed that the self-propelled seed dressers PS-20AM01, Mobitox Super, PSK-15 are most widely used in the Russian Federation. The disadvantages of these machines are expressed in the impossibility of conducting high-quality dressing on sites with an inclination angle of more than 7 degrees and when the machine is operating at a capacity in the range from 60 to 100% of the base. In addition, the increased moisture content of the seeds after dressing (according to the agrotechnical requirements of perfectly rigid body (PRB) – no more than 1%) and the crushing of seeds somewhat reduce the effectiveness of using chamber dressers. The aim of the research was to improve the quality of seed dressing through the use of a two-disk distributing and a two-level reflecting devices. We conducted comparative studies of the Mobitox Super seed dresser, equipped with a two-disk distributor and a two-level seed reflector, with the basic version of Mobitox Super. The studies were carried out in the OOO "Russkoye Polye" of Serdobsky district of the Penza region on the treatment of winter wheat Biryuza seeds with a combined insectofungic seed dresser Select Max with a consumption rate of 1.7 l/t. It was established that in the range from 30 to 150 mm of opening the spade-type dispenser flap of the developed chamber self-propelled seed dresser, the quality of seed dressing significantly increased and its productivity increased to 2.1 t/h in comparison with the commercially available Mobitox Super.
Key words: seed dresser, seeds, distributor, two-level reflecting device, sprayer, spray material, seed crushing, completeness of dressing.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.019

PROVIDING RATIONAL TEMPERATURE REGIME OF A KAMAZ CAR GEARBOX USED IN AGRICULTURE
A.A. Orekhov, Candidate of Technical sciences, assistant-professor; S.V. Tomokhin, Doctor of Technical sciences, professor;
I.A. Spitsyn, Doctor of Technical sciences, professor; K.Z. Kuhmazov, Doctor of Technical sciences, professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Russia, tel. 8 (8412) 62-85-79, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper discusses the features of operation of cars at low ambient temperatures, as well as existing methods and means of heat treatment of their units. If the issues of thermal preparation and maintaining a rational temperature regime of automobile internal combustion engines are largely resolved, then for the units of their transmissions they require further development. The application of heat accumulators for the thermal preparation of automobile units is analyzed. A method and system for ensuring a rational temperature regime of a KamAZ car gearbox using a phase transition heat accumulator is proposed. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. The calculation of the volume of heat-accumulating material necessary for heating the gear oil of a KamAZ car gearbox to a rational temperature in winter conditions has been carried out. A hydraulic and functional diagram of the oil temperature control system in a KamAZ car gearbox with a phase-transfer heat accumulator has been developed, the use of which will provide quick access to the rational temperature regime of the car gearbox and its stabilization in both winter and summer seasons and, thereby, reduce wear of parts, mechanical losses in the gearbox, fuel consumption by the car.
Key words: thermal preparation, unit, automobile, transmission, gearbox, ambient temperature, power loss, phase transition heat accumulator, wear rate.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2020.4.4.020

IMPROVING EFFICIENCY OF HARVESTING GRAIN CROPS
I.V. Konoshin, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor; R.A. Bulavintsev, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor;
A.V. Volzhentsev, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor; M.R. Mikhailov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-professor;
A.V. Zvekov, senior lecturer
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Oryol State Agrarian University named after N.V. Parakhin", Oryol, Russia, tel. 8-910-306-29-89, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.,
tel. 8-903-880-00-34, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Harvesting crops, including cereals, is the most responsible and resource-consuming stage of crop production. Therefore, the solution of issues on improving the technology of harvesting grain crops is an urgent topic currently.
The aim of the research presented in the article was to increase the efficiency of the technology of harvesting grain crops by increasing the main (operational) time of work of grain harvesting equipment without a fundamental change in its design and composition.
The result of the research is an analytical, theoretical and practical substantiation of the effectiveness of the use of non-stop unloading of the combine harvester in vehicles in the technology of harvesting grain crops, which will allow, depending on the type and yield of the crop:
– to increase the main operating time TО on average by 14-14.7%;
– to ensure that the areas with an uneven distribution of crushed straw are excluded.
In the future, non-stop unloading of the combine may be recommended for use during operation of driverless combines.
Key words: resource-saving technologies in crop production, grain crops, grain harvesting, combine harvester, grain unloading.

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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Agronomy


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.001

ASSESSMENT OF POTATO SELECTION MATERIAL BASED ON THE STUDY OF PRODUCTION PROCESS PARAMETERS AND MORPHO-BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTION SAMPLES
A.A. Kabunin, Candidate of Agricultural sciences;
I.V. Kabunina, Candidate of Economic Sciences
FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, Russia,
t. +7 (84161) 3-18-71, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The results of the analysis of productivity parameters of more than 100 selecton potato samples in nursery-gardens of various levels at Penza Research Institute of Agriculture for 2001-2017 are presented with the aim of developing methodological approaches for the efficient pointing potato varieties in the selection process, which are highly efficient in the work of photosynthetic apparatus and dominate tuberization in the processes of photosynthesis products distribution during the formation of plant biomass.
The results of the analysis showed that for these purposes it is possible to effectively use the indicator "coefficient of economic usefulness of plant biomass" (Ceupb). It represents the percentage of tubers in the total crude biomass of the plant (the mass of tubers plus the mass of top at the time of its maximum development). Combining the data on this indicator revealed that in the group of selection samples with high productivity, the Ceupb indicator was higher than in groups with medium and low productivity by 61.6, 58.2 and 53.5%, respectively on average for different years. At the same time, the yield of tubers of selection samples with the highest Ceupb, depending on the conditions of the period, was 19-54% higher than in the group with a low Ceupb, and 6-16% higher than the average tuber yield in the entire set of the studied numbers. In the group of samples with a high Ceupb, the leaf-stem mass of plants was developed slightly lower, but the intensity of photosynthesis processes was higher, the tuberization predominated in the process of distribution of photosynthesis products.
The Ceupb indicator can be used with high efficiency for the assessment and pionting out the breeding samples with an increased efficiency of the production process.
Key words: potato selection, productivity parameters, improving assessment methods.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.002

ECOLOGICAL VARIABILITY AND PHENOTYPIC STABILITY OF YIELD OF WINTER AND SPRING SOFT WHEAT VARIETIES IN THE FOREST STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
V.G. Krivibochek, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
S.V. Kosenko, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
I.F. Dyomina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops, Russia,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A comparative study of two crops was conducted. Four varieties of winter wheat (Fotinha, Clavdiya 2, Nympha, Alyonushka) and five varieties of spring wheat (Pyramida, Arhat, Mashenka, Atlant, Irishka) of the selection of Penza Agricultural Institute (a branch of FSBSI Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops) were tested. In the field experiment, the contribution to the general variability of the trait “factor productivity” was established: genotype (variety), environment (year) and their interaction (genotype-environment). The main influence on yield variability was exerted by weather conditions, the year factor for winter varieties was 46.5%, and for spring varieties - 64.8%. Estimates of winter and spring wheat varieties were made according to the parameters of phenotypic variability and ecological plasticity of the yield trait for the period 2014-2018. The greatest range of ecological variation was noted in spring wheat varieties, CV = 11.5...28.8%. Relatively weak ecological variation in the yield was in winter varieties (CV = 11...16.8%). The varieties Fotinha (winter) and Arhat (spring) were characterized by low yield variability. The high rate of reaction to the growing conditions was distinguished in the winter variety Clavdiya 2 (CV = 16.8%) and in the spring variety Mashenka (CV = 28.8%). In terms of phenotypic yield stability, winter wheat varieties showed a high ecological buffering (SF = 1.49), this indicator was slightly lower in spring wheat (SF = 1.75). The most yield flexible grains had Clavdiya 2 (bi = 1.52), Arhat
(bi = 1.54), Mashenka (bi = 1.45).
Key words: winter wheat, spring wheat, variety, productivity, variability, ecological variation, phenotypic stability, ecological plasticity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.003

EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF TREATING INDUSTRIAL HEMP SEEDS WITH PROTECTORS, AGROCHEMICALS AND GROWTH REGULATORS
I.I. Pluzhnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
N.V. Kriushin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
I.V. Bakulova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
FSBSI FSC FC, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article contains results of efficiency evaluation of presowing treatment of hemp seeds of the varieties Vera and Nadezhda with seed treater agents Benorad, WP; Thiram, ASC; Bunker, ASC, with agrochemicals such as Lignohumat, Biocomplex-BTU and with growth regulator Albit, LP. The use of the studied chemicals in laboratory conditions contributed to an increase in the weight of seedlings with root in the Vera variety by 17.2-34.5%, in the Nadezhda variety by 5.7-31.4% compared to the control. In the field, in the Nadezhda variety, in the 4-5 leaf phase, the root weight in the varieties with treated seeds increased by 24.4-39.0%, the weight of the plant – by 29.3-46.3%. Treatment with seed treaters provided a decrease in seed contamination with phytopathogens in the Vera variety by 22.2-32.5%, in the Nadezhda variety – by 19.6-27.2%. The use of agrochemicals and a growth regulator led to the destruction of pathogenic mycoflora in the Vera variety by 11.5-14.1%, in the Nadezhda variety – by 4.9-16.2%. In the field, the biological effectiveness of root rot suppression with the use of seed treaters on the Vera variety was 50.4-91.3%, on the Nadezhda variety 71.1-85.6%; with the use of agrochemicals and a growth regulator in the Vera variety – 15.0-70.9%, in the Nadezhda variety – 23.3-63.3%. The highest productivity of hemp plants on the Vera variety was ensured by the use of Benorad, WP, Bunker, ASC, Lignohumat and Albit, LP chemicals. The increase in the yield of stems to the control was 13.6; 17.1; 17.0 and 15.9%, seeds – 22.7; 18.2; 15.2 and 25.8%, respectively. By the Nadezhda variety, the highest yield of plants was established with the use of such chemicals as Bunker, ASC; Lignohumate and Albit, LP. The increase in the yield of stems to the control was 28.1; 32.8 and 28.9%, seeds – 22.7; 22.7 and 18.7%.
Keywords: industrial hemp, non-psychotropic variety, seed treatment, biological effectiveness, weight of root and plant, yield of stems and seeds.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.004

OILSEED CROPS – BIODIVERSITY, VALUE AND PRODUCTIVITY
T.Ya. Prakhova, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
V.A. Prakhov;
V.N. Brazhnikov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
O.F. Brazhnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
FSBSI FSC FC, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The background information on traditional (white mustard, oil flax) and non-traditional (Camelina sativa, Сrambe abyssinica, oil radish) oilseed crops is provided. Their characteristic of economic importance and uses are presented. The studied crops are good as preceding ones for many crops. They have a phytosanitary and soil cleaning effect, high resistance to abiotic and biotic factors, and a significant productivity potential for oilseed crops. Oil radish and white mustard are used as sidereal crops. They are indispensable for providing livestock with soilage in the green conveyor system. Due to the different ripening periods of oilseed crops, the oilseed inflow during the season becomes even, which makes it possible to optimize the organization of production processes in the form of raw conveyors. An analysis of the production of oil cruciferous crops and flax in Russia showed that over the past five years (2014-2018), their planting acreage tended to increase. Thus, in 2018 oil flax crops increased by 31.3% compared to 2017, the planting acreage of ​​mustard doubled. The largest planting acreage of ​​camelina came in 2014 (268.1 thousand ha), then there was a decrease, and in 2018 it amounted to only 78.9 thousand ha. The productivity of oilseed crops reaches high values (1.21-2.38 t/ha), which indicates the realization of the yield potential, regardless of the conditions of the year. Expanding the range of oilseed crops and their varieties allows you to make fuller use of the existing bioclimatic potential.
Key words: oilseed crops, economic importance, productivity, camelina sativa, oil flax, white mustard, Crambe abyssinica, oil radish

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.005

LATEST DIRECTIONS OF COMMON HEMP SELECTION FOR SOLVING MODERN PROBLEMS OF DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND IMPORT SUBSTITUTION
V.A. Serkov, Chief Research Worker, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences,
Penza Institute of Agriculture – a branch of FSBSI FSC for Bast Crops, Russia, Penza region,
district Lunino, t. +7 (84161) 3-18-14, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
R.O. Belousov, Director General of OOO “Konoplex”, t. 8 (495) 230-05-07, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
R.M. Alexandrov, Director General of OOO "UK Konoplex”, t. 8 (800) 230-05-07,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;
O.K. Davydova, Deputy Director General of OOO "UK Konoplex”, t. 8 (800) 222-73-20,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A retrospective analysis of breeding activity over the past 25-year period of time was performed. The necessity of expanding the lines of selection of hemp sowing at the present stage was substantiated. The importance of culture to ensure the needs of innovative industries with high-quality raw materials in the required volumes was emphasized. A comparative assessment of the development of hemp breeding in the Russian Federation and abroad was given. The role of state support for the dynamic development and improvement of the hemp breeding industry was noted.
The characteristics of varieties that are widely used in the hemp regions of the country are presented. The problems of selection activities are highlighted and the conditions for solving primary problems are specified. It is stated about the need to strengthen the material and technical base of scientific institutions involved in selection and seed-growing activities with the common hemp. The conclusion on the need to diversify selection activities of common hemp in the Russian Federation is made.
Key words: common hemp, drug-free variety, economically valuable trait, cellulose content, cannabidiol content, oil content, hemp breeding development, import substitution.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.006

SEEDING RATE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.) IN THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
T.Ya. Prakhova1, Doctor of Agricultural sciences;
A.N. Kshnikatkina2, Doctor of Agricultural sciences, Professor
A.A. Shchanin2, post-graduate
1Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Federal Scientific Center for Bast Crops”, workers settlement Lunino, Russia
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Penza State Agrarian University”, Penza, Russia

The aim of our research was to study the productivity of safflower depending on the seeding rate in the conditions of the Middle Volga region. The object of the research was the variety Zavolzhsky 1. The study of seeding rates was carried out in 2016-2018. Five sowing norms from 200 to 400 thousand germinating seeds per hectare, with a step of 50 thousand germinating seeds were studied. With an increase in the seeding rate of safflower, the field germination of seeds increased. Its highest rate was noted in the variant with a sowing rate of 400 thousand germinating seeds per 1 ha – 87.1%, which was 1.6% higher than the sowing rate of 200 thousand germinating seeds per 1 ha, where the seedlings were the least – 85.5%. The maximum safety index of safflower plants was observed in the variant with a seeding rate of 300 and 350 thousand germinating seeds per 1 ha – 92.9 and 92.8%, respectively. Safflower productivity varied in the range of 1.09-1.41 t/ha, depending on the seeding rate. The highest seed yield was observed in the variant with a sowing rate of 300 and 350 thousand germinating seeds per hectare and amounted to 1.17-1.39 and 1.19-1.41 t/ha, respectively. The number of baskets on a plant ranged from 9.8 pieces in the variant with a sowing rate of 200 thousand germinating seeds per hectare to 14.7 pieces – with a sowing rate of 350 thousand germinating seeds per hectare. Safflower formed the largest seeds when sown with a sowing rate of 300 and 350 thousand germinating seeds per hectare. The mass of 1000 seeds here was 43.4 g. The optimal norm for sowing safflower in contrasting conditions of the Middle Volga region is 300-350 thousand germinating seeds per hectare.
Key words: safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius L.), seeding rate, yield, field germination, yield structure.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.007

EFFECT AND AFTEREFFECT OF URBAN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND ITS COMBINATIONS WITH ZEOLITE CONTAINING AGRONOMICAL ORE ON THE ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF MEADOW-CHERNOZEM SOIL
A.N. Arefiev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
E.E. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Herewith the effect and aftereffect of land reclamation norms of urban sewage sludge (USS) and their combinations with zeolite-containing agricultural ore on acid-base properties of meadow-chernozem soil are shown. It was found that urban sewage sludge in combination with zeolite increased the cation exchange capacity in the arable layer of meadow-chernozem soil by 4.97-5.84 mg-eq/100 g of soil, the amount of exchangeable bases by 6.65-7.83 mg-eq/100 g of soil, the pHsalt by 1.24-1.50 units. The value of hydrolytic acidity in these options decreased by 1.69-2.01 mg-eq/100 g of soil. With the unilateral effect and aftereffect of the reclamation norms of urban sewage sludge, the soil from the slightly acid one turned into a soil with a near-neutral medium reaction. And with the unilateral effect of a zeolite-containing agricultural ore and its combined effect with urban sewage sludge the soil turned into a soil with a neutral medium reaction.
Key words: meadow-chernozem soil, urban sewage sludge, clinoptilolite, zeolite-containing agricultural ore, cathodic exchange capacity, total exchange bases, metabolic acidity, hydrolytic acidity.

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 DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.008

YIELD AND QUALITY OF GRAIN OF SPRING SOFT WHEAT, DEPENDING ON THE APPLICATION OF HUMIC AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS
S.V. Bogomazov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant Professor;
A.A. Levin, post-graduate student;
O.A. Tkachuk, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant Professor;
A.V. Lyandenburskaya, senior lecturer
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-85-46, е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studies of the effect of humic fertilizer Humostim and mineral fertilizers on the yield and grain quality of spring soft wheat of the Tulaykovskaya 108 variety. The work performed allows us to expand our understanding of the effect of humic acid salts in the composition of humic fertilizers on the development of spring wheat and to give recommendations on how to use them for increasing the yield and quality of household products, maintaining the ecological cleanliness of the environment. The aim of the research was to improve the elements of spring wheat cultivation technology in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region, which allow optimizing the conditions of growth and development through the composite application of humic and mineral fertilizers. The studies have established that the greatest increase in spring wheat productivity was observed in the variants with the introduction of mineral fertilizers and the treatment of seeds and crops with the drug Humostim (1.55 t/ha). Mineral fertilizers significantly increased the mass fraction of protein in spring wheat grain by 2.3%, the mass fraction of crude gluten by 4.14%. Humic fertilizer Humostim slightly increased the quality indicators of grain. The highest level of profitability (81%) was noted in the variant with the treatment of seeds and vegetative plants with humic fertilizer Humostim. The use of mineral fertilizers for a projected yield of 4.0 t/ha led to a decrease in profitability by 16.2%.
Key words: humic fertilizers, mineral fertilizers, spring wheat, biological productivity, protein weight content, crude gluten content, profitability.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.009

INFLUENCE OF ALBIT ON THE STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF THE SEED PLANT OF TABLE BEET
V.I. Gryazeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-73, email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Seed quality is one of the most important factors for obtaining a good harvest. Difficulty is in the reproduction of seeds of cross-pollinated biennial plants, which is beetroot. The main goal in its seed production is the maintenance of economically valuable traits of populations. The effect of Albit on the structure and productivity of the seed plant of table beet was studied in Penza region. It was established that the seed ripening period in all variants of treatment with albite was shorter than in the control by 4–9 days. In most variants, on average over two years, the highest seed productivity was observed in the seed-bearing plants of the III-IV branching types. Type I seed plants are less productive, but their seeds are larger and have better sowing qualities. The greatest number of seeds from a plant was formed in all variants of the seed-bearing plants of the III-IV branching types. The same trend is observed in the variants of the experiment with Albit. More branched seed-bearing plants are more productive than less branched ones. So, during treatment in the budding phase, type III-IV type seed-bearing plants formed 127.5 grams, while 118.0 grams of type I seed-bearing plants. After treatment during the flowering phase, multiramouse seed-bearing plants are 11.5 grams more productive than the subramous. The treatment of seed plants of table beet with Albit contributed to an increase in the mass of 1000 seedballs in an average of 1.5-2.1 grams. Studies have shown that there is a matricular heterogeneity, which is a consequence of differences in the location of seeds on the mother plant. The best quality seeds are formed on the central axis, and the worst – on second order rosette shoots.
Keywords: table beet, seeds, Albit, seed plant, productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.010

FORMATION OF GIANT MISCANTHUS BIOMASS IN THE FOREST STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
V.A. Gushchina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
N.I. Ostroborodova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Penza State Agrarian University”,
Russia, tel.  +7 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The introduction of giant miscanthus into production requires the study of the possibility of cultivating it in the zone of unstable moisture on low-fertile soils. The purpose of the work is to determine the best way to control weeds in the agrocenosis of giant miscanthus when growing it in the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga. Univariate field experiment included mechanical and chemical methods of weed control before planting, as well as in plantings of the first year of life. It was established that the formation of productivity elements of giant miscanthus was affected by weather conditions during the growing season and methods of weed control. The optimal thermal regime and precipitation in 2016 ensured the height of the plants of 163.0...210.0 cm with the number of stems 10.0...16.0 pcs per plant unit at the end of the vegetation. On average, over the three years, in the variants with the herbicides Magnum and Ballerina, tall stems (166.9...175.2 cm) with the largest number of shoots of 10.0...11.7 pcs. were formed on the background of the Tornado 500. Compared with the absolute control, the growth of plants in height was 36.0...44.3 cm, the number of stems increased by 4.3...6.0 pcs/plant. Having a minimal phytotoxic effect on the growth and development of the crop, there was no strict relationship between the formed aboveground mass and the root system over the years. An increase in plant power was not always accompanied by an increase in the mass of rootstalks.
Key words: giant miscanthus, weediness, unstable moisture, rhizomes, herbicides, biomass, hydrothermal coefficient.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.011

INFLUENCE OF CROP TENDING METHODS ON SUGAR BEET PRODUCTIVITY
E.V. Zheryakov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, docent
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, +7 (8412) 62-85-65, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In the field experiments conducted in the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Volga region, we studied the features of the formation of sugar beet productivity depending on the methods of crop tending. According to the results of the research and analysis, it was found that the highest yield of root crops was obtained during three herbicidal treatments, which amounted to 43.60 t/ha. By the beginning of harvesting, the assimilative surface of sugar beet leaves decreased, but was almost the same in all the variants of the experiment and varied from 44.35 to 45.41 thousand m2/ha. The greatest value of the photosynthetic potential during the growing season was noted during three intertillage, and the net productivity of photosynthesis was in the following variants: one row space + two herbicidal and two row space + one herbicidal treatments. Evaluation of weed amount showed that the use of three herbicidal treatments contributed to an increase in weed infestation of soil at the time of harvesting. If in the period of one or three pairs of true leaves the number of weeds in the variant with three intertillage was 93.6 pcs/m2, and with herbicidal treatment 63.8 pcs/m2, then the reverse trend was observed before harvesting.
Key words: sugar beet, weed infestation, herbicides, intertillage, productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.012

INFLUENCE OF URBAN SEWAGE SLUDGE ON THE SPRING PRODUCT OF SPRING TRITICALE
O.M. Kasynkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-73, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Fertilizer plays an active role, providing one or another degree of plant variability. It is an element of natural selection in an indirect form, since it provides the advantage of genotypes that are specifically adapted to competitive environmental conditions. The article presents the results of a study of the effect of the use of urban sewage sludge (USS) as fertilizer for the yield of spring triticale of the Ukro variety on dark gray forest soil. The studies were carried out in 2014-2016 at the site of FSBEIHE Penza SAU. It was established that the use of urban sewage sludge contributed to an increase in the yield of spring triticale of the Ukro variety. The maximum yield of 3.79 t/ha was obtained in the option with USS at a dose of 10 t/ha and a sowing rate of 4.0 mln. grains per 1 ha. The increase in relation to control was 0.27 t/ha.
Key words: spring triticale productivity, urban sewage sludge, plant height, lodging resistance, weight of 1000 grains.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.013

AFTEREFFECT OF DIATOMITE AND ITS COMBINATIONS WITH MANURE ON THE FERTILITY OF LEACHED BLACK CHEROZEM AND CARROT YIELD
E.E. Kuzina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor,
A.N. Arefiev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, associate professor;
E.N. Kuzin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The unilateral aftereffect of diatomite and its combinations with manure on the fertility elements of leached chernozem and carrot yield is shown. The most significant effect on the content of humus, nutrients, water-stable aggregates and density was exerted by the integrated use of diatomite and manure. Over three years of research, an increase in the humus content in the plough-layer of leached chernozem was 0.19-0.24% on average, in the content of alkaline-hydrolyzable nitrogen 36.2-38.0 mg/kg of soil, in mobile phosphorus content 23.2-28.5 mg/kg of soil, in mobile potassium content 45.6-49.9 mg/kg of soil, water-stable aggregates 15.3-18.3%. The equilibrium density decreased by 0.11-0.14 g/cm3. The complex aftereffect of diatomite and manure had the most significant effect on carrot yield. Its productivity against the background of their aftereffect increased by 39.4-45.1%.
Key words: leached chernozem, diatomite, manure, humus, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, structure, density, carrots, productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.014

METHODS OF CULTIVATION OF ANDROGYNOUS BURNET (POTERIUM POLYGAMUM) IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
A.N. Kshnikatkina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
A.A. Orlov, post-graduate student
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, tel. +7 (8412) 62-81-51, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of studying the influence of exogenous seed treatment and foliar dressing with complex micronutrient fertilizers on the productivity of the androgynous burnet of the variety Sultan. Exogenous seed treatment with chelated fertilizers had a positive effect on the formation of burnet agrocenosis. The most effective prepraration was Megamix-Seeds. Field germination increased by 5%, the safety of plants at the end of the growing season – by 9.5%, the percentage of overwintering – by 3.1%, the mass of air-dried roots increased 1.7 times. The best indicators of photosynthetic activity were also noted when the seeds were treated with the MegaMix-Seeds microelement fertilizer, the leaf surface area of the first-year burnet during the budding phase was 40.3 thousand m2/ha, the photosynthetic potential was 2.78 million m²/ha×day, the net photosynthesis productivity – 3.63 g/m²×day. The highest productivity of the burnet of the 1st year of use was generated when using Megamix-Seeds for seed treatment: 4.44 t/ha of feed units, 0.57 t/ha of digestible protein, 90.2 GJ/ha of exchange energy. The highest productivity of burnet was obtained with double foliar top dressing during the growth and budding phase with Azosol 36 Extra: the collection of dry matter was 9.65 t/ha, of feed units – 5.9 t/ha, of digestible protein – 0.74 t/ha, of exchange energy – 119.9 GJ. It was economically effective to use Megamix-Seeds, NanoKremny and Tsitovit preparations for seed treatment, the profitability was 147.7-148.2%. With double top dressing with the drug Azosol 36 – Extra in the phase of regrowth and budding, the profitability was 207.6%.
Key words: androgynous burnet, complex microelement chelated fertilizers, parameters of photosynthesis, productivity.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.015

PRODUCTIVITY OF POTERIUM POLYGAMUM DEPENDING ON A COVER CROP
А.N. Kshnikatkina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
I.Yu. Yudin, graduate student
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, tel. +7 (8412) 62-81-51, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of the study of the influence of cover crops on the productivity of Poterium polygamum. Studies have established that cover crops and the timing of their harvest have had a significant impact on the formation of agrocenosis of the Poterium polygamum. When harvesting grain crops for grain, the safety indicators of burnet plants were 9.2-11.0% lower than when harvesting for silage. The highest indicators of field germination 87.5%, plant safety 89.5% and winter hardiness 94.5% of photosynthesis parameters were noted when sowing burnet under cover of oil flax. Among grain cover crops, the highest yield of seeds of the Poterium polygamum 248.9 kg/ha was obtained by sowing under the cover of barley and harvesting for silage. On average, over three years, the yield of Poterium seeds, when harvesting barley for silage, was higher in comparison with oats by 102.2 kg (69.7%). The smallest yields of burnet seeds (124.5 kg/ha) were obtained by sowing under the cover of oats and harvesting for grain. The highest seed yields of Poterium polygamum of the first year of use (845.2 kg/ha) and feed productivity were obtained by sowing under a cover of oil flax: 3.84 tons of feed units per hectare, 0.48 tons of digestible protein, 78.4 GJ available energy. It is most cost-effective to cultivate a polygonaceous polygon for seeds and fodder purposes under the cover of oil flax, profitability – 252.2%.
Key words: Poterium polygamum, cover crops, agrocenosis, photosynthesis, productivity, weed infestation.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.016

ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTIVITY AND STABILITY OF WINTER TRITICALE VARIETIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FOOTHILL ZONE OF THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
M.A. Basiyeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
E.S. Miroshnikova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
North Caucasian Research Institute of Mountain and Foothill Agriculture – a branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science of the Federal Scientific Center "Vladikavkaz Scientific Center
of the Russian Academy of Sciences", village Mikhailovskoye, North Ossetia-Alania, Russia,
tel. +7 (8672) 23-04-20 e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The adaptive properties of winter triticale varieties under the agroecological conditions of the foothill zone of the Central Caucasus were estimated. The studies were conducted in 2016-2018 on the fields of North Caucasian Research Institute of Mountain and Foothill Agriculture Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The research material was seven varieties of winter triticale from the world collection of All-Union Research Institute of Plant Breeding. For a comprehensive estimation and selection of valuable source material for selection for adaptability, a set of techniques was used to establish the reliability of the observed differences and obtain the necessary information about potential productivity and environmental plasticity. The most popular indices in breeding practice were used in the work: Mexican, Canadian, linear spike density, as well as a new modification of the index – the plant productivity index (PPI). High resistance to environmental stress factors was established in the varieties Legion, Sotnik and Almaz, and the maximum compliance with environmental conditions in the region was found in varieties Zavet, Gorka, Ramzay, and Gor. Varieties of high-intensity type Zavet and Gor were responsive to improving conditions and were characterized by stable productivity.
Key words: winter triticale, productivity, adaptability, resistance to stress, indices of environmental conditions, ecological plasticity, stability.

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Veterinary and zootechny


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.017

REPRODUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF HEIFERS AND DAIRY PRODUCTIVITY OF COWS OF HOLSTEIN BREED OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN
V.V. Lyashenko, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
I.V. Kaeshova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
A.V. Gubina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The modernization of the dairy cattle breeding industry in the Penza Region, as in the other regions of Russia, is carried out through the construction of new modern dairy complexes, the active introduction of innovative milk production technologies, and the purchase of highly productive imported cattle.
The purpose of the work was to evaluate the reproductive abilities and milk productivity of highly productive cows of different origin under the conditions of intensive milk production technology. The object of the study was Holstein animals of different origin (Hungary, Germany, Russia). The studies were carried out in OOO “UK “Rusmolco” of the Penza region in the conditions of a specialized enterprise for the breeding replacement young animals of the cattle and two high-tech dairy complexes.
It was established that in the studied groups of animals, the efficiency of insemination of heifers with the sexed semen differed. Russian heifers showed the highest rate – 59.7%, and German heifers the lowest – 49.2%. Insemination of heifers with sexed semen contributed to a higher yield of calves. The yield of calves was: in Hungarian animals – 92%; Russian – 84.4%; and German – 65.4%. The largest number of heifers was received from German first-calf cows – 89%, from Hungarian 83.2%, and from Russian –77.4%.
In the conditions of intensive milk production technology in the OSP “MTK Pachelmskoe khozyajstvo s. Arshinovka” the milk yield of German first-calf cows for 305 days of lactation was 8% more (p ≤ 0.05) than of Russian herdmates; in OOO “RAO Narovchatskoye”, the yield of milk of Hungarian first-calf cows for 305 days of lactation was 13.7% more (p ≤ 0.001) than of Russian herdmates.
Consequently, in conditions of intensive technology for the production of milk at large high-tech complexes, it is economically reasonable to use domestic cattle of the Holstein breed. In order to increase the breeding and productive qualities of cows and to expand reproduction of the dairy herd, it is advisable to purchase breeding animals abroad.
Key words: technology, Holstein breed, origin, heifers, insemination, sexed semen, offspring, milk production, milk yield, mass fraction of fat and protein in milk.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.018

CYTOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS
S.N. Tsepkovskaya, Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, assistant-professor;
A.V. Ostapchuk, Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant-professor;
L.L. Oshkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian
University», Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-81-51, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Cytology is a safe, fast, inexpensive and reliable procedure for the diagnosis of various pathological processes, including malignant and benign neoplasms in animals, which is available to a practicing veterinarian.
The article discusses the methodology of sampling, describes the technique of cytological research, considers indicators of various pathological processes, including the criteria for malignant neoplasms.
Key words: cytology, malignant neoplasms, malignant neoplasia, tumor cells, criteria for malignancy.

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ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Processes and machines of Agroengineering systems


DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.019

RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH ON THE SUBSTANTIATION OF CONSTRUCTION PARAMETERS OF A CHAMBER SEED TREATER UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
O.Yu. Machneva, graduate student;
O.N. Kukharev, doctor of engineering sciences, professor;
A.V. Machnev, doctor engineering sciences, associate professor;
V.A. Machnev, doctor of engineering sciences, professor;
P.N. Horev, candidate of engineering sciences, associate professor
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +7 (8412) 62-85-79, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The main shortcomings in the work of seed treaters were identified, which include increased crushing of seeds, uneven supply, increased humidity of seeds after dressing. It has been established that when the seed treaters are working at seed deliveries of 70-100% of the maximum, there is a sharp change in the quality indicators, which can be reduced by using a two-disk distributing and two-level reflecting devices. The objective of the research is to substantiate the design and technological parameters of a chamber seed treater with a two-disk distributing and two-level reflecting devices that can improve the quality of seed treatment. For this purpose, a prototype chamber seed treater with a two-disk distributing and two-level reflecting devices was developed, manufactured and tested in the field. A study of the sowing qualities and technological properties of seeds of spring wheat of the Raduga variety showed that the seed purity was 99.54%, their moisture content before pickling was 13.9%, their germination rate was 98% with 1000 seeds weighing 41 g, and the crushing of the seeds was 0.14%. The optimal values of the distance between the annular disk and the upper level reflector L1 = 60 mm, the diameter of the lower level reflector D2 = 350 mm, the height of the upper level reflector H1 = 30 mm, the height of the lower level reflector H2 = 30 mm with 0.11-0.05% crushing seeds with the chamber seed treater. The maximum seed flow rate of 5.98 kg/s was established, corresponding to a 2.2% feed irregularity and 0.06% crushing by the chamber seed treater with 150 mm opening of the flap of the petal dispenser.
Keywords: Seed treater, seeds, dispensing device, reflecting device, diameter of a dispenser output opening, seed supply, seed crushing.

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DOI: 10.26177/VRF.2019.3.3.020

RESULTS OF LABORATORY RESEARCH OF A BUTTER CHURN WITH A FLEXIBLE VIBRATORY DRIVE
A.V. Yashin, Сandidate of Engineering sciences, associate professor;
Yu.V. Polyvyany, Candidate of Engineering sciences
FSBEIHE Penza SAU, Russia, tel. +79022099691, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The materials of the article are devoted to an urgent problem – improving the technological process of butter churning and developing the design of the butter churn. The article notes that in the presence of a significant number of personal subsidiary farms and small farms with small volumes of butter production, there is a need for periodic butter churns. According to the analysis of existing designs and theoretical studies, it was found that in order to reduce the loss of butter due to its sticking to the churning mechanism and to reduce the churning energy intensity, it is necessary that the churning mechanism be made in the form of a membrane, which is also the bottom of the tank, which makes periodic oscillatory movements through a crank-and-rod mechanism. An optimization criterion is defined. It is the energy-intensity of butter churning. And the degree of use of milk fat is a limit to this target function. An adequate mathematical relation has been defined in a coded form of the energy intensity of butter churning in a butter churn with a flexible vibratory drive. At the same time, the energy intensity of butter churning by a butter churn with a flexible vibratory drive was E= 3.84 × (W × h / kg) at performance Q= 11.5 kg/h and drive power Ndr = 43.2 W, and the degree of use of milk fat S=99.6 %, which corresponds to the 0.4% fat loss in buttermilk and does not exceed the requirements of GOST.
Keywords: flexible vibratory drive, butter churn, membrane, churning mechanism, energy intensity.

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